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Prepared by: Syahidatul Akmal Mustaffar Kamal Raudhah Ramlan Siti Hawa Zainoddin

Table of content
Definition History Features Forms How to use in classroom Examples

Definition of jazz

Merriam-Webster: A type of American music with lively rhythms and melodies that are often made up by musicians as they play.

Free dictionary: A style of music, native to America, characterized by a strong but flexible rhythmic understructure with solo and ensemble improvisations on basic tunes and chord patterns and, more recently, a highly sophisticated harmonic idiom.

Travis Jackson: Music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities.

Wynton Marsalis (1961) - jazz is music that swings.

History / origin of jazz

Where did jazz come from?

Jazz was born in New Orleans about 100 years ago (early 20th century), but its roots can be found in the musical traditions of both Africa and Europe. In fact, some people say that jazz is a union of African and European music.

From African music, jazz got its: rhythm and "feel" "blues" quality tradition of playing an instrument in your own expressive way, making it an "extension" of your own human voice From European music, jazz got its: harmony - that is, the chords that accompany the tunes (the chords played on the piano); jazz harmony is similar to classical music's harmony instruments - most of the instruments used in jazz originated in Europe (saxophone, trumpet, piano, etc.)

Black music came over to America with the African slaves. African music combined with the music of the white European settlers to produce new styles of music including blues and ragtime.
Towards the end of the nineteenth century marching bands were popular in America. Black musicians began to jazz up the marches, adding syncopated rhythms, 'bending' notes and improvising on the melodies.

Trad (traditional) jazz emerged in the early twentieth century in Storyville, the red-light district of New Orleans.

Jazz soon spread away from its origins in the deep South, and Jazz bands in different American cities developed distinctive local styles. In the 'New Orleans style' a single instrument plays the main tune while the other instruments (typically string bass, banjo, clarinet, trumpet and drums) improvise around it. The sound is very polyphonic and unique to New Orleans.

The features and forms of jazz song

Form

Like African music, jazz form is cyclic, each cycle being defined rhythmically and harmonically. Each cycle is called a chorus.
Type of song form: AABA, this type of song has an opening section (A), a bridge (B) before transitioning to the final A section. This song form is used in a variety of music genres including pop, gospel and jazz. The classic AABA song form can be illustrated as such: A: 8 bars A: 8 bars B: 8 bars A: 8 bars

Longer by Dan Fogelberg


Longer than there've been fishes in the ocean Higher than any bird ever flew Longer than there've been stars up in the heavens I've been in love with you. Stronger than any mountain cathedral Truer than any tree ever grew Deeper than any forest primeval I am in love with you. I'll bring fire in the winters

A-A-B-A-B-A The second bridge may either be lyrically the same or different than the first bridge, at times it can also be an instrumental part. The last A section may also be a repeat of an earlier verse or an entirely new verse that gives the song a sense of completion.

AABABA song form: Longer First A: Longer than thereve been fishes in the ocean Second A: Stronger than any mountain cathedral. B Section: Ill bring fires in the winters Third A: Through the years as the fire starts to mellow. B Section: Instrumental Final A: Longer than thereve been fishes in the ocean (repeats the first A section)

Blues form

Poetic form: three-line asymmetric stanza (AAB) with each line consisting of two vocal measures (call) followed by two instrumental measures (response), to make a twelve measure chorus.

Blues form also have an emotional impact on the tune which it can be played in different rhythmic grooves and tempos. The example of fast blues are Its All Right, Baby and Big Joe by Turner and Pete Johnson). An example of modern jazz blues is Nows the Time (by Charlie Parker).

"Roll 'Em Pete" was written by Johnson, Pete K. H. / Turner, Joe.


Well, I got a gal, she lives up on the hill Well, I got a gal, she lives up on the hill Well, this woman's tryin' to quit me, Lord, but I love her still She's got eyes like diamonds, they shine like Klondike gold She's got eyes like diamonds, they shine like Klondike gold Every time she loves me, she sends my mellow soul Well, you're so beautiful, you've got to die someday Well, you're so beautiful, you've got to die someday All I want's a little loving, just before you pass away Pretty baby, I'm goin' away and leave you by yourself Pretty baby, I'm goin' away and leave you by yourself You've mistreated me, now you can mistreat somebody else.

Nows the Time by Charlie Parker


Verse I ------Come reminisce with me and think about the Bird.

Remember everything he did and all the things you heard.


Now, don't it just amaze ya, get ya down inside... To think of how he had to live and then the way he died. Life was so unkind, 'cause now would have been his time....now was his time.

Verse II ------I never thought he'd be so awfully close to me.

Until I heard his message and it helped to set me free.


It made me want to linger, want to hang around. For a better understanding of his different kind of sound. Back in '42, Bird came to New York and he blew, my but he blew...

Syncopation

Syncopation : to feel syncopation say oneand two-and three-and four-and clapping on each number. Then say it again and clap on the and. Do you notice how the beats feel different?

Improvisation

When the chord pattern and other essential points are written down in advance which the players improvise, this is called a head arrangement.
Breaks are improvised solo improvisations. Every instrumentalist gets a turn at playing a break. Eg: Check out the drums in particular in Dave Brubecks Take Five (MIDI)

Jazz instruments

Piano, drums, clarinet, trumpet and double bass are the standard instruments in a Jazz combo. The bass is plucked instead of bowed, the cymbals are tickled with brushes and the trumpet is blown very hard. Jazz performers also very achieve distinctive sound by bending the pitch into a note, sliding from one pitch to another, letting the pitch fall off at its release. They also use different types of vibrato which they add an ornamental ending over a long note at the end of a piece.

Drum

Clarinet

Trumpet

Double bass

Piano

Texture

i) Refers to the way melody and harmony are balanced. ii) There are three types of texture iii) The homophonic texture: usually melody and harmony are in separate layers. Sometimes in a single layer: block harmony occurs when two or more instruments play the same phrase with the same rhythm but with different pitches filling out the harmony often in the context of solo.

Texture

iv) Monophonic texture: rare in jazz but found in early jazz breaks, where a musician plays while the rest of the band is silent (usually two bars) or can be used to begin or end a piece. v) Polyphonic texture: two or more simultaneous melodies of equal interest, heard in New Orleans jazz.
Eg: big bands, avant-garde jazz

EXAMPLES
Somewhere Over The Rainbow I Got Rhythm Soul Bossa Nova Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday

Strange Fruit by Billie Holiday

Southern trees bear a strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees.
Pastoral scene of the gallant south, The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop.

Strange Fruit:
A protest song with enduring relevance

First recorded in 1939, the protest song Strange Fruit came to symbolise the brutality and racism of the practice of lynching in America's South. Now, more than seventy years later, such is the song's enduring power that rapper Kanye West sampled the track on his latest album

The photograph that was cited by the songwriter as the inspiration for the song:
Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, August 7, 1930.

How to use Jazz in a lesson

Techniques for Using Music with L2 Learners


introduce a new theme or topic (Christmas/colours/feelings)

review material (backgroun d music improves memory)

Techniqu es

Icebreaking

teach and build vocabulary and idioms

change the mood (liven things up or calm things down)

Techniques for Using Music with L2 Learners


teach songs and rhymes about difficult grammar and spelling rules that need to be memorized ("i before e", irregular verbs, phrasal verbs)

teach pronunciation and intonation

Techniques

teach reading comprehensi on

teach listening for details and gist

inspire a class discussion

Suggested Activities
Add variety to your reading comprehensio n lesson. Students can read lyrics and search for main idea, theme, details.

Use background music to inspire creativity


Teach a song that uses slang expressions

Activities

Write or choose a classroom theme song

Teach a song that uses a new tense you have introduced

Suggested Activities
Create (or use already prepared lessons) cloze exercises using popular song lyrics Create variations to familiar songs by making them personal for your class members or your lesson Have "lyp sync" contests. Allow students to choose their own songs. A little competition goes a long way in the classroom. Have groups explain the lyrics of their song before or after they perform.

Activities

Examples of jazz song been used in classroom


1) This Jazz man 2) Children's Color Movie-Jazz Baby Jazz RED 3) Cool Cat - jazz song for children by Paul Borgese and The Strawberry Traffic Jam
Paul Borgese and The Strawberry Traffic Jam with "Cool Cat" from their children's CD "Even the Monkeys Fall Out of the Trees"

This Jazz man


In this toe-tapping jazz tribute, the traditional "This Old Man" gets a swinging makeover, and some of the era's best musicians take center stage. The tuneful text and vibrant illustrations bop, slide, and shimmy across the page as Satchmo plays one, Bojangles plays two . . . right on down the line to Charles Mingus, who plays nine, plucking strings that sound "divine."

This Jazz man


Easy on the ear and the eye, this playful introduction to nine jazz giants will teach children to count--and will give them every reason to get up and dance!