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Third Generation (3G) Mobile Services

Ref.: 1.Chap. 5: Wireless Networks By P. Nicopolitidis, M.S. Obaidat, et al, Ed.2003 2. Chap.4: Mobile communications, By J.Shiller, II Ed. 2003 3. Chap.4,6,7,8: 3G wireless networks, By C.Smith, D.Collins, II Ed. 2007

1Gb/s

Data rate

GPRS, GSM
WiMAX Wi-Fi Bluetooth
RFID

Wireless Network Classification

2010 that LTE.USA Europe WWAN USA Japan WLAN China * 4G 5G WMAN *ITU redefined in Dec. Mobile WiMAX referred as 4G Wireless Evolution 1990-2010 . HSPA+..

Peak Data Rate .

5G .• Introduction • • * • * * * • • 3G IMT-2000: CDMA-2000 UMTS: WCDMA TD-CDMA TD-SCDMA QoS 3.

or play games (Multimedia services) • Can have video-conference • Portable devices always-connected to Internet. to connect to the Internet . One need not to dial a no. surf Internet.Third Generation (3G) System • Objective is to provide fairly high speed wireless communication to support data and video in addition to voice • Person should be able to talk to any one else in the world with a PSTN quality (Global Roaming) • Persons can download and watch a movie • Can download & listen to music.

with data rate of 2000kb/s .2000 named because 3G system available in 2000.• 3G concept started in 1992 by ITU called Internet Mobile Telecommunication in a year 2000 (IMT2000) • * * * IMT. operates at 2000MHz frequency.

• * * * Data rate of 144kb/s for access in a moving car. 384kb/s for access as the user walks (Pedestrians) 2Mb/s for the stationary user (office or home) • Supports both packet-switched & circuit-switched data services .

ETSI (European Telecom Standard Institute) developed a UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System) includes Wideband-CDMA (W-CDMA) with 5MHz BW • 2. This approach is a combination of W-CDMA & TDMA technology. Other European UMTS is known as IMT-TC or TD-CDMA.• Five alternatives for smooth evaluation from 2G systems • 1. intend to provide upgrade path of GSM system (IMT-2000) .

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces 1 3 2 4 5 .

25MHz BW like CDMA (IS-95) • 4. IMT-SC single carrier designed for TDMA only network (TDD) • 5. IMT-FT frequency time uses FDMA & TDMA. uses multi-carrier (MC-CDMA) with narrowband 1. It is out growth of DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecom) standard .• 3. CDMA-2000 is USA origin.

• 3GPP: • 3GPP (3G Partnership project) standardized GSM based system (W-CDMA) • 3GPP2 standardized CDMA based system (CDMA2000) .

Finland. Korea.• Nokia & Ericsson backed W-CDMA • while US vendors including Qualcom & Lucent backed CDMA-2000 • The frequency for IMT-2000 allocated were • 1885-2025MHz and • 2110-2200MHz. Norway. USA . • IMT-2000 was operational in 2002 at Japan. Sweden.

Radio Transmission Technology .

DO Cdma2000-3xRTT 3GPP2 W-CDMA EDGE TD-SCDMA 3GPP 16 .DV.2G IS-95 GSM- IS-136 & PDC GPRS 2.5G IS-95B HSCSD EDGE Cdma2000-1xRTT 3G Cdma2000-1xEV.

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3G CDMA base systems will require software and minor hardware changes to the existing CDMAone • USA offers 3G services by deploying an overlay of CDMA2000 and IS-95 in the same spectrum • CDMA2000 is a Multi carrier (MC)-CDMA in which single 5MHz band can accommodate 3 adjacent carriers (3X1.• CDMA-2000 • In 2G system IS-95 known as CDMAone is based on CDMA technology.25) with guard bands both sides .

CDMA2000 WCDMA 3G CDMA .

• 1X uses 1.75MHz (3X 1.25MHz) • The 6X. • 3X uses 256 Walsh code for higher data rate .25MHz carrier while 3X will use 3. 9X and 12 X mode will be standardized in future • 1X doubles the voice quality of CDMAone and provides data rate of 144kb/s by using 128 Walsh code instead of 64.

• This performance is obtained by enhancement of CDMA2000 PHY and MAC layer • For High data rate (HDR) 16-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is used instead of QPSK.2288). • It can support data rates up to 2Mb/s .75MHz (3X1.25) and chip rate of 3.6864Mcps (3X1. thus offering 621 kb/s data rate • In case of large interferences 8-PSK or QPSK is used which is more robust than 16-QAM but reduces the data rate • 3X also known as IS-2000-A is an enhancement of 1X and uses 3 CDMAone carriers for a total BW of 3.

• PDSN is essential element in the treatment of packet data services • Purpose of PDSN is to support packet data services . BSC with ‘IP routing capabilities’ and introducing the Packet data server network (PDSN) Fig.• CDMA2000 upgrades CDMAone by modifying BTS with ‘multimode channel elements cards’.

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of PPP (Point-to-Point) sessions that are being served • AAA server provides Authentication. maintains. Authorization.• PDSN performs following functions: * Establishes. and terminates the logical links to the radio network * Initiates Authentication.and from the external packet data networks (PDN) • The overall capacity of PDSN is determined by both throughput and no. maintains. and Accounting functions for the packet data network associated with CDMA 2000 . Authorization. and terminates Point-toPoint protocol (PPP) sessions with the subscriber * Establishes. and Accounting (AAA) for the mobile client from the AAA server * Routes packets to.

including simple IP. and Mobile IP • Simple IP is a packet-data service relative to CDMA2000 1X.• The PDSN provide several key packet-data services. Subs is assigned a Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) address from the serving PDSN with its routing service provided by the local network • The specific IP address that the subs is assigned retains with the subs as long as it is served by the same radio network that maintains connectivity with the PDSN that issued the IP address • It is important to note that simple IP does not provide for mobile termination and hence is an origination-based service only ie a PPP service using the DHCP .

the Simple IP connection is lost and needs to be reestablished. MS must be connected to the same PDSN for the duration of the packet session.and from the MS in order to provide end-to-end connectivity between the MS and the Internet and the PDSN. The PDSN routes packets to. Fig. MS must negotiate for a new IP address from the new PDSN . presents a diagram depicting Simple IP • During Simple IP.• Simple IP is similar to the dial-up Internet connections used by many people over standard landline facilities • A PPP session is established between the mobile unit (MS) and the PDSN. If the MS moves to another PDSN.

BSC MS BTS PPP PDSN Internet Server IP Simple IP .

a call flow or packet-session flow chart is given in Fig. It can handoff between different radio networks that are served via different PDSNs. which resolves the roaming issues . the BSC via the MSC/VLR checks the subs subscription prior to the system granting the service request to the mobile subs. This will take place prior to the PDSN being involved with the packet session • In Mobile IP. • The VLR is normally collocated with the MSC. the mobile unit (MS) is assigned a static IP address that resides with the HA.• To explain Simple IP process. When a subs initiates a packet-data session.

MS BTS/BSC MSC/VLR VLR PDSN AAA Access Procedure Validation MS MS Validated Start PPP PPP Established Authentication Request Authentication response AAA A/C Start Packet Session End Session End Packet Session AAA A/C Stop Simple IP Flow chart .

The home address is static and is known to everybody as the identity of the host. The care of address changes at each new point of attachment and can be thought of as mobile node’s location specific address • The network node that is responsible for forwarding and managing this transparency is known as the home agent .• Mobile IP allows the mobile node to use two addresses. These IP addresses are called home address and care-of address.

• Whenever the mobile node moves. it registers its new care-of address (provided by Foreign agent) with its home agent. • The home agent encapsulates the original IP datagram into a new IP datagram with care-of address in the header and retransmit the datagram. This phenomenon is called tunneling • Let us consider an example of IP datagram being exchanged over a TCP connection between mobile node A and server X . The home agent forwards the packet to the foreign network using the care-of address.

X sends packet to A with A’s home address as the destination IP address in the IP header (1) • At the A‘s home network. The home agent encapsulate the entire datagram with a care-of address in the IP header.• Server X wants to transmit an IP datagram to node A. The new IP datagram with the care-of address as the destination address is retransmitted by home agent (2) . the incoming IP datagram is intercepted by the home Agent. The home address of A is advertised and is known to X. Home agent finds that A is in a foreign network • Care-of address has been allocated to mobile node A by a foreign network and is available with the home agent.

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the new IP datagram is intercepted by the foreign agent. Typically this router is the foreign agent. The foreign agent strips off the care-of address and delivers the original datagram to A(3) • A tends to respond to this message and sends packet to X. Here X is not mobile hence has a fixed IP address. The foreign agent is counterpart of the home agent in the foreign network. A uses X’s IP static address as the destination address (5) . A sends IP datagram to a router on the foreign network for routing to X (4).• At the foreign network.

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6kb/s for UL • The average data rate across cell area varies from 60 to 100kb/s depending on distance of the MS from BS .CDMA2000 -1xRTT: • One carrier CDMA2000 Radio Transmission Technology (RTT) • 1x represents ‘1’ times the frequency BW • Modulation scheme uses BPSK & QPSK • The peak data rate for DL is 621kb/s and 153.

4Mb/s and UL peak data rate is 153.2288Mc/s • Improved code rates & higher order modulation (BPSK to 16-QAM) for large packets provide high spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) • The DL peak data rate is 2.CDMA2000 1xEVDO: • Single RF carrier Evolution (to 3G) to Data Only • The channel BW is 1.6kb/s • MS performs channel quality measurement and reports the index out of 12 configuration which in turn transmits requested configuration .25MHz with chip rate 1.

modulation techniques are same as that of 1xEVDO • EVDV integrates voice & data on the same carrier and uses soft handoff for voice & cell selection for data • The peak data rate in DL is 3. chip rate.1Mb/s and 1.CDMA2000 1xEVDV: • Single RF carrier Evolution to Data and Voice • The BW.8Mb/s in UL both higher than EVDO • Modulation & coding chosen from one of the 504 available configuration for each transmission based on the amount of data to be transmitted and channel condition .

classed as a “3G” system Use new or existing spectrum IS-95B CDMA IS-95A IS-95A 14.CDMA2000 evolution to 3G IS-95B Uses multiple code channels Data rates up to 64kbps Many operators gone direct to 1xRTT CDMA2000 1xEV-DO: Evolved Data Optimised Third phase in CDMA2000 evolution Standardised version of Qualcomm High Data Rate (HDR) Adds TDMA components beneath code components Good for highly asymmetric high speed data apps Speeds to 2Mbps +.4 kbps Core network reused in CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 1xRTT CDMA2000 1xRTT: single carrier RTT First phase in CDMA2000 evolution Easy co-existence with IS-95A air interface Release 0 .max 144 kbps Release A – max 384 kbps Same core network as IS-95 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 3xRTT CDMA2000 1x Evolved DV Fourth phase in CDMA2000 evolution Still under development Speeds to 5Mbps+ (more than 3xRTT!) Possible end game. .

5G GSM Family .UMTS: 3.9/4G 5G 3.

The chip rate is 3. introduced WCDMA (Wideband CDMA) WCDMA: uses CDMA instead of TDMA in GSM Wideband CDMA uses Direct Sequence (DS)CDMA and has a Wideband of 5MHz.84Mcps Supports peak data rate of 2Mb/s using QPSK modulation in both DL and UL WCDMA require new spectrum allocation and new. The average data rates supported up to 2Mb/s . or upgraded GSM mobile phones This wider BW has benefits such as higher data rates and improved multi-path resolution.• • • • • • • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom System) UMTS is European standard of IMT2000.

• UMTS is cost effective migration from GSM • Fig. scrambling code is unique for each sender and separates all senders • For TDD the scrambling code is cell specific ie all stations in a cell use the same scrambling code and cells are separated using different unique scrambling code (cell based) • The scrambled chips are QPSK modulated and transmitted . In FDD mode. Shows basic ideas of spreading and separation of different senders in UMTS • User data is spread using orthogonal spreading codes (user based) • After spreading all chip streams are added and scrambled.

User 1 User 2 User Data Spreading .

• In WCDMA. low cross-correlation codes (orthogonal codes) are used to separate the mobiles • The WCDMA code is same as IS-95 with a spread factor of 4 to 512.84Mcps chip rate is held constant. • GSM/GPRS/EDGE network is upgraded to support WCDMA. Higher data rates are obtained by using shorter spreading codes since 3. orthogonal spreading codes reduces interference and scrambling is used to separate the users/cells in downlink • In uplink. WCDMA architecture is split into access network and core network .

• WCDMA architecture consists of Radio network controller (RNC) and B nodes. RNC is analogous to the GSM base station (BSC). RNC responsible for control of the radio resources within the network. B node is similar to BTS • The interface between RNC and the B nodes is Iub interface like the Abis in GSM. Together an RNC and the B nodes is called Radio network subsytem (RNS) like BSS in GSM • RNC is connected with core network over interface Iu (like A interface in GSM). The interface between RNC and SGSN is through IuPS (supports packet switched circuit) like Gb in GPRS. The interface between RNC and MSC is via IuCS (circuit switched)

Access Network
Circuit switched (GSM)

Core Network

Packet switched

WCDMA

• Both domains need the databases EIR & HLR for location management • Reusing the existing infrastructure helps to save a lot of money and may convince to use WCDMA if they are already using GSM • Fig. Shows protocols stacks of Circuit switched domain (CSD) and Packet switched domain (PSD) • The CSD used ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Adaptation Layer (AAL2) for voice • Segment and Reassemble layer (SAR) used to segment data packets received from the RLC (Radio Link Control) which can be transported in ATM

BSC RNC Packet data coverage protocol .

UDP/IP is used (Data) • All packets (IP. while in GSM/GPRS GTP is used between a SGSN and GGSN only • RNC performs protocol conversion from the combination GTP/UDP/IP into the Packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) .• ATM is chosen since it can transport and multiplex low bit rate voice data with low jitter and latency (Compared to protocols used in PSD) • In PSD ATM with AAL5. PPP) destined for UE are encapsulated using the GPRS tunneling protocol (GTP) • In UMTS the RNC handles the tunneling protocol GTP.

• TD-CDMA: • TD-CDMA differs from W-CDMA and CDMA2000. It is a Time Division Duplex (TDD) instead of FDD • TDD does not need paired frequencies. It uses the same frequency for up. of orthogonal codes in each time slot . of time slots. and no.and downlink transmission • TDD is suitable for asymmetric up.and downlink transmission rates for IP data services • There are no.

The remaining slots are assigned on an as.needed basis for uplink and downlink usage • TD-CDMA can assign different modulation and coding scheme for each time-slot to maximize the throughput for each subs in the sector (Adaptive modulation & coding) .• There are 15 time-slots between up and downlink with a frame duration of 10ms. 12 time-slots allotted for traffic and 3 for signaling. one for each user or segment of BW shown in Fig. The uplink common signaling channels are in the last slot of the frame. The chipping rate is 3. • The first two time slot of every frame is assigned to downlink traffic.84Mcps. Each time-slot uses 16 unique spreading codes.

TD-CDMA 1 2 3 ----.15 16 16 spreading code Midample for training & channel estimation .

• A time-slot can support 500kb/s in a 5MHz channel. capacity must be reduced to achieve greater coverage. .5Mb/s in down link and 850kb/s in uplink. Using 10MHz channel time-slot can support 1Mb/s • A single TD-CDMA channel is able to support 5.5kms. When large coverage areas are needed for rural applications. reception sensitivity and the length of the guard period. The maximum coverage radius is about 29kms but typically 7. Using 2 adjacent channels (10MHz) data rate is increased to 11Mb/s in the downlink and 1Mb/s in the uplink • The coverage radius of TD-CDMA is decided by two factors: Tx power.

84Mc/s Modulation: QPSK.5Kms nominal) Theoretical max. data rate/user: 2Mb/s System Asymmetry (DL:UL): 1:14-14:1 Frequency reuse: 1 . CDMA Chip rate: 3. 16-QAM Maximum Cell Range: 29Kms (7.• • • • • • • • • • TD-CDMA Parameters: Carrier BW: 5MHz Duplex Type: TDD Multiple Access: TDMA.

• A spectrum allocation where TD-CDMA is deployed in an existing GSM and WCDMA network (1.• Implementation: • If the TD-CDMA is new network with no legacy issues.2&3) is shown in Fig. Spectrum allocation for TD-CDMA and GSM(1&3) is shown in Fig. • Deployment of TD-CDMA into existing GSM network where voice is through GSM and new data service through TD-CDMA. • Overlay of TD-CDMA on to a WCDMA network (1&2) is shown in Fig. then configuration(1) is shown in Fig. The possible spectrum allocation is also shown in Fig. .

3 GSM BSC Core Network 2 WCDMA RNC 1 TD-CDMA TD-CDMA with WCDMA and GSM .

Spectrum Allocation: Transmitter GSM(3) 15MHz Receiver GSM(3) 15MHz GSM(3) TDCDMA(1) GSM(3) 10MHz 10MHz 5MHz TDCDMA(1) 5MHz WCDMA(2) 10MHz GSM (3) 5 TDCDMA(1) 5MHz WCDMA(2) 10MHz TDCDMA(1) 5MHz WCDMA TD-CDMA (2) (1) 5 5MHz GSM WCDMA TD-CDMA (3) (2) (1) 5 5 5MHz .

Architecture) • RAN uses asynchronous 1. Circuit switched rates are 12. CDMA (Fig.6.2. 144. TDMA.• TD-SCDMA: • Time Division-Synchronous CDMA is perceived as a Chinese standard • TD-SCDMA uses TDD as the access method allowing both asynchronous and synchronous operation • TD-SCDMA node-B employs combination of FDMA. 384 and 2048kb/s . enabling to have multiple carriers in the same BW as a WCDMA.6MHz of spectrum.64. 384. Packet data rates are 9.CDMA2000 or TD-CDMA carrier • TD-SCDMA supports circuit switched services in addition to packet (IP) services. and 2048kb/s. 144. 64.

TD-SCDMA .

6X96=155MHz) unique carriers are possible • Radio resources for the uplink and downlink are allocated separately (5ms each). a total of 155MHz frequency BW has been allocated for TDD which indicates that 96 (1.) • A total of 16 spreading codes are used with TDSCDMA. These codes are all orthogonal to each other and like all CDMA codes are part of tree .• TD-SCDMA is sponsored by China. even though the uplink and downlink are in the same carrier • There are total 7 time-slots for each sub-frame (Fig.

Data Gp Field-1 amble Field-2 352 144 352 16chips 1 2 ----- 16 16 spreading code TD-SCDMA Channel Allocation .5ms TS0 TS1 TS2 5ms TS6 TS0 TS1 ------TS6 ------ BCH DwPTS 96chips Downlink Gp 96c UpPTS 160chips 864chips Uplink Data Mid.

• Table lists parameters for TD-SCDMA system • Fig. shows an overlay approach for a TD-SCDMA installed in an existing GSM spectrum • It shows a spectrum allocation for TD-SCDMA within 5MHz BW with guard bands • It also shows the spectrum allocation of GSM with TD-SCDMA in its existing spectrum • Comparison of TD-CDMA. WCDMA and TDSCDMA radio access is shown in Table .

data rate/user: 2Mb/s System Asymmetry (DL:UL): 1:6-6:1 Frequency reuse: 1 . CDMA. 8-PSK Maximum Cell Range: 40Kms Theoretical max.• TD-SCDMA Parameters: • • • • • • • • • Carrier BW: 1.6MHz Duplex Type: TDD Multiple Access: TDMA. FDMA Chip rate: 1.28Mc/s Modulation: QPSK.

BSC GSM Core Network RNC TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA Guard Band 1 1.6 5MHz GSM 3.2 3 1.6MHz TD-SCDMA 1.6 2 1.6MHz .

6MHz Time slot/frame 15 7 7 Chip rate 3.84Mc/s 1.84Mc/s 3.4.16 4 to 256 1.8.2.8.• Comparison: TD-CDMA WCDMA TD-SCDMA Multiple Access HCR-TDD FDD LCR-TDD Handoff Hard Soft Hard Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK/8-PSK BW 5MHz 5MHz 1.28Mc/s Spreading factor 1.4.2.16 Receiver Joint detection Rake Joint detection Rake (Mobile) Rake (Mobile) • • • • • • • • .

1. A similar period of time is taken by 3G system to succeed . TDCDMA. CDMA2000.6 or 5MHz of spectrum • WCDMA. and TD-SCDMA use a GSM 2G network as a logical starting point as does CDMA2000 with IS-95 • GSM took 10 years to become the most successful 2G mobile communication system.25. TD_SCDMA: • All of the platforms use CDMA technology and requires total of either 1. TD-CDMA.Commonality among WCDMA.

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iii) interactive. • Both conversational and streaming classes will need better channel coding and retransmission to reduce the error rate in order to meet the required QoS .• Quality of Service (QoS) in 3G: • The QoS classes defined for mobile network are very different from fixed networks due to restrictions and limitations of the air interface • Based on delay sensitivity four QoS classes have been defined for 3G traffic: i) Conversational. and the transfer delay is strictly limited • ii) Streaming class is defined for one-way real time video/audio (VoD). ii) streaming. and iv) background • i) Conversational class is defined for the most delay-sensitive applications (voice & VoIP).

reliability and so on • A major challenge for defining QoS of 3G is compatibility with QoS of existing mobile networks (GPRS) and fixed network (Internet) . and guaranteed bit rates. and web browsing. delivering order. • iii) interactive class is used for applications such as Telenet. interactive e-mail. minimum.• Interactive & background classes are defined for delay-insensitive services. the conversational class is most delay-sensitive. maximum packet size. • iv) background class is defined for activities such as FTP or the background downloading of e-mails • Among the traffic classes. and background class is most delay-insensitive • In addition to traffic classes several QoS parameters includes maximum.

• QoS mapping for circuit switched 3G and 2G (GSM) is easy. . and attributes for integrated services (IntServ) and differentiated services (DiffServ). only reliability. delay. The QoS parameters of these two Internet service types are controlled by the applications (ie TE) . the 3G QoS is mapped to GPRS reliability class 2 (NACK GTP mode) and GPRS delay class 4 (best-effort) • For Internet applications. and BW are meaning full parameters • For background download of files. the 3G QoS should be mapped to Internet QoS definition. For handoff between 3G and 2G networks.

2011] .• 3G Deployment: • In Japan mobile phone subscribers reached to 111 Million and 3G penetration exceeds 88% • In India 400 million subscribers of 3G network will reach by 2015 • This will be 30% of total mobile phone subscribers • WCDMA based subscribers will be around 320 million and 80 million will be CDMA2000 based [New Wireless Intelligence study-India.

5G (HSDPA) (High Speed Downlink Packet Access): • An enhanced version and the next intermediate generation of 3G UMTS. . • 3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future. • It comprises the technologies that improve the air Interface and increase the spectral efficiency to support data rates of the order of 14 Mbps.3.5G. • 1xEV-DV already supports most of the features that will be provided in 3.

• New features include: * Adaptive Modulation and Coding * Fast Scheduling: Scheduling shifted from RNC to B node * Backward compatibility with 3G * Enhanced air interface .

16-QAM. information rate.• Adaptive Modulation and Coding: • For the same symbol rate. 2/3. and channel coding rate can be adjusted in accordance to channel interferences and QoS requirements • FEC rate ½. the signal power. ¾ rate Turbo code) and closer to cell boundary (QPSK. 64-QAM are dynamically adapted for every single individual user giving rise to 6-fold spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) • Mobile user closer to BS (64-QAM. modulation technique. ½ rate Turbo code) . ¾. 5/6 and Digital modulation QPSK.

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FEC 1/2 FEC 3/4 Adaptive Modulation & Coding .

AMC with Range .

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Fourth Generation (4G) • 4G supports voice. data. in all locations • It is a networks of networks that integrates seamlessly and allows people to move between different types of radio technologies in seamless way • 4G network will depend entirely on a full IP wireless infrastructure . and streamed video for all users.

while wireless data network is packet switched • Evaluation of wireless networks towards an integrated system will produce a common packet switched (wireless Internet) platform . WiMAX.• In 4G the trend is towards support for even advanced data services. 3G) and wireless data network (WLAN. The vision for 4G and future systems is towards unification of various mobile and wireless networks eg wireless cellular (2G. etc.) • Cellular is circuit switched means a connection establishment is to be there prior to the call.

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* Wide Area Network (Cellular). UWB). * WLAN (Wi-Fi).• 4G involves merger of cellular and wireless technologies including integration of *Personal area network (Bluetooth. *Regional/Global Area Network (RAN) (Radio and TV broadcasting. ZigBee. * WMAN (WiMAX). satellite communication) .

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* Security measures • 4G system may begin in 2010-2015 time frame • 1Gb/s data rate for stationary & 100Mb/s for moving vehicle. * Software defined radio (SDR).4G key technologies are related to * Adaptive coding and modulation. * Smart antennas. * Multiple access schemes. .

4G Key Technology .

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(Low density packet code) .

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DSP to achieve decimation. channel selectivity. reduces cost. modulation formats. and increases performance . multi-transceivers on die • This needs more die area.• Software Defined Radio (SDR): • Current approach of radio is to built multi-chip modules. decreases power consumption. may require additional antenna and matching network • SDR is flexible to support variety of signal BWs. signal levels • LNA tunable over wide BW. down conversion. gain/phase compensation • SDR increases flexibility. more power consumption.

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power consumption of transceiver • SDR is better in performance even against single transceiver • Received analog RF signal is processed by reprogrammable base band Digital signal processor (DSP) using multiple antennas and amplifiers and very fast high speed ADC and DSP functions . change the linearity and noise figure of a transceiver channel in real time • One programmable transceiver can replace many fixed transceiver used in current cell phones or data modems • Reduces size. modify BW.• SDR should move its operating characteristics in real time by software commands • Can shift center frequency. sampling rate.

Receiver SDR Operations Transmitter .

and maximizes intended signal reception . thus increasing frequency diversity • It is natural to combine two powerful technologies MIMO and OFDM in the PHY layer design • Multiple antennas can be used at the transmitter and receiver • OFDM with MIMO increases diversity gain and enhance system capability on a time varying multi-path fading • Adaptive antenna array locates the user. minimizes the interferences.• MIMO-OFDM System: • Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas technology has potential to significantly improve the capacity and performance of wireless systems • Signal from different antennas will fade independently.

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sync FFT Detection and Decoding Block S / P Add Add IFFT mapping Cyclic Cyclic Prefix Prefix Remove Cyclic Prefix FFT QAM ENC .QAM ENC mapping IFFT Add Add Cyclic Cyclic Prefix Prefix Remove Cyclic Prefix Time and freq.

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WiMAX + Cellular

WiMAX + WLAN .

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This layer support data rates up to 2Mb/s. This layer will support coverage and mobility and will cover sparsely populated rural areas • Cellular layer: This layer comprises 2G and 3G systems. Cell size will be smaller than distribution layer. It comprise WLAN system IEEE802. It provides high capacity in terms of users and data rates inside densely populated areas such as cities.11 . This layer support full coverage and mobility • Hotspot layer: This layer supports high data rates over short ranges like offices or buildings.• Distribution layer: Supports digital video broadcasting services at moderate speeds over relatively large cells.

• Personal network layer: This layer comprise very short range wireless connections such as Bluetooth. Mobility is limited due to very short range • Fixed layer: This will comprise the fixed access system (WiMAX) . ZigBee.