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Iron Making by Blast Furnace

Presentation at EDRC - Kolkata on 14th Feb 2007 by N. R. Sudheer

Steel Making Value Chain

Steel making flow line

Finishing .Steel making flow line .

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History and evolurtion .

. • Smelting reduction of Oxide ores with Carbon as a reducing agent.What is Iron making? • Winning of Iron metal from its Ores.

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Mixed with slag and impurities such as Silica and Alumina and residual carbon (Puddle Iron with Charcoal as reducing agent / Sponge Iron with Coke breeze as reducing agent) – generally classified as Direct reduction and • In Liquid State.Reduction of Iron • Reduced from Ore in two ways.directly by Carbon and Indirectly by Carbon Monoxide. • In Solid State. (Predominantly by Indirect means) .at High temperatures above the melting point of Fe and at high pressures with a combination of reduction mechanisms.

Steelmaking / Refining of Liquid Iron by Oxidising the Impurities in Basic Oxygen Furnaces to produce Steel of required qualities. . • First Stage.Tonnage Steelmaking in Integrated Steel Plants • Done in Two Stages.Iron Smelting / Iron making – To produce Liquid Iron that is impure and saturated with Carbon and other contaminant elements. • Second Stage.

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Modern Ironmaking Basics .

Iron making basics
• Making iron is the first step in producing steel • Iron should be produced of consistent quality. • C= 4.5 -5 %, Si =0.0.4 –1..0%, Mn = 0.2-0.3%, S= 0.015- 0.040% , P=0.080-0.090%, Rest Fe.

• Blast furnace is a reactor to produce iron. Ore reaches molten state and gets separated physically due to density from gangue and impurities. • Presence of excess carbon reduces the melting point of iron to 1150oC.
• Iron purity is controlled by controlling the composition of the slag.

Liquid Iron – Pig Iron – Hot metal
• Pig Iron – allusion to suckling Pigs in Sand molds of a cast floor. When cast into standard molds for merchant foundriesknown as Pigs on solidification. • Integrated Steel Plants refer to Liquid Iron as Hot metal. An Intermediate product which feeds the Refining stage of Steelmaking.

Bulk of the Hot metal is produced by Blast Furnaces
• Blast Furnace – a Counter current Gas Solid / Liquid reactor operating at high temperatures and pressures. • Solids charged from the top. Reducing gases generated at the bottom by combustion of Carbon either as Charcoal or Coke

• Difference in Densities of Liquid metal and Slag makes it easy to be drained out separately. . • The solids soften and melt along the way as they get heated up and are fully liquefied by the time they reach the bottom. Fluxing Limestone and Coke) • Ports below to admit Hot air to burn Carbon for generating reducing gases. • The solid raw material above gradually descends to replace the voids created by gasifying carbon.Blast Furnace • A Refractory lined Vertical Steel shaft with a closure at the top to admit solid reactants (such as Iron ores.

Why the Shape of Blast Furnace? .

slag metal separation . decrepitation Parallel Bosh – 650 to 950 deg CIntensive reduction Lower Bosh – 950 to 1800 deg C – melting and dripping zone Hearth – 1400 to 1350 deg C – Pool.Blast Furnace Profile and Logic Throat – 180 to 300 deg C -Drying Stack – 300 to 650 deg C – Swelling and Mild reduction.

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.Drying .Compensate losses in cooling.Slagging of Gangue with Fluxes .Calcination of Fluxes .Reduction of Iron Oxides . radiation and sensible losses. • Act as Spacer and Support the Burden. .Role of Coke • Supply Heat needed for the process.

Coke Rate • Coke Rate or Carbon Rate is a function of – Raw Material. – Higher the impurities more the Carbon rate. – Typical Indian Coke has 20% to 23 % Ash – Typical Ash composition is 55% SiO2 and 30 % Al2 O3 . – Mass and Heat Balance determines the CR – Typical Iron / Carbon Ratios 1.2 in European countries.Flux and Coke chemistry and level of impuruties.3 in India to 2.

Sintering Process Material Bins Ore Fluxes Coke Return Fines Lime Water Mixing and Nodulizing Drum Sinter Machine Waste Gas Fan and Gas Cleaning Sinter Cooler ScreeningStation Hearth Layer Product Sinter Return Fines .

Pelletisation .

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63% )+ Coke (~ 2% ) .0% )+ Flue Dust as Fe2O3 + Fe in Runner scrap Ore (~ 63% ) + Sinter ( ~ 47 – 54% ) + Pellets ( ~ 60.Iron Balance • Fe Input from = • Fe Output in Hot Metal ( ~93 – 94 % )+ Slag as FeO (~ 1.

9 *0.Iron Ore required per ton Assume • Iron content in Ore at 65% • Hot Metal has 94% Fe • Loss in Flue dust and Slag at 1% • Loss in Runner at 1% Iron ore per ton of HM = 940/(0.9*0.64) kg = 1498 kg .

MgO – 5% Assume Slag Basicity = CaO / SiO2 = 0. Al2O3 – 1.43 Every Kg of SiO2 added to BF needs 2. .Lime Stone required per Ton Typical Analysis CaO .45 %.95 Fluxing Efficiency = 100 / ( CaO – 0. SiO2 – 4%.3%.3 Kg of Limestone to flux and generate slag of required Basicity.95* SiO2) = 2.

Carbon Balance • C input from = • C Output in Hot Metal ( ~ 94% ) + in Gas as CO and CO2 + Coke ( ~ 77 – 82 % ) + Injected Coal. if any + .

Oxygen Balance • O2 input from Air + Injected O2 + From Ore = O2 Output in BF Gas as CO and CO2 One Kg of Carbon in hearth needs 3 Nm3 of Air to burn. .

Nitrogen Balance • N2 Input from Air = • N2 Output in Top Gas ( 56% typical ) = 79 / 56 = 1.41 (79% typical ) Ratio of Top Gas Volume to Blast Volume .

Blast Furnace Reactions • C + O2  CO2 • CO2 + C  2 CO • Fe2O3 + 3 CO  2 Fe + 3 CO2 .

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m Normal Top Pressure .750 kg/hr/m2 High Top Pressure .Hearth Area • Carbon Burning Intensity ( CBI ) – Carbon burnt in Kg per hour per sq.1000 kg/hr/m2 .

Blast Volume = (Carbon burnt / hr ) x ( 3 Nm3 per kg ) .

Hearth Area. = Hotmetal -tpd* Coke rate * FC in Coke / 24 hrs/ CBI Ex: Vizag BF ~ 6650 tpd / 550 kgpthm / FC –84% = 130m2 area = 13m hearth dia .

3 .5 to 2.0 for Carbon rates of 750 kgpthm For Carbon Rates of 400 kgpthm ~ 700/400 For European CR of 280 – 300 kgpthm ~ 2.Productivity • Tons of HM per m3 of Useful Volume. Typically 1.

Furnace Volume = Tons of Production per day / productivity .

No of Tuyeres = Perimeter of Tuyere tip circle in mm / 1100 mm Tuyere tip circle dia = Hearth Dia in mm – 500 mm No of tuyeres are in even numbers .

Tuyere sizes • Tuyere Area on basis of 220 – 250 mps of air velocity. .

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Protect Shell – Recirculating – Evaporative – Plate / Stave • Lining .BF Cooling and Lining • Water cooling.Protect Shell – Fire clay – Silica / Alumina /Mullite – Silicon Carbide – Graphite/ Carbon .

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• Hoppers present at the bells store the raw materials charged. • Double bell system has a small and a big bell/ small bell arranged one below the other. Either one of the bells are kept closed at a time to prevent the escape of gas.Top equipment • Blast furnace can have either a Bell top (Double bell system with or without movable throat armour) or a Bell less top. • Modern furnaces use BLT (Bell less top system) .

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Bell less top arrangement .

Rotary Charging System .

stores. • Typical Stock house Assembly: • Conveyor 1: Feeding iron ore & additives from ore handling plant • Conveyor 2: Feeding two fraction of coke (34-60 mm & 60-80 mm) from coke ovens. • It receives.Stock house • Raw materials of different types are brought from respective plants say coke from coke oven plant. • Conveyor 3: Feeding Sinter from Sinter plant. screens. sinter from sinter plant via conveyor belts and stored here. . weighs and charges the raw material.

Typical stock house assembly .

• Design specifications for 8000 t/d blast furnace: Storage Coke Sinter (two sizes 5-15 mm & 15-40 mm) Sized iron ore Additives Hours 8-10 20 16-20 24 Fines (sinter -5mm. sinter (-5 mm). • Bunker outlets will have Vibro-feeders and Vibro-screens fro smooth flow of burden material. iron ore -8mm. iron ore (-8 mm) and carried away by a separate conveyor to Sinter plant base mix yard. coke breeze -8mm) 8 .Stock house • The fines are separated while screening coke (-8 mm).

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Gas Cleaning Plant .

Scrubber Construction .

Recycle Water Treatment .

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Hot Blast System • Recuperative • Regenerative .

Hot Blast Stoves • Internal Combustion Chamber • External Combustion Chamber .

General Arrangement of internal Combustion Chamber Hot blast Stove .

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Thank You .