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Highly developed electronic devices What we think of as a computer is not the limitation for the technology Many other devices meet the level of scrutiny necessary to be considered a computer. Not all of them may necessarily have a monitor and keyboard. .


g. credit card machines. telephones. check-reading machines. .Any crime involving the use of high-technology devices Computers. Cyber Crime: Any crime that involves computer and network where computer may or may not have played an instrumental role in commission of crime. Also known as computer crimes or cybercrimes. e. identity theft.

. • Example. • e. • Computer is intended target of criminal activity and not necessarily used in act.Computer used as instrument in crime Computer as focus of crime Computer as repository of evidence • Used as means of engaging in criminal activity • Crime cannot be committed without turning on computer and doing the act. illegal storage of music files. Breaking in and stealing information or hardware devices • Evidence of crime is stored on the machine.g.

identity theft. Problems found in every country. online fraud. Challenges arise when cross border crimes are committed online and are the subject of great debate.Any crime that involves a computer and a network where the computer may or may not have played an instrumental role in commissioning the crime High technology crime: Crimes such as hacking. . child pornography.

Lack of deep training due to budgetary constraints .Governments focusing more on other issues like terrorism leading to less funds being allocated to tackling crimes like child pornography.Increase in the frequency of high-tech crimes .Incompatible cross border regulations . ..Lack of expertise .

Hacking and Phreaking Identity Theft Digital Child Pornography Internet Fraud Emerging crimes on the Net .

.Hacker is a stereotypical person who breaks into computers and computer networks. Early hackers: .Kevin Mitnick in 2002.Robert Morris and the release of the worm program in 1988 . either for profit or motivated by the challenge.

. .Violates computer security with malicious intent or for personal gain.Writes programs to damage computer systems and networks.BLACK HAT HACKER: .cost businesses around the world millions of dollars to develop protected computer networks and operating systems.Main reason behind development of computer security and anti-virus software. . .

.Exact opposite of black hacker.Main objective is to provide computer security programs that will protect systems from being illegally and maliciously penetrated.Search out target computers and then attempt to hack into the system . . .WHITE HAT HACKER: . Once successful they normally cease their activities and alert the owner of computer system to vulnerability.

.Opportunistic in nature. . the gray hacker elects to offer to repair the defect for small amount of money.Might even gain access to computer system and then recommend system administrator to hire a friend to secure the system. .GRAY HAT HACKER: . . .Instead of telling the admin how the system was exploited.Searches Internet for a target and gains access to computer system.Combination of white and black hat hackers.

.Sometimes the most dangerous as they have no idea how program will affect the computer system on which the attack is being launched. .SCRIPT KIDDIES: .Lowest on hacker ladder and many times not considered hackers at all. .Little or no programming skills.Surf Internet looking for hacker utility programs and then launch programs at target computer system. .

.HACTIVIST: .Individual who hacks as a means of spreading a political message.Distinguishable from other categories in regard to their motives. .Majority of attacks involve web page defacement. . where hacker gains access to server storing the web page and then modifies the page to display their own message.

.CYBER TERRORIST: . .Uses abilities to attack a portion of the critical infrastructure. .Individual who uses hacking ability to instill sense of fear into the public.Breaks into the system in order to cause damage or death due to the loss of service.

reverse social engineering .dumpster diving 3rd Stage – Actual hacking .social engineering .Targeting 2nd Stage – Research and information gathering .Pre-hack stage: 1st Stage .

Blue boxing programs .BIOS password crackers .Packet sniffer -Operating system password crackers ..Password recovery software .Encryption Software .Security vulnerability scanners .War dialers .Password grabbers and loggers .

Trojan Horse .Denial of Service attacks .Data Manipulation .IP Spoofing ..Web Spoofing .Computer Viruses .

. Commonly encountered when the subscriber receives their bill and there is an abundance of calls not made by the subscriber. Less publicised than hacking.‘Ph’ used in place of ‘f’ in the word ‘freaking’ to represent the phreaker’s tool of choice – the telephone Refers to any activity resulting in the individual gaining use of a telecommunications service without paying for such services.