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Yaskawa Electric America

The Basics of AC Drive Applications
PP.AFD.01.AfdDriveApplBasics 1 of 123

6/6/2002

Basic Definitions

“Definitions”

To get a good understanding of applications, it is advantageous to understand: Power - the rate of doing work Torque - twisting power Load Torque - torque required to perform an application Motor Torque - torque available from the prime mover

   

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“Power and Torque”  Power is the rate of doing work.  P =T x n Where: T .torque n . Power is a product of torque and speed.speed 3 .

“Power and Torque” P =T x n High P T n High P T n Med Med Low Low Power increases if torque increases 4 .

“Power and Torque” P =T x n High P T n High P T n Med Med Low Low Power increases if speed increases 5 .

“Power and Torque”  Power increases as speed increases 125% High P T n 100% X Torque Power Med 75% 50% Low 25% Power and speed are low and torque is constant. 0% X 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) .

X 0% 50% 100% 0% Speed (%) .“Power and Torque”  Power increases as speed increases 125% High P T n 100% X Torque Power Med 75% 50% Low 25% Power increases proportionally with speed.

“Power and Torque”  Power increases as speed increases 125% High P T n 100% X Torque Power Med 75% 50% X Low 25% Power increases proportionally with speed. 0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) .

0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) .“Power and Torque”  Power increases as speed increases 125% High P T n 100% X X Torque Power Med 75% 50% Low 25% Power increases proportionally with speed.

“Power and Torque”  Power increases as speed increases 125% High P T n 100% X X Torque Power Med 75% 50% Low 25% Power increases proportionally with speed. 0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) 6 .

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Types of Loads .

“Types of Loads”  Loads can be grouped into four categories:     Variable Torque Loads  Load changes with speed Constant Torque Loads  Load does not change with speed Constant Horsepower Loads  Load considerations above motor base speed Impact Loads  Load is intermittent. not connected to speed 7 .

This characteristic is typical of centrifugal type fans and pumps. torque loading is a function of the speed. 100% 80% 60% Torque Horsepower 40% 20%  0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) 8 .“Variable Torque Loads”  With a variable torque load. The torque will change with the square of the speed and the horsepower will change with the cube of the speed.

100% 80% 60% Torque Horsepower 40% 20%  0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) .“Variable Torque Loads”  With a variable torque load. The torque will change with the square of the speed and the horsepower will change with the cube of the speed. This characteristic is typical of centrifugal type fans and pumps. torque loading is a function of the speed.

The ratio of horsepower 1 to horsepower 2 is equal to the ratio of speed 1 cubed to speed 2 cubed.“Variable Torque Loads”  These variable torque characteristics are a result of the affinity laws of centrifugal machinery. T1 T2 = (n1 )2 (n2 )2  (n1 )3 HP1 = HP2 (n2 )3 9 .  The ratio of torque 1 to torque 2 is equal to the ratio of speed 1 squared to speed 2 squared.

F1 F2 P1 P2 = n1 n2 (n1 )2 (n2 )2  =  Horsepower is directly proportional to the cube of the speed.“Variable Torque Loads”  The basic affinity laws can be converted for use with centrifugal fans and pumps. Pressure is directly proportional to the square of the speed. (n1 )3 HP1 = HP2 (n2 )3 10 .  Flow is directly proportional to speed.

“Variable Torque Loads” Not all fans and pumps are variable torque loads:  Fans are grouped in 2 major categories:  Fans and Blowers (variable torque)  Compressors (constant torque)  Pumps are grouped in 2 major categories:  Centrifugal (variable torque)  Positive Displacement (constant torque) 11 .

“Fan Loads” Fan/Blowers Variable Torque Centrifugal Radial Blade Forward Curve Backward Incline Axial Propeller Tubeaxial Vaneaxial Compressors Constant Torque Reciprocating Piston Diaphragm Rotary Rotary Lobe Screw 12 .

This characteristic is typical of positive displacement pumps and conveyors.“Constant Torque Loads”  With a constant torque load. As the speed changes the load torque remains constant. torque loading is not a function of the speed. 125% 100% 75% Torque Horsepower 50% 25%  0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) 13 . Horsepower will change with speed.

As the speed changes the load torque remains constant. This characteristic is typical of positive displacement pumps and conveyors. 125% 100% 75% Torque Horsepower 50% 25%  0% 0% 50% 100% Speed (%) . torque loading is not a function of the speed.“Constant Torque Loads”  With a constant torque load. Horsepower will change with speed.

The horsepower changes linearly with speed when the torque stays constant. HP x 5250 T = rpm Where: Torque is represented in ft-lbs 14 .“Constant Torque Loads”  The torque and horsepower formulas for rotating machinery can better illustrate the graph on the previous slide.  HP = T x rpm 5250  The torque remains constant when the horsepower changes linearly with speed.

“Constant Horsepower Loads”  With a constant horsepower load. As the speed changes. 0% 50% base speed Torque Horsepower  100% 150% 200% Speed (%) 15 . the 75% load torque will decrease at a rate inversely proportional 50% with speed (1/n). 125% torque loading is a function of the speed in the constant 100% horsepower range. 0% This characteristic is typical of machine tool spindle drives. 25% Horsepower generally remains constant.

0% This characteristic is typical of machine tool spindle drives.“Constant Horsepower Loads”  With a constant horsepower load. the 75% load torque will decrease at a rate inversely proportional 50% with speed (1/n). Horsepower 25% generally remains constant. torque loading is a 125% function of the speed in the constant 100% horsepower range. As the speed changes. 0% 50% base speed Torque Horsepower  100% 150% 200% Speed (%) .

1750 rpm. HP x 5250 = T rpm  100% base speed and below A B above 100% base speed D 0.5 HP x 5250 = 15 ft-lbs 175 rpm 5 HP x 5250 = 12 ft-lbs 2187 rpm 5 HP x 5250 = 10 ft-lbs 2625 rpm 5 HP x 5250 = 8.5 ft-lbs 3500 rpm 2. 60Hz motor will be run to 3500 rpm (120Hz).5 HP x 5250 = 15 ft-lbs 875 rpm 5 HP x 5250 C = 15 ft-lbs 1750 rpm E F G 16 .“Constant Horsepower Loads”  What happens to torque in the constant horsepower area can be found below. Example: A 5 HP.6 ft-lbs 3062 rpm 5 HP x 5250 = 7.

“Constant Horsepower Loads”  Points A through G can be found on the speed torque curve below. 16 A 15 B C Torque (ft-lbs) 14 12 E 10 F 10 8 6 4 2 0 1750 Horsepower D G Torque Horsepower 5 3500 0 17 Speed (rpm) .

MotorTorque 175% 1800 150% Load Torque Motor Speed . which are not a function of speed.“Impact Loads”  125% 1500 1200 900 600 300 0 100% 75% 50% 25% 0%  This type of load characteristic is typical of a punch press or any equipment that uses a flywheel. Time 18 Motor Speed (rpm) Torque (%) Impact loads have intermittent torque requirements.

which are not a function of speed. MotorTorque Load Torque 175% 1800 150% Motor Speed .“Impact Loads”  Torque (%) 125% 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 1500 1200 900 600 300 0  This type of load characteristic is typical of a punch press or any equipment that uses a flywheel. Time Motor Speed (rpm) Impact loads have intermittent torque requirements.

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Calculation of Torque .

“Calculations”  The next section will explain how to calculate the following:    Acceleration Torque Deceleration Torque Torque and Speed Through a Gearbox 19 .

Torque required to drive the load. Breakdown Torque (200-250%) Pull Up Torque (125%) (200%) TORQUE (200%) (150%) Torque available for accel and decel. Motor Full Load Torque (100%) (100%) SPEED 20 .“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  Acceleration torque is the difference between the available motor torque and the torque required to drive the load.

“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  To calculate the acceleration torque (TA). (WK2) The change in motor speed. the following items must be known:  The total inertia in lb-ft2. inertia of the gearbox and the inertia of the motor’s rotor. 21 . (rpm)   WK2 x  rpm TA = 308 x ta Where: Torque is represented in ft-lbs  The required acceleration time in seconds. (ta)  Total inertia includes the inertia of the load.

but does not tell us if the 5HP motor and inverter are capable of achieving the specified performance. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. is 15 seconds. 1750 rpm.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”   A typical example of calculating acceleration torque: Example: A 5HP. TA = WK2 x  rpm 308 x ta 10 lb-ft2 x 1750 rpm 3. 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. between 0 and 1750 rpm. The desired acceleration time. 22 .8 ft-lbs = 308 x 15 seconds  The above information indicates the amount of acceleration torque required.

Example: A 5HP. 12 ft-lbs  torque required to move the load at constant speed 12 ft-lbs is 80% of 15 ft-lbs 23 . 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. 1750 rpm. Motor Rated Torque HP x 5250 Tr = rpm Load Torque 5HP x 5250 15 ft-lbs = 1750 Note-In this example the motor rated current and the inverter rated current are equal.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”   Determine the motor rated torque and the torque required to drive the load. is 15 seconds. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. between 0 and 1750 rpm. 80% of the motor rated torque is required to drive the load. The desired acceleration time.

5 ft-lbs Note-In this example the motor rated current and the inverter rated current are equal.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  The maximum available motor torque will be determined by the inverter ampacity overload rating. A typical inverter overload rating is 150% for 1 minute. Torque is proportional to current through a major portion of the speed range. 24 .5 ft-lbs) Maximum Available Motor Torque 15 ft-lbs x 150% = 22. (30 ft-lbs) (22. (200%) Maximum available motor torque. (100%) (15 ft-lbs) (12 ft-lbs) Torque required to drive the load.

Speed .Torque Curve (300%) (600%) Slip TORQUE CURRENT (300%) Breakdown Torque (200-250%) Pull Up Torque (125%) (200%) Locked Rotor Torque (150%) Full Load Torque (100%) No Load Current (30%) SPEED Rated Speed Synch Speed 25 .

Torque Curve (300%) (600%) Slip TORQUE CURRENT (300%) Breakdown Torque (200-250%) Pull Up Torque (125%) (200%) Locked Rotor Torque (150%) Full Load Torque (100%) Current Torque No Load Current (30%) SPEED Rated Speed Synch Speed .Speed .

Torque Available for Acceleration 22.5 ft-lbs (200%) Maximum available motor torque. (30 ft-lbs) (22.5 ft-lbs .5 ft-lbs) (15 ft-lbs) (12 ft-lbs)  Torque available for acceleration.12 ft-lbs = 10.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  The torque available for acceleration is the difference between the available motor torque and the torque required to drive the load. (100%) Torque required to drive the load. (10.5 ft-lbs) 26 .

The desired acceleration time. available . Motor rated torque = 15 ft-lbs Load torque = 12 ft-lbs Maximum available motor torque = 22.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”   Determine if the 5HP motor is capable of achieving the specified performance.8 ft-lbs Torque available for acceleration > Torque required for acceleration . is 15 seconds.load torque) TA = WK2 x  rpm 308 x ta 27 Torque available for acceleration = 10. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. Example: A 5HP.5 ft-lbs Tr = HP x 5250 rpm (Tr x 150%) (Max.5 ft-lbs Torque required for acceleration = 3. 1750 rpm. between 0 and 1750 rpm. 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. 80% of the motor’s rated torque is required to drive the load.

Time to do an exercise .

1750 rpm. The desired acceleration time. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the the following application. is 4 seconds. Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs Load torque = _____ ft-lbs Maximum available motor torque = _____ ft-lbs Torque available for acceleration = _____ ft-lbs Torque required for acceleration = _____ ft-lbs = (Tr x 150%) = (Max.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  Using the formulas below. 90% of the motor rated torque is required to drive the load.load torque) Tr = HP x 5250 rpm TA = WK2 x  rpm 308 x ta Torque available for acceleration ____ Torque required for acceleration Note-In this example the motor rated current and the inverter rated current are equal. between 0 and 1750 rpm. available .  Example: A 10HP. 60Hz motor and a 10HP inverter are used to run a boring machine. The total inertia is 19 lb-ft2. 28 .

The total inertia is 19 lb-ft2. Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs Load torque = _____ ft-lbs 30 Tr = HP x 5250 rpm 27 45 Torque available for acceleration = _____ 18 ft-lbs Torque required for acceleration = _____ ft-lbs Maximum available motor torque = _____ ft-lbs = (Tr x 150%) = (Max.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  Using the formulas below. 1750 rpm. 90% of the motor rated torque is required to drive the load. The desired acceleration time. is 4 seconds. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the the following application. between 0 and 1750 rpm. 60Hz motor and a 10HP inverter are used to run a boring machine.load torque) 27 TA = WK2 x  rpm 308 x ta Torque available for acceleration ____ < Torque required for acceleration The specified performance is not achieved! .  Example: A 10HP. available .

Now what do we do? .

lbs) (100%) (30 ft.lbs 27 ft.lbs) (45 ft.lbs) Torque required to drive the load. (200%) Maximum available motor torque.lbs 29 .“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  When more acceleration torque is required than is available. (18 ft.lbs) Torque required for acceleration.lbs) (27 ft. (60 ft. Torque available for acceleration Torque required for acceleration 18 ft.lbs) Torque available for acceleration. the inverter current rating may be increased to handle the increase in current. (27 ft.

Inverter Output Rating Increase = Torque Required for Acceleration + Load Torque Torque Available for Acceleration + Load Torque 120% = 27 ft-lbs + 27 ft-lbs 18 ft-lbs + 27 ft-lbs  Choose an inverter with a continuos output current of 120% of the motor full load current.“Calculating Acceleration Torque”  Use the following formula to determine the necessary current rating increase to achieve the required acceleration torque. 30 .

“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Deceleration torque is the sum of the windage and friction losses and either the motor breakdown torque or the inverter braking torque (which ever is smaller). Breakdown Torque (approx 250% ) (approx 10%) Motor Braking Torque (approx 10-15% ) Smallest + Windage & Friction Losses Inverter Available Decel Torque 31 .

(td)   Total inertia includes the inertia of the load.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  To calculate the deceleration torque (TD) the following items must be known:  The total inertia in lb-ft2. (WK2)  WK2 x  rpm TD = 308 x td Where: Torque is represented in ft-lbs  The change in motor speed. 32 . (rpm) The required deceleration time in seconds. inertia of the gearbox and the inertia of the motor’s rotor.

(+) L1 L2 L3 M 1FU (-) 33 .“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  When running a motor with an inverter in the motoring mode. the power flows from the inverter to the motor.

“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  In the regenerative mode. the power flows from the motor to the inverter. (+) L1 L2 L3 M 1FU (-) 34 .

power cannot go through the input diodes. If the DC bus voltage goes too high.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  When in the regenerative mode. the inverter will protect itself by tripping on an overvoltage fault. back to the ac power line. (+) L1 L2 L3 M 1FU (-) 35 . This may cause the DC bus voltage inside the inverter to climb to excessive levels.

(+) L1 L2 L3 M 1FU (-) 36 .“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Since there is nowhere to dissipate the regenerative energy.15%. the amount of deceleration or braking torque available from the motor and inverter combination is limited. Braking torque for a motor and inverter combination is typically in the range of 10 .

“Calculating Deceleration Torque” Energy to be dissipated by braking resistors Mechanical energy in load machine Inverter Losses IGBT Switching Motor Losses I2 R Core    5% large inverters/motors 37 10-15% small inverters/motors .

The desired deceleration time.lbs = 308 x 20 seconds  The above information indicates the amount of deceleration torque required. 38 . between 1750 and 0 rpm is 20 seconds TD = WK2 x  rpm 308 x td 10 lb-ft2 x 1750 rpm 2. but does not tell us if the 5HP motor and inverter are capable of achieving the specified performance.8 ft. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”   A typical example of calculating deceleration torque: Example: A 5HP. 1750 rpm.

HP x 5250 Tr = rpm L = Tr x L% Where L% . The desired deceleration time. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. 1750 rpm. Example: A 5HP.05 ft-lbs 39 . 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”   Determine the windage and friction losses of the application. between 1750 and 0 rpm is 20 seconds Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque.Windage and friction losses in ft-lbs Motor Rated Torque Losses 5HP x 5250 15 ft-lbs = 1750 1. If this data is not known assume 0.Percentage of windage and friction losses L .

“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Friction losses can be put into two categories: Mechanical Friction  Bearing Friction . 40 .friction of air on rotor fan blade surface External Fan Windage .friction of air on external fan blade surface Note: Windage and friction losses are basically constant throughout the speed range.friction between front and rear rotor shaft bearings Air Friction   Rotor Fan Windage .

Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque. 1750 rpm. 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor.L Where TB . The desired deceleration time.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Determine the amount of braking torque required. Example: A 5HP.  TB = TD . is 20 seconds.05 ft-lbs 41 .1.Braking torque required in ft-lbs 1.8 ft-lbs . by subtracting the windage and friction losses from deceleration torque required . between 1750 and 0 rpm.75 ft-lbs = 2. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2.

“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Determine the percentage of braking torque required. The total inertia is 10 lb-ft2. between 1750 and 0 rpm. Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque. The desired deceleration time.6% = 15 ft-lbs Torque required for deceleration < 15% The specified performance is achieved! 42 . 60Hz motor and a 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. is 20 seconds.  Example: A 5HP. 1750 rpm.Percentage of braking torque 1.75 ft-lbs 11. TB % = Where - TB Tr TB % .

Time to do an exercise .

from 1750 to 0 rpm. The total inertia is 15 lb-ft2. Torque required for deceleration = _____ ft-lbs Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs TD = Tr = WK2 x  rpm 308 x td HP x 5250 rpm Windage /Friction losses= _____ ft-lbs Braking Torque = _____ ft-lbs Braking Torque = _____ % L = Tr x L% TB = TD . The desired deceleration time. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the following application.“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Using the formulas below.L TB % = TB Tr 43 Torque required for acceleration ______ 15% .  Example: A 10HP. Windage and friction losses are 5%. 1750 rpm. is 2 seconds. 60Hz motor and 10HP inverter are used to run a lathe.

“Calculating Deceleration Torque”  Using the formulas below. 60Hz motor and 10HP inverter are used to run a lathe. The desired deceleration time.  Example: A 10HP. from 1750 to 0 rpm. The total inertia is 15 lb-ft2.5 L = Tr x L% TB = TD .L TB % = TB Tr 41. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the following application. 1750 rpm.5 138 Torque required for acceleration ______ 15% The specified performance is not achieved! > . Windage and friction losses are 5%. is 2 seconds. Torque required for deceleration = _____ ft-lbs Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs 43 TD = Tr = WK2 x  rpm 308 x td HP x 5250 rpm 30 Windage /Friction losses= _____ ft-lbs Braking Torque = _____ ft-lbs Braking Torque = _____ % 1.

Now what do we do? .

“Types of Braking”  If the braking torque required is more than 15%. one of 3 braking methods must be used to achieve the specified performance.    DC Injection Braking Dynamic Braking Regenerative Braking 44 .

Typically 3-5% (motor dependent) N S 45 .“DC Injection Braking”  DC injection braking utilizes the DC current from the DC bus of the inverter to produce a stationary magnetic field in the motor. The rotor passes through the stationary field and a braking torque is produced.approx 50% Duty Cycle . Braking Torque .

See chart on next page Duty Cycle .See chart on next page 46 . (+) L1 L2 L3 M 1FU (-) Resistor BTR HEAT Braking Torque .“Dynamic Braking”  Dynamic braking is a process in which regenerative energy from the load is dissipated as heat across a bank of resistors.

“Dynamic Braking” 47 .

150% peak Duty Cycle .Typically 100% 48 . (+) (+) L1 L2 L3 Regenerative Converter 1FU M (-) (-) Braking Torque . back onto the AC power line.“Regenerative Braking”  Regenerative braking requires the use of a DC to AC converter to direct the regenerative energy from the load.100% continuos.

“Gearboxes”  A gearbox is used to transmit power from a motor to the driven machine. It can change the amount of torque and speed delivered to the load. Input Output Gearbox Motor 49 .

“Gearboxes”

To determine the output torque of a gearbox, utilize the formula below:

Input

Output Gearbox

Motor

TO = TI x RG x EG

Where: TO = Torque on the output shaft in ft-lbs

TI = Torque on the input shaft in ft-lbs
RG = The ratio of the gearbox EG = Efficiency of the gearbox
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“Gearboxes”

A typical example of calculating the torque available from the output of a gearbox can be found below.
Example: A 5HP, 1750 rpm, 60Hz motor is connected to a 30:1 gearbox. The gearbox efficiency is 90%. What is the expected torque on the output shaft of the gearbox ? HP x 5250 Tr = rpm

TO = TI x RG x EG

5HP x 5250 15 ft.lbs = 1750 rpm 405 ft-lbs= 15 x 30 x 0.90
The expected torque on the output shaft of the gearbox is 405 ft-lbs
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“Gearboxes”

To determine the output speed of a gearbox, utilize the formula below:

Input

Output Gearbox

Motor

nO =

nI RG

Where: nO = Speed on the output shaft in rpm

nI = Speed on the input shaft in rpm
RG = The ratio of the gearbox
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The gearbox efficiency is 90%.3 rpm = 1750 30 The expected speed on the output shaft of the gearbox is 58. 60Hz motor is connected to a 30:1 gearbox. 53 .“Gearboxes”  A typical example of calculating the speed available from the output of a gearbox can be found below. Example: A 5HP. 1750 rpm.3 rpm. What is the expected speed on the output shaft of the gearbox ? nI RG  nO = 58.

Time to do an exercise .

The speed range of the motor/inverter is 45 . HP x 5250 = Tr Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs rpm Gearbox Output Torque = _____ ft-lbs TO = TI x RG x EG Gearbox Output Speed Range = _____ rpm SO = SI RG 54 Can the application be performed ?______ . The customer wants to be able to adjust the speed of the gearbox output shaft between 50 and 60 rpm. 200 ft-lbs is required to adequately run the load. 60Hz motor and 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor.1750 rpm. 1750 rpm. The gearbox is rated at 20:1 and is 90% efficient.  Example: A 5HP. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the the following application.“Gearboxes”  Using the formulas below.

200 ft-lbs is required to adequately run the load. determine if the performance specification can be achieved for the the following application. The speed range of the motor/inverter is 45 . 60Hz motor and 5HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. The gearbox is rated at 20:1 and is 90% efficient.  Example: A 5HP. HP x 5250 = Tr Motor rated torque = _____ 15 ft-lbs rpm Gearbox output torque = _____ ft-lbs 270 TO = TI x RG x EG Gearbox Output Speed Range = _________ rpm 2-88 SO = SI RG YES Can the application be performed ? ______ .1750 rpm.“Gearboxes”  Using the formulas below. The customer wants to be able to adjust the speed of the gearbox output shaft between 50 and 60 rpm. 1750 rpm.

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Dynamic Braking .

In these cases a special dynamic braking package must be designed to achieve the desired performance. The next section will explain the following:   How to determine if a standard dynamic braking package will achieve the desired performance. 55 .“Dynamic Braking”  In most applications a standard dynamic braking package will achieve the desired performance. How to determine the specifications of a non-standard dynamic braking package. In some applications the standard dynamic braking package will not work.

The ohmic and wattage values of the resistors and the number of braking transistor units vary with application requirements. A standard braking package has already been designed by the inverter drive manufacturer to produce a specific amount of braking torque at a specific duty cycle.5kW Braking Transistor 56 .“Braking Packages”  A braking package consists of a braking transistor unit and a resistor box. Standard Inverter Braking Transistor   Non-standard 50  9kW Inverter Braking Transistor 12  14. A non-standard braking package has been designed to work with a specific application.5kW 12  14.

57 .  Determine if the standard braking package can produce more braking torque than is required.“Standard Braking Package”  To determine if a standard braking package can be used. follow the steps listed below:  Determine the amount of braking torque required.  Determine the duty cycle required.  Determine if the standard braking package duty cycle is higher than the duty cycle required.

“Standard Braking Package”  Example: A 20HP. The load inertia on the output of the gearbox is 3600 lb-ft2. the gearbox inertia is 2 lb-ft2 and the rotor inertia is 2 lb-ft2. 1750 rpm. between 175 and 0 gearbox output rpm. Can the desired performance be achieved with the standard dynamic braking package? Input Motor Output Gearbox 58 . The desired deceleration time. A 10:1 gearbox rated 90% efficient is connected between the motor and the load. 60Hz motor and 20HP inverter are used to run a conveyor. 230Vac. The conveyor will be started and stopped once each 10 minutes. is 5 seconds. Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque. with 1 minute of off time.

“Determine Braking Torque”  Determine the amount of torque and speed on the input and output of the gearbox.  Example: A 20HP. 230Vac. A 10:1 gear box rated 90% efficient is connected between the motor and the load. Tr = TO HP x 5250 rpm = TI x RG x EG SI RG SO = Output 60 ft-lbs 1750 rpm Motor Input Gearbox 540 ft-lbs 175 rpm 10:1 90% 59 . 1750 rpm. 60Hz motor and 20HP inverter are used to run a conveyor.

 Example: The load inertia is 3600 lb-ft2.“Determine Braking Torque”  Determine the amount of inertia reflected back to the motor. WK2O The desired deceleration time is 5 WK2I = seconds between 1750 and 0 motor rpm. RG 2 Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque. Gearbox and rotor inertia are 2 lb-ft2 respectively. 36 + 2 + 2 = 40 lb-ft2 Input Motor Gearbox Output Input 60 ft-lbs 1750 rpm 3600 lb-ft2 Output 540 ft-lbs 175 rpm 60 .

TD = 308 x td L = Tr x L% TB = TD .3 ft-lbs Input TB% = 69% Input Motor Gearbox Output 60 ft-lbs 1750 rpm 40-lb-ft2 . Windage and friction losses are 7% of the motor rated torque.“Determine Braking Torque”  Determine the amount of braking torque required to achieve the desired performance. WK2I x  rpm  Example: The load inertia is 3600 lb-ft2.L TB % = TB Tr Output 540 ft-lbs 175 rpm 3600-lb-ft2 61 TB = 41. The desired deceleration time is 5 seconds between 1750 and 0 motor rpm. Gearbox and rotor inertia are 2 lb-ft2 respectively.

“Determine Braking Torque”  Compare the amount of braking torque required. TB% = 69% HP 20 kW 15 Braking Torque 120% The specified torque performance is achieved! 62 . Required  Example: Refer to page 37 for a complete list of the standard braking package specifications. to the amount of braking torque available from the standard braking package.

Where : D = td D .Total cycle time td . with 1 minute of off time.75% = 5s 660s 63 .“Determine Duty Cycle”  Determine the duty cycle of the braking circuit.Duty Cycle t .  Example: The conveyor will be started and stopped once each 10 minutes.Decel time t t 5s 11m 0.

Required D = 0.“Determine Duty Cycle”  Compare the duty cycle required to the duty cycle of the standard braking package. Refer to page 37 for standard braking package duty cycle specification.  Example: The conveyor will be started and stopped once each 10 minutes. with 1 minute of off time.75% HP 20 kW Braking Torque 120% Duty Cycle 10% 15 The specified performance is achieved! 64 .

1750 rpm. is 4 seconds. between 875 and 0 gearbox output rpm. A 2:1 gearbox rated 90% efficient is connected between the motor and the load. the gearbox inertia is 2 lb-ft2 and the rotor inertia is 2 lb-ft2. Windage and friction losses are 3% of the motor rated torque. 230Vac. 60Hz motor and 20HP inverter are used to run an automated lathe. The load inertia on the output shaft of the gearbox is 234 lb-ft2. The lathe will be started and stopped once each 10 seconds. The desired deceleration time.“Non-standard Braking Package”  Example: A 20HP. with 2 seconds of off time. Can the desired performance be achieved with the standard dynamic braking package? Output Input Motor Gearbox 65 .

Motor rated torque = _____ ft-lbs 60 Tr = HP x 5250 rpm Output torque = _____ ft-lbs 108 TO = TI x RG x EG SO = SI RG WK2O RG 2 Output speed = _______ rpm 875 Total inertia = _______ lb-ft2 62.5 WK2I = Torque required for deceleration = ________ ft-lbs 88.“Non-standard Braking Package”  Determine the braking torque and duty cycle required to achieve the desired performance.7 TD = WK2I x  rpm 308 x td 66 .

L TB % = D = TB Tr td t 86.“Non-standard Braking Package”  Determine the braking torque and duty cycle required to achieve the desired performance.9 144 % Braking Torque = ________ Required Duty Cycle = ________ % 33 Standard HP 20 kW 15 Braking Torque 120% Duty Cycle 10% Required 144% Torque 33% Duty Cycle 67 . Windage /Friction losses= _____ ft-lbs Braking Torque = ________ ft-lbs 1.8 L = Tr x L% TB = TD .

027 .Mechanical to electrical conversion factor 385 2 6.027 x (TB x 0.“Non-standard Braking Package”  Use the following formula to determine the ohmic value of the braking resistor.Braking torque in ft-lbs 0.ft-lbs to kg-m conversion 1. VDC2 RB = 1.2 ) x 1750 The ohmic value required to produce 144% braking torque is 6.14 .027 x ( 12.14) x rpm Where: VDC2 .Braking transistor turn on voltage squared TB .8  68 .8  = 1.

38 Refer to the next page for a typical resistor m value. Pave = 1. at 144% braking torque is 29kW.“Non-standard Braking Package”  Use the following formulas to determine the wattage value of the braking resistor. 69 .14) x rpm x 10 -3 WB = Pave m 2 11kW = 1. The wattage value required to withstand a 33% duty cycle.027 x ( 12.027 x (TB x 0.2 ) x 875 x 10 -3 11kW 29kW = 0.

“Non-standard Braking Package” m value for an application with repeating deceleration 10 1% DUTY 10% CYCLE 33% m value for an application with non-repeating deceleration 1s DECEL TIME 10s 100s 100% 3 20 m 1 10 m 0.5 0. actual resistor data must be obtained from the resistor manufacturer.38 x 2 1 70 0. .1 These charts are for example only.

425 = 40A Where : IB .8  57A 1.number of braking transistor units required VDC . IB = N = VDC RB IB IP 385 57A = 6. or 2.Braking transistor turn on voltage The braking current is 57A and the number of braking transistor units is 1.balancing factor N .425.braking current IP .“Non-standard Braking Package”  Use the following formula to determine the number of braking transistor units required based on the current requirements. The number of braking transistor units calculated must be verified with the overcurrent protection curve. 71 .

“Non-standard Braking Package”

The proposed braking package will be assembled as shown below. Each braking unit will carry 28.5 amps.

Inverter

P
Braking Transistor

12  14.5kW 28.5 Amps 12  28.5 Amps 14.5kW

N
Braking Transistor

The following information will be used to determine if this configuration exceeds the braking transistor unit overcurrent protection curve.
 

Braking Current ( IB ) divided by the proposed number of braking units ( N ) Deceleration Time ( td )

Duty Cycle ( D )

72

“Non-standard Braking Package”

The specifications for the application do not exceed the braking transistor unit overcurrent protection curve.
5%

IB  N = 28.5A Decel time = 4 sec 400 Duty Cycle = 33% Deceleration Time ( td )
10% 20%

100

5% Duty Cycle 10% Duty Cycle 20% Duty Cycle 40% Duty Cycle 60% Duty Cycle

40

10

4

X
40% 60%

1

10

20

30 IB  N

40

50

73

“Non-standard Braking Package”

To achieve the desired performance the braking package will be assembled as shown below.

Inverter

P N

Braking Transistor

12  14.5kW 12  14.5kW

Braking Transistor

Never connect a braking resistor with a lower ohmic value than specified by the manufacturer. When using more than one braking transistor some manufacturers have a master - slave configuration so both braking transistors will work as one.

74

8  Where : Y .braking transistor unit RMS current rating 0.15 + ( 15 x 0.balancing factor N .6 = 15 The formula above must be used to determine the number of braking transistor units when 100% duty cycle is required.Braking transistor turn on voltage 57 . 75 . 4 braking transistor units would be required.8 ) 3.“100% Duty Cycle”  Use the following formula to determine the number of braking transistor units required for 100% duty cycle.8 ) N = Y 385 57 A = 6.8 .number of braking transistor units required VDC . If a 100% duty cycle was required for this example. IB = VDC RB IB .Y + ( Y x 0.

.

The effects of the speed range on motor heating .

50% (6:1) Less than 16% (more than 6:1) 76 .     More than 100% (above base speed) 50 .“Speed Control Range and Motor Heating”  There are 4 basic categories of speed ranges for a general purpose induction motor.100% (2:1) 16 .

0 SF 77  .0 service factor rating.“Overall Consideration”  Whenever running a general purpose induction motor on an inverter. the motor must be derated as shown below.15 SF but only use 1.  It is required to derate an induction motor with a 1. and the load does not exceed the 1.0 service factor to 85% of its rated power output.15 service factor is used. 85% 1. The derating can be eliminated if a motor with a 1.

When the motor speed is reduced the motor’s cooling fan losses its capacity to move air inside and/or across the surface of the motor. The output of an inverter is not a pure sine wave and includes extra harmonic currents. This reduction in cooling leads to a higher running temperature. with no additional capability to dissipate the heat. voltage The rating of an induction motor is based on a sinusoidal voltage and current waveform. current  78 . More heat will be generated in the motor.“Overall Consideration”   There are 2 main reasons for the derating.

Only the overall consideration should be adhered to in this situation. 79 .“More Than 100% (above base speed)” Variable Torque Load  Constant HP Load  Running a variable torque application above base speed is normally not recommended. Increasing the pump speed will increase the flow as well as the load. Consult the motor manufacturer for the motor’s mechanical maximum speed. The motor torque drops off reducing the load and the motor’s cooling fan continues to cool the motor. Typically the maximum speed of the fan or pump matches the required flow when the motor is running at rated speed. and could possibly lead to an overload condition. Typically this situation does not cause a problem.

100/85 % 30Hz 50% 45Hz 75% Motor Speed 1.0 service factor rating.100% (2:1)” Overall Consideration   Derate a motor with a 1.0 SF 1. only the overall considerations previously discussed should be adhered to.15 service factor is used.  The derating can be eliminated if a motor with a 1.15 SF 60Hz 100% 80 .“50 .0 service factor to 85% of its rated power. and the load does not exceed the 1. De-Rating When running an induction motor on an inverter inside the 2:1 speed range.

the load takes on the appearance of a constant torque load at low speeds.0 SF 1.15 SF 20Hz 33% Motor Speed 30Hz 50% 81 .“ 16 . the constant torque specifications should be followed. In some cases. If this is the case. De-Rating 100/85 % 87/72 % De-Rating 75/60 % 10Hz 16% 1.50% (6:1)” Variable Torque Load  Constant Torque Load  Typically no special derating other than the overall consideration is required when running a variable torque load in the 6:1 speed range. Motor derating when running a constant torque application in the 6:1 range is shown below. such as a centrifugal pump.

Separate motor cooling must be provided for the motor. additional cooling considerations are required. there is no reduction in motor cooling at low motor speeds which is inherent to a TEFC type motor. Since the blower is separately powered.“Less than 16% (more than 6:1)” Constant Torque Load  When running an induction motor with more than a 6:1 speed range. 82 . Typically a separately powered blower attached to the motor is used to provide airflow over the surface of the motor.

.

Motor Overload Types .

      Melting Alloy type Magnetic Bi-Metallic Bi-Metallic Thermo Disc Thermistor Electronic Thermal Overload 83 .“Motor Overloads”  There are 6 basic categories of motor overload protection devices.

Motor current flows through an alloy heater coil and produces a proportional amount of heat. The melting alloy causes a mechanism to release and open a set of contacts. At a specific temperature (thus a specific current) the alloy changes from a solid to a liquid. A cool off time is required for the alloy to return to a solid. Reset Button L1 Spring Heater Coil T1 84 .“Melting Alloy Type”  Melting alloy type overload relays are the most common type overload used in industry today.

“Melting Alloy Type”
Melting alloy type overload relays are the most common type overload used in industry today. Motor current flows through an alloy heater coil and produces a proportional amount of heat. At a specific temperature (thus a specific current) the alloy changes from a solid to a liquid. The melting alloy causes a mechanism to release and open a set of contacts. A cool off time is required for the alloy to return to a solid.
Reset Button

L1

Spring

Heater Coil

T1

“Melting Alloy Type”
10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 Trip/minutes Class 20 Trip/minutes Class 10

Melting alloy type overload relays are normally identified by class designations Class 10 - designed to trip in 10 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating. Class 20 - designed to trip in 20 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating.

Time/Minutes

6.00 Trip/minutes Class 30 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600%

Class 30 - designed to trip in 30 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating.

Percent Load

85

“Melting Alloy Type”
10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 Trip/minutes Class 20 Trip/minutes Class 10

Melting alloy type overload relays are normally identified by class designations Class 10 - designed to trip in 10 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating. Class 20 - designed to trip in 20 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating.

Time/Minutes

6.00 Trip/minutes Class 30 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600%

Class 30 - designed to trip in 30 seconds at 600% of its normal current rating.

Percent Load

When the coil pulls in it opens the motor circuit and stops the motor. There is no cool off time required for this type of overload. Normally. the trip time and trip current can be adjusted from potentiometers on the overload. Magnetic type overloads are typically found in high temperature environments or on motors with high inrush currents.“Magnetic Type”  A magnetic type overload has a current coil that functions as a solenoid and “pulls in” at a specific motor current. L1 L2 L3 NO NO Trip Time Trip Current NC NC T1 T2 T3 86 .

Two dissimilar metals are bonded together. Strip unmanned pumping stations or chemical process pumps.“Bi-Metallic Type”  A bi-metallic type overload works on the same principle as an old fashioned home thermostat. metallic such as grocery store freezers. Bi-metallic type Spring overloads are normally found in critical applications that require the Bimotor to run very close to failure. At a specified temperature the bending metal trips a mechanism and opens the motor circuit. Bi-metallic type overload normally reset automatically. T1 L1 87 . As the motor temperature increases the metals start to bend.

metallic such as grocery store freezers.“Bi-Metallic Type”  A bi-metallic type overload works on the same principle as an old fashioned home thermostat. As the motor temperature increases the metals start to bend. T1 L1 . Two dissimilar metals are bonded together. At a specified temperature the bending metal trips a mechanism and opens the motor circuit. Strip unmanned pumping stations or chemical process pumps. Bi-metallic type overload normally reset automatically. Bi-metallic type Spring overloads are normally found in critical applications that require the Bimotor to run very close to failure.

The major difference is that the thermo disc is actually inserted into the motor frame. When the motor temperature increases to an unacceptable level.“Bi-metallic Thermo Disc”  Bi-metallic thermo discs function the same as bi-metallic overloads. 88 . the disc opens a normally closed contact that turns off the motor circuit.

At a specific temperature the controller activates a normally closed contact and opens the motor circuit. Thermistor NC NC 89 .“Thermistor”  Another form of motor overload protection is a thermistor. The thermistor sends a signal to a controller that has been calibrated to protect the motor. A thermistor is a small resistive device that is imbedded in the stator windings of the motor.

“Electronic Thermal” 80 70 60 Time/Minutes 50 40 30 20 10 0 50% 75% Trip/minutes at 0Hz Trip/minutes at 6.4Hz Trip/minutes at 20Hz Trip/minutes at 33.6Hz Trip/minutes at 60Hz  Another form of motor overload protection is an inverse time electronic thermal overload. A typical set of curves is shown here.  Typically found in the software of variable frequency drives.7Hz Trip/minutes at 13. 90  100% 125% 150% Percent Load . this function derives a set of curves based on output frequency and load to determine a trip time.3Hz Trip/minutes at 46.

3Hz Trip/minutes at 46.4Hz Trip/minutes at 20Hz Trip/minutes at 33.7Hz Trip/minutes at 13. A typical set of curves is shown here.  100% 125% 150% Percent Load .6Hz Trip/minutes at 60Hz  Another form of motor overload protection is an inverse time electronic thermal overload.“Electronic Thermal” 80 70 60 Time/Minutes 50 40 30 20 10 0 50% 75% Trip/minutes at 0Hz Trip/minutes at 6.  Typically found in the software of variable frequency drives. this function derives a set of curves based on output frequency and load to determine a trip time.

 Visit www.AFD.Information and enrollment for Yaskawa Training Classes can be accessed via:  1-800-Yaskawa (927-5292). 6/6/2002 PP. press 6 for Training Coordinator assistance with class enrollment.com.AfdDriveApplBasics 123 of 123 .01.com . The Training Coordinator will respond with answers and class enrollment assistance.yaskawa. email to training@yaskawa.Choose “Training” on the navigation bar to access class descriptions and schedules.