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CMPAK Week 48 Network Optimization Update Report

Radio Frequency Planning and Optimization Field
ADVANTAGES      Very interesting Highest paid jobs in Telecom Industry High Demand and Less Saturation White Choler job Common Concepts therefore No Hardware compatibility Issue

DISADVANTAGES  Continuous Learning Required  Complex Logical Concepts  High Responsibility Matrix

Network Planning and Optimization Training Workshops
Module 1: Introduction to GSM Network Planning and Optimization Duration: 1 days Eligibility: None  GSM Network Architecture  Air Interface Channels  Radio Interface structures  Key Performance Indicator  Basic Call Flows  Basic Wireless Concepts  GPRS and EDGGE Concepts Module 2: Advanced Concepts in Network Module 3: Network Planning and Optimization Planning and Optimization Tools Duration: 1days Eligibility: Module 1  Call Flow Signaling  Handover Signaling Flow  Idle and Dedicated mode Behaviors  Traffic Optimization cases  Handover Algorithms  Power Control Algorithms  Key Performance Indicator Analysis Duration: 1 days Eligibility: Module 2  MapInfo basics  Frequency planning tools  Neighbor plan audit tools  Site planning  Coverage and capacity analysis tools  Implications of Google Earth as tool

Module 4 : Network Analysis and Monitoring Tool Development Duration: 1 days Eligibility: Module 3  Role of Database in Network planning and Optimization  Development of efficient database system  Network Monitoring tool development  Radio Interface Optimization tool development

Module 5 : Drive Test workshop
Duration: 1 days Eligibility: Module 4  Drive test Basics  Signaling flow analysis in drive test(System Info)  Parameter monitoring in Drive test  Log File analysis and reporting  Packet mode drive test  Protocol Layer analysis in Drive test

Module 6: Career Development
Duration: 1 days Eligibility: All modules  Introduction to 3G Technology.  CV Writing Skills.  Interview Secrets.  Tea Session with Telecom professionals.  Career Opportunities. (Internships and Job Opportunities)  Visit to Telecom towers for practical demonstrations.

GSM BASIC STRUCTURE

MS  BTS  BSC  MSC  PSTN

such as TACS. AMPS .FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) FDMA Traffic channels are assigned to different users at different frequency band.

such as GSM.TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) TDMA Traffic channels are assigned to different users at different time. . DAMPS.

Wireless Multiple Access Methods .

but with different code. . same frequency band.CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) CDMA Traffic channels are assigned to users at same time.

SITE SECTORIZATION MICRO CELLS   Omnidirectional Antennas are used Used for indoor coverage like in Buildings   MACRO CELLS Directional Antennas are used Used for overall coverage of the Network D R D R Omni site STSR 65 °. three sectors .

COVERAGE PATTERNS Theoretical Planned Coverage Actual Coverage .

4 Site/3 Cell 3 Site/3 Cell . Most network providers are unlikely to be able to use all of these frequencies and are generally allocated a small subset of the 124.FREQUENCY REUSE Standard GSM has a total of 124 frequencies available for use in a network.

FREQUENCY REUSE 4 Site/3 Cell .

it selects network to camp on Idle Mode Dedicated Mode Packet Mode Reselection When Mobile moves from one Cell Coverage to another cell in idle mode . Handover occurs Handover (TCH to TCH) Handover (PDCCH to PDCCH) . Handover occurs When Mobile moves from one Cell Coverage to another cell in packet mode . Cell reselection occurs When Mobile moves from one Cell Coverage to another cell in dedicated mode .MS Modes Off Mode Selection When mobile Switched on.

HANDOVER CONCEPT RHO_in>RHO_out lead to Pingpong HO HO .

Neighbor Planning What is Neighbor?  Tier 1 Neighbors (Immediate Neighbors)  Tier 2 Neighbors (Not compulsory but they are added for precautions illogical Neighbor Plan Logical Neighbor Plan .

Frequency Audit What is Interference?  Co Channel Interference  Adjacent Channel Interference Bad Neighbor Plan Efficient Neighbor Plan .

RADIO CHANNELS Channels Physical Channels Time Slot Logical Channels Mapping on Time Slot Traffic Channels Channel Control Channels Half Rate TCH Channel UL/DL Full Rate TCH Channel UL/DL .

CONTROL CHANNELS Control Channel Broadcast Control Chanel Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Broadcast Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Common Control Channel • BCCH • SCH • FCH • PCH • RACH • AGCH • SDCCH • FACCH • SACCH .

RADIO CHANNELS Search for frequency correction burst Search for synchronization sequence Read system information Listen paging message Send access burst Wait for signaling channel allocation Call setup Assign traffic channel Conversation Call release FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH FACCH .

CALL FLOW Type Of calls MOC MTC STEP 1 • Radio Link Establishment • SDCCH Phase • TCH Assignment • Alerting/Connection STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 .

CALL FLOW – STEP1 RADIO LINK ESTABLISHMENT T3113 T3101 7 Sec 3 Sec .

CALL FLOW – SDCCH PHASE .

CALL FLOW – TCH ASSIGNMENT .

CALL FLOW – ALERTING / CNX PHASE .

ANTENNA  An Antenna is any device used to collect or radiate Electromagnetic Waves Type GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM Dual Band Frequency Range 890 1710 890 1710 960 MHz 1880 MHz 960 MHz 1880 MHz .

3dB .ANTENNA BEAMWIDTH 3dB Beamwidth Peak .10dB 120° (eg) Peak Peak .10dB 60° (eg) Peak Peak .3dB 10dB Beamwidth Peak .

ANTENNA Omni---Directional   Directional Antenna:65°/90°/105°/120° Omni:360° Omni-directional Directional .

MECHANICAL DOWNTILT    It is achieved by physically tilting the antenna out of the perpendicular by using down tilt kit PROS: Cost efficient and flexible CON: Has no effect on the sidelobe characteristics of the antenna .

ELECTRICAL DOWNTILT  Electrical Downtilt can be fixed or adjustable  Fixed is tuned by the manufacturer  Adjustable allows adjustment in a certain level on the rear of the antenna .

DOWNTILT COMPARISON Non Down tilt Electronic Downtilt Mechanical Downtilt .

large coverage High Way 30° Directional antenna No Down Tilt Low traffic Fast moving subscribers Focus on coverage. Strip coverage Two sectors Omni-cell when pass towns or tourist site Depends Omni or directional Mountainous Upon Terrain Depends Upon Terrain Block by mountains Big propagation loss Difficult to cover .ANTENNA SELECTION Environment BeamWidth Direction Down Tilt Environment Features City 60-65 Fixed electrical tilt Directional antenna down Densely deployed BTS,Small coverage area High Traffic. Increase frequency reuse factor Sub Urban 90°105° Directional antenna Mechanical tilt down Loosely deployed BTS light traffic.

Statistical Data: KPI Key Performance Index  Performance Counters  Timers  Worst Cells SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  ACCESSIBILITY  RETAINABILITY CSSR IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT RATE TCH ASSIGNMENT RATE CALL DROP RATE (INCLUDE HO) CALL DROP RATE (EXCLUDE HO) HO SUCCESS RATE TCH CONGESTION RX QUALITY UL RX QUALITY DL PSR UL / DL BALANCE SDCCH CONGESTION RATE NETWORK COVERAGE  QUALITY .

Statistical Data: KPI FORMULAS .

14016. Expansion is pending on Cell ID 14012.Statistical Data: KPI TREND SAMPLE GoS KPIs are degraded due to increase in TCH Traffic after LBC Launch. .14881 and 24006 in Faisalabad City EID Fitar2011: increase in traffic caused increase in Blocking EID AZHA 2011: increase in traffic caused increase in Blocking Traffic rise Slight degradation in GoS SDCCH due to fluctuations after rain.

DCR was increased due to increase in hardware Issues and reversion of T305 and T308 DCR was decreased due to Implementation of trial for T305 and T308 After reducing the TRXs Power to default value. on 10 cells. Ramadan Traffic Increase & Monsoon (Fluctuations/Outages/ Ducting) caused major increase in DCR Fluctuations and hardware issues caused increase in DCR. Issue was resolved later Degradation in DCR was due to fluctuations in Faisalabad City after rain EID 2011 –Increase in traffic caused increase in DCR. . Increase in TCH Traffic has also caused degradation in DCR. improvement in all KPIs was observed due to decrease in interference.Statistical Data: KPI TREND SAMPLE DCR was further degraded due to increase in “No of Call Drops due to Equipment failures and Abis drops. DCR degraded due to External Interference caused by Jammer installed in IGBE and PAF base. Total No of drops reduce but due to decrease in Ho attempts almost 8% of the total and DCR increased slight .

Drive Test Drive in Car with Testing Equipment Tems Downlink Only Real time Network Performance Picture Customer Complains PRE Rx Level Sub DT KPIs      Rx Level ((Idle /Dedicated mode) TA (dedicated Mode) Rx Quality(dedicated Mode) SQI (dedicated Mode) MOS (dedicated Mode) Post Rx Level Sub .

TEMS SNAPSHOT .

BAND COMPARISON GSM 900  GSM 1800  Low Propagation Loss  High Penetration Loss  More Coverage. High Propagation Loss  Low Penetration Loss  Less Coverage.  Better in densely populated area like cities and urban environment. . More Quality  GSM 1800 can occupy more users with in less range as compared to GSM 900. Less Quality  GSM 900 has less channels  Better in rural area where a lot of area is required to be covered.

Video Streaming. Web . Mobil TV Best Effort service .2K CS 64K PS 64K Supporting Services Voice Video Phone Email. Web PS 384K HSPA Email.SERVICE AND BEARER TYPES Channel Type CS 12.

avoiding mixedBTS-distribution networking  Usually uplink-limited coverage  CS and high-speed PS services available   GSM GSM FDMA + TDMA  Carrier bandwidth 200KHz  Hard capacity  No soft handover or fast power control  Relatively easy interference control  Mixed-BTS-distribution networking to boost capacity  Cell radius determined by link budget of balanced uplink and downlink  CS and low-speed PS services . the key lying in interference control  Cell respiration effect.Major differences between UMTS and GSM technologies and network planning UMTS Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  Carrier bandwidth 5MHz  Soft capacity  Soft handover and fast power control  Self-interfering system.

Large-scale projects require automation of recursive and repetitive tasks and manually handling is highly discouraged.RF TOOLS AND AUTOMATION RF Tools & Automation: No process can survive for longer term is executed on manual basis. Similar approach is adopted in ZTE and RF performance and auditing tools have been established to automate periodic tasks and reduce wastage of man power and hence in turn improve time and resource efficiency. Our Project is to develop an intelligent and integrated platform for monitoring and optimizing wireless Network performance .

But we can change it if required. .TOOL DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT Raw Excel data Automated Reports and Exports SQl Server Optimization Activities Monitoring Process Problem Identifications Idea is to develop interface on C# and Database in SQL Server 2010.

NSN…… Export Network Level KPI Stats by merging Multi-Vendor data on different Levels a. Import KPI (Key Performance Data Index) of Multi Vendors e-g ZTE. Customized Alarm Reports 11. Huawei. 10. Parameter Discrepancy Audits from Parameter Database 7. Import Alarms Raw data and Generate useful User-friendly Report.FUNCTIONS 1. Neighbor Relation Discrepancies 8. Day Average KPIs with Customize Hours c. Site Info Database 5. Import Parameter from Raw form 6. Hourly KPIS b. Bouncing Busy Hour KPIs 2. Worst Cell Calculation on customize time level at customize time Interval 4. Hardware Trouble Tickets Database 9. Graphical Display of KPIs on all Level at all possible time intervals. Customized KPI Reports . Static Busy Hour KPIs d. 3.