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Prepared by: Syahidatul Akmal Mustaffar Kamal Raudhah Ramlan Siti Hawa Zainoddin

Table of content
• • • • • • Definition History Features Forms How to use in classroom Examples

Definition of jazz

Merriam-Webster: A type of American music with lively rhythms and melodies that are often made up by musicians as they play. characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations on basic tunes and chord patterns and. . native to America. a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom. Free dictionary: A style of music. more recently.

jazz is music that swings. developing an 'individual voice'. and being open to different musical possibilities. improvising. .Travis Jackson: Music that includes qualities such as swing. group interaction. Wynton Marsalis (1961) .

History / origin of jazz .

but its roots can be found in the musical traditions of both Africa and Europe. .Where did jazz come from? • Jazz was born in New Orleans about 100 years ago (early 20th century). some people say that jazz is a union of African and European music. In fact.

jazz got its: • rhythm and "feel" • "blues" quality • tradition of playing an instrument in your own expressive way.that is. jazz harmony is similar to classical music's harmony • instruments . the chords that accompany the tunes (the chords played on the piano). trumpet. piano.) . making it an "extension" of your own human voice From European music.From African music. jazz got its: • harmony . etc.most of the instruments used in jazz originated in Europe (saxophone.

• Towards the end of the nineteenth century marching bands were popular in America. African music combined with the music of the white European settlers to produce new styles of music including blues and ragtime. • Trad (traditional) jazz emerged in the early twentieth century in Storyville. 'bending' notes and improvising on the melodies.• Black music came over to America with the African slaves. the red-light district of New Orleans. . Black musicians began to jazz up the marches. adding syncopated rhythms.

and Jazz bands in different American cities developed distinctive local styles. clarinet. . The sound is very polyphonic and unique to New Orleans.• Jazz soon spread away from its origins in the deep South. • In the 'New Orleans style' a single instrument plays the main tune while the other instruments (typically string bass. trumpet and drums) improvise around it. banjo.

The features and forms of jazz song .

This song form is used in a variety of music genres including pop. gospel and jazz. Type of song form: AABA. each cycle being defined rhythmically and harmonically. Each cycle is called a chorus. jazz form is cyclic. a bridge (B) before transitioning to the final A section.1 Form • Like African music. The classic AABA song form can be illustrated as such: A: 8 bars A: 8 bars B: 8 bars A: 8 bars . this type of song has an opening section (A).

I'll bring fire in the winters . Stronger than any mountain cathedral Truer than any tree ever grew Deeper than any forest primeval I am in love with you.“Longer” by Dan Fogelberg • Longer than there've been fishes in the ocean Higher than any bird ever flew Longer than there've been stars up in the heavens I've been in love with you.

at times it can also be an instrumental part.• A-A-B-A-B-A • The second bridge may either be lyrically the same or different than the first bridge. . • The last A section may also be a repeat of an earlier verse or an entirely new verse that gives the song a sense of completion.

• AABABA song form: “Longer” • First A: Longer than there’ve been fishes in the ocean • Second A: Stronger than any mountain cathedral. • B Section: Instrumental • Final A: Longer than there’ve been fishes in the ocean (repeats the first A section) . • B Section: I’ll bring fires in the winters • Third A: Through the years as the fire starts to mellow.

Baby” and “Big Joe” by Turner and Pete Johnson). The example of fast blues are “ It’s All Right. .2 Blues form • Poetic form: three-line asymmetric stanza (AAB) with each line consisting of two vocal measures (call) followed by two instrumental measures (response). to make a twelve measure chorus. Blues form also have an emotional impact on the tune which it can be played in different rhythmic grooves and tempos. An example of modern jazz blues is “Now’s the Time” (by Charlie Parker).

you've got to die someday All I want's a little loving. Lord. / Turner. she lives up on the hill Well. I got a gal."Roll 'Em Pete" was written by Johnson. Joe. they shine like Klondike gold Every time she loves me. I'm goin' away and leave you by yourself You've mistreated me. Pete K. just before you pass away • Pretty baby. this woman's tryin' to quit me. you're so beautiful. you're so beautiful. but I love her still • She's got eyes like diamonds. she lives up on the hill Well. • Well. now you can mistreat somebody else. I'm goin' away and leave you by yourself Pretty baby. she sends my mellow soul • Well. . you've got to die someday Well. they shine like Klondike gold She's got eyes like diamonds. H. I got a gal.

. get ya down inside. want to hang around. Until I heard his message and it helped to set me free.... Back in '42. don't it just amaze ya. For a better understanding of his different kind of sound. Life was so unkind..“Now’s the Time” by Charlie Parker • Verse I ------Come reminisce with me and think about the Bird. Remember everything he did and all the things you heard.. . Bird came to New York and he blew. 'cause now would have been his time. Verse II ------I never thought he'd be so awfully close to me.now was his time. Now.. my but he blew. It made me want to linger. To think of how he had to live and then the way he died.

• Then say it again and clap on the “and”. Do you notice how the beats feel different? .3 Syncopation • Syncopation : to feel syncopation say “ oneand two-and three-and four-and” clapping on each number.

4 Improvisation • When the chord pattern and other essential points are written down in advance which the players improvise. Eg: Check out the drums in particular in Dave Brubeck’s Take Five (MIDI) . Breaks are improvised solo improvisations. this is called a head arrangement. Every instrumentalist gets a turn at playing a break.

trumpet and double bass are the standard instruments in a Jazz combo. • They also use different types of vibrato which they add an ornamental ending over a long note at the end of a piece. drums. the cymbals are tickled with brushes and the trumpet is blown very hard. letting the pitch fall off at its release.5 Jazz instruments • Piano. • The bass is plucked instead of bowed. • Jazz performers also very achieve distinctive sound by bending the pitch into a note. sliding from one pitch to another. . clarinet.

Drum Clarinet Trumpet Double bass Piano .

. Sometimes in a single layer: block harmony occurs when two or more instruments play the same phrase with the same rhythm but with different pitches filling out the harmony often in the context of solo.6 Texture i) Refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. ii) There are three types of texture iii) The homophonic texture: usually melody and harmony are in separate layers.

where a musician plays while the rest of the band is silent (usually two bars) or can be used to begin or end a piece. v) Polyphonic texture: two or more simultaneous melodies of equal interest. avant-garde jazz . heard in New Orleans jazz. Eg: big bands.6 Texture iv) Monophonic texture: rare in jazz but found in early jazz “breaks”.

EXAMPLES • • • • Somewhere Over The Rainbow I Got Rhythm Soul Bossa Nova Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday .

. Blood on the leaves and blood at the root. sweet and fresh. for the wind to suck. Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is fruit for the crows to pluck. Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze. For the rain to gather. Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Pastoral scene of the gallant south. for the trees to drop. Here is a strange and bitter crop. The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth. Scent of magnolias. For the sun to rot.Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday Southern trees bear a strange fruit.

such is the song's enduring power that rapper Kanye West sampled the track on his latest album . more than seventy years later. Now.Strange Fruit: A protest song with enduring relevance First recorded in 1939. the protest song Strange Fruit came to symbolise the brutality and racism of the practice of lynching in America's South.

August 7. 1930.The photograph that was cited by the songwriter as the inspiration for the song: Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith. .

How to use Jazz in a lesson .

Techniques for Using Music with L2 Learners introduce a new theme or topic (Christmas/colours/feelings) review material (backgroun d music improves memory) Techniqu es Icebreaking teach and build vocabulary and idioms change the mood (liven things up or calm things down) .

Techniques for Using Music with L2 Learners teach songs and rhymes about difficult grammar and spelling rules that need to be memorized ("i before e". phrasal verbs) teach pronunciation and intonation Techniques teach reading comprehensi on teach listening for details and gist inspire a class discussion . irregular verbs.

theme. details.Suggested Activities Add variety to your reading comprehensio n lesson. Students can read lyrics and search for main idea. Use background music to inspire creativity Teach a song that uses slang expressions Activities Write or choose a classroom theme song Teach a song that uses a new tense you have introduced .

Have groups explain the lyrics of their song before or after they perform. Activities .Suggested Activities Create (or use already prepared lessons) cloze exercises using popular song lyrics Create variations to familiar songs by making them personal for your class members or your lesson Have "lyp sync" contests. Allow students to choose their own songs. A little competition goes a long way in the classroom.

Examples of jazz song been used in classroom 1) This Jazz man 2) Children's Color Movie-Jazz Baby Jazz RED 3) Cool Cat .jazz song for children by Paul Borgese and The Strawberry Traffic Jam • Paul Borgese and The Strawberry Traffic Jam with "Cool Cat" from their children's CD "Even the Monkeys Fall Out of the Trees" .

" . and some of the era's best musicians take center stage. The tuneful text and vibrant illustrations bop. . right on down the line to Charles Mingus. and shimmy across the page as Satchmo plays one. slide. Bojangles plays two . plucking strings that sound "divine. . the traditional "This Old Man" gets a swinging makeover.This Jazz man • In this toe-tapping jazz tribute. who plays nine.

this playful introduction to nine jazz giants will teach children to count--and will give them every reason to get up and dance! .This Jazz man • Easy on the ear and the eye.