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# Unit 3

The Elements Of Computer Science

Hardware Software Data People: Users, operators, programmers.

What is a computer?
It is a device used to collect, process and trasmit information. It is has Hardware and Software.

Main characteristics of the computer Responde de manera precisa a un conjunto específico de instrucciones. It can run a list of instructions which are prePuede ejecutar una lista de instrucciones pre-grabadas. ¿Cómo representa todos sus datos un ordenador?
Mediante el sistema de numeración binario, es decir, usando los dígitos 0 y 1. Lo único que transmite, recibe, almacena y procesa un ordenador son ceros y unos.

Definition of Hardware
Physical components of the computer that are used for input of data, processing information and output of data In other words, hardware is all you can touch and….

… but you shouldn´t do it !!

Definition of Software
Programs we use to manage the data. They are not physical devices that can be seen.

Communication among Hardware and Software All data we introduce in our computer must be encoded in binary system to be understood by the computer.

But…….what´s the binary system?

They are not physical devices that can be seen. But……. Communication among Hardware and Software All data we introduce in our computer must be encoded in binary system to be understood by the computer.what´s the binary system? .Definition of Software Programs we use to manage the data.

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM The computers are made of electric circuits which work in two states • off (we will call this state 0) • on (we will call this state 1) So we need a numeral system with two digits: Binary Sistem .

.BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM • The binary number system uses 2 digits to encode a number: • 0 = represents no value (circuit off) • 1 = represents a unit value (circuit on) • That means that you can only use the digits 0 and 1 to write a binary number . Each digit is called “bit”. •0 •1 – Example: some binary numbers •11 • 1010 • and so on.

d1 d0 Value encoded by the binary number dn-1×2n-1 + dn-2×2n-2 + . where n is the “weight” of the bit – The weight is the position of the bit.BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM Binary to Decimal Conversion The value that is encoded (represented) by a binary number is computed as follows: – Multiply each bit by 2n..... + d1×21 + d0×20 . starting from 0 on the right – Add the results Binary number dn-1 dn-2 .

BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM Binary to Decimal Conversion Example 1: Example 2: Activity: convert to Decimal these Binary numbers: .

BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM Decimal to Binary Conversion . keep track of the remainder .Second remainder is bit 1 . least-significant bit) .The last “cocient” is the last bit (MSB.Divide by two.So on… .First remainder is bit 0 (LSB. mostsignificant bit) .

BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM Decimal to Binary Conversion Example 1: .

BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM Decimal to Binary Conversion Example 2: Activity: convert these decimal numbers to Binary 2210 and 4410 .

. These codes are expressed in binary numeral system.ASCII CODE We give a numeric code to each of the characters computers use. so they consist of 0 and 1. The most common code is called ASCII. and it uses 7 bits to store the different characters. so that we can store them.

called “byte” (B).UNITS USED TO STORE INFORMATION The smallest unit used to store information in a computer is called “bit” (b)(binary digit) and is represented by a 0 or a 1. The bit and the byte are very small so we need to use bigger units multiples of a byte: To increase the level you have to multiply the units on the left by 1000 and the units on the right by 1024 Example: CD-Rom  640 MB HardDisk  1 TB . We can make groups of 8 bits.

CLASIFICATION OF HARDWARE Microprocessor Main Memory Input Peripherals Output peripherals Storage Devices .

COMPUTER ELEMENTS All the computer elements are connected to the motherboard .

• It is the place where the data is managed. .THE MICROPROCESSOR O CPU (Central Processing Unit) • It is a small chip (integrated circuit) made up of millions of tiny transistors working together. • It is the computer´s brain.

EL MICROPROCESADOR O CPU (Central Processing Unit) Functions of the CPU • It coordinates the components of a computer system • It manages de data. .

THE MICROPROCESSOR O CPU (Central Processing Unit) There are different sort of CPU depending of the producer: INTEL Motorola AMD IBM and compatible McIntosh & Sun Athlon .

• They store important information for the data management and other computer operations.MAIN MEMORY • They are small chips connected to the motherboard. ROM Memory (Read Only Memory) 2. RAM Memory (Random Access Memory) . Kind of Main Memory 1.

• The data can be changed. . • While the data is processed the information is stored in RAM Memory.MAIN MEMORY RAM Memory • Random Access. • Temporal (Volátil).

• It can not be deleted. • The data can not be changed.MAIN MEMORY ROM-BIOS Memory • Read Only Memory. • It contains instructions to check the computer when you turn it on. • The information stored in this memory has been copied by the manufacturer of the computer. •It is also known as “firmware”. .

• There are three kinds of peripheral: • Peripherals input devices: these devices enable us to enter data and instructions into the compueter from outside Keybord and mouse. • Peripherals input/output devices: it allows us to enter data on the computer and to output information. • Peripherals output devices: these devices are used to get information from the computer after the data has been processed. Monitor and printer.PERIPHERALS • The peripherals are devices that are outside the compueter and must be connected a port of the mainboard. Modem .

opening and dragging) by moving the cursor and pressing buttons.Peripheral input devices The mouse It allows us to perform several actions (selecting . Optic mouse .

Peripherals output devices Monintor It displays images or text. There are two types of monitors: CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) LCD-TFT Liquid Crystal .

.Peripherals output devices Monitor How does CRT monitor work? 1. 2. It shoots electrons to the screen 3. The screen is covered with a thin layer that brights when the electrons hit the screen. There is a source of electrons at the back of the monitor.

dyer… . • Sped: it is meassured in page per minute (ppm) There are differente types of printer: ink-jet. laser. transparencies… Main characteristics: • Resolution: it measures the quality of the printed information.Peripherals output devices Printer It prints informations in different formats: paper.

. digital cameras. Although there are others: PDA. The main one is called MODEM: it enables the communication ober the telephones lines between the computer. los smartphones. etc.Peripherals input/output devices These make it possible to enter data on the computer and to output the information.

They are primary ones because the computer does not work without them.Solid State storage devices .Optic storage devices 3. • Secondary storage devices: those storage devices that allows us storage data..STORAGE DEVICES We can divide this devices in two groups: • Primary storage devices: RAM & ROM memories.Magnetic storage devices 2... There are 3 groups: 1.

STORAGE DEVICES Magnetics • Flopy disks • Hard disks. . Optics • CD-ROM • DVD • Blue ray disc.

MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICES Information is stored through the magnetic arrangement of particles on the device. Depending on the position of these particles it will mean 0 or 1 .

MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICES • Flopy disks: up to 1. Flopy disk Flopy disk drive .44Mb.

It is made of several small metal discs covered with a magnetic film.MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICES • Hard drives: they are inside the computer. Up to 1 TB or even more. Hard drive .

representing 0 and 1. • Creating technique: a laser beam makes holes in the disc. drawing a “espiral” called “ pista”. . In this “pista” there are holes and flat zones.OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES All of them are compact disc that are created and readed by laser beams.

OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES • Reading technique: the drive turns the disc and a laser beam hits the disc. If it finds a flat zone it will light is reflected and detected and transformed in a electric signal. If the laser beam finds a hole the light will be “dispersada” and it means a binary 0. it means a binary 1. .

The computer needs a device for reading the disc. . Blu-Ray Discs: read only. DVD.OPCTICAL STORAGE DEVICES There are differents optical storage devices:  CD-ROM.

SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICES They are made of microscopic electronic components called transistors. . Its microscopic size allows to build compact memories. The main examples are: FLASH MEMORIES.

It is also known as “programs” When a computer is using a program we say it is “running” it. . Every program must be storaged in RAM memory when the computer is running it..SOFTWARE Definition Software is the set of instructions that start up the computer and process data so that we can use it.

Example: Operating System Applications Programs designed to meet needs of users: word processors. etc. . music and video.Software Clasification System Software It manages the hardware. tools. Multimedia Software Programs designed to manage with images.

UNIX … GRAPHIC INTERFACES: the users interact with the computer using images. Examples: WINDOWS. Mac OS. Administra el almacenamiento de información. . LINUX … Carga en memoria RAM otros programas para su ejecución. Coordina el trabajo entre el hardware y el resto del software.Sistema Operativo Functions of OS It enables the communication between the user and the computer: user interface (interfaz de usuario) COMMAND LINE INTERFACES: the users interact with the computer thruogh text messages called “commands” . Examples: MS-DOS. .

such as . text editor and media player. The set formed by OS and these programs is called “distribution”. There can be differents distributions for the same OS.The most current OS have a suit of programs. for example.

although recent versions use a optional graphic interface.Exmples of OS UNIX / LINUX DOS  It can control only a task and one user. . multi-user.  Command line interface  Multitask.  Command line interface.

.  Graphic interface.  Multitask and multiuser.Examples of OS MacOS  Designed for Motorola CPU  Multitask and multiuser  Graphic interface Windows  Designed for AMD and Intel CPU.

. 2009. Windows 98 . net working .Windows 3. .Windows 3.Windows XP (eXPerience).Windows Vista 2007 .Windows NT . . Versions: .First versions in the 80´s.1. November 2012.11.Windows 7.Windows 95. .WINDOWS SO It´s the most popular graphic interface SO by Microsoft.Windows 8. 2001 . Touchscreen interface. .Windows 2000. available in two distributions: Home and Professional. .Windows Millennium Edition (ME).

extension The filename can have up to 256 characters.File System The data is stored as “files”. Each file is identified by its “name” and “extension” (we write them separated by a dot) filename.xls File created with MS-Excel (Spreadsheet) .ppt File created with MS-Power Point (Presentation) . and can be written with any character but / \ * ? : “ < >  The extension only has 3 character and shows the program who has created the file. Each file have associated an icon: .doc File created with MS-Word (word processor) . A file is a data set related to one another.

flash memories. CD. The folders can have subfolders inside them. Basic operations with files and folder. •create •delete •Change the name •copy •move .To organise the files windows uses “folders” (carpetas o directorios). DVD. etc. The folder organization has a “tree diagram structure”. You can create folders in the hard disk.

. files or folders. It shows the icons of the most used programs.The main screen of Windos is called “Desktop” (ESCRITORIO). We can open In the bottom of the desktop is the “Taskbar” . At the left end of the task bar and at the right of start button is the “Quick launc bar” ( BARRA DE INICIO RÁPIDO). The tools on the desktop appear on the screen as “icons” tha can represent programas or appilcations. (BARRA DE TAREAS) is a bar displayed on a full edge of desktop that is used to launch and monitor running applications “Start button” and “Start menu” (MENÚ INICIO.) appears in the bottom left corner of the taskbar and provides a central launching point for application and tasks. At the right end of the taskbar is the “notification area” (ÁREA DE NOTIFICACIÓN). It shows the time and the icons of the programs that runs when you start the computer..

etc. • Programs: it allows the acces to all computer programs. . in a easy way • Help and support: click to display the application help system.START BUTTON Clicking on start button provides a nested list of programs for the user to launch. The top side of Start menu is reserved for incluiding the most used programs. • Run: it allows the execution of a program knowing its name. as well as a list of most recently opened documents. which you can disconnect the computer. • Documents: la mayoría de los programas guardan por defecto en esta carpeta los archivos creados por el usuario • Configuration: it allows the acces to “Control Panel” (PANEL DE CONTROL). folders. webpages. which is the main tool to configure the computer software and hardware • Search: to look for files. and an access to special folders like "My Documents" and "Favorites“. At the bottom of Start menu is the “Turn off” button.

Together with the information.THE WINDOWS OF “MS WINDOWS” Windows MS OS is based on the use of windows as the basic units of working. in the windows. . You can move the window on the screen dragging its title bar. thera are some cursor-sensitive areas that allow the user to interact with the computer. The windows size can be changed by clicking and dragging the edges of the window. Each windows consists of data cointained in squared area of the screen.

Control menu (Menú de control): it allows you to change the size of the window. Tool bar (Barra de herramientas): it has the buttons of the most used actions of the program. Menu bar (barra de menú): each program has its own menu bara. . and through it you can execute all the options of the aplication. maximize (maximizar) / restore (restaurar) and close (cerrar) Work area (Área de trabajo): it is the area which is situated int he middle of the window. Scroll bar (barras de desplazamiento): it allows you to move vertically and horizontally through the hidden parts of the work area. Buttons (botones): minimize (minimizar).Title bar (barra de título): it is the top bar of the window and it shows the name of the program that you are running. Status bar (Barra de estado): is shows information about the content of the window and the application status.

Recylce Bin (PAPELERA DE RECICLAJE): here the computer stores the temporaly deleted folders and files.WINDOWS XP APPLICATIONS My Computer (MI PC): it allows to enter in the storage devices and work with the files and folders. . Control Panel (PANEL DE CONTROL): llows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls as add new hardware and software and so on.

• Paint: drawing tool • Wordpad: simple word processor. .ACCESORIES: it is a folder which contents the followings applications : • Calculator • Windows Explorer (Explorador de Windows): it allows you to see the folder structure and modify it.

. Entertainment (entretenimiento): it has multimedia applications • System tool (Herramientas del sistema): it´s a folder that includes applications for the maintenance of the hard disk. • Communications (comunicaciones) : it´s a folder that has applications related to networking.