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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION

Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson

Chapter 10

Photosynthesis

Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere
• Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy • Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world

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• Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms • Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules • Almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules

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Figure 10.1

• Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes • These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world

BioFlix: Photosynthesis
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Figure 10.2

(a) Plants

(b) Multicellular alga

(d) Cyanobacteria (c) Unicellular protists 10 m (e) Purple sulfur 1 m bacteria

40 m

Figure 10.2a (a) Plants .

2b (b) Multicellular alga .Figure 10.

2c (c) Unicellular protists 10 m .Figure 10.

Figure 10.2d (d) Cyanobacteria 40 m .

Figure 10.2e (e) Purple sulfur bacteria 1 m .

depend on photoautotrophs for food and O2 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. . including humans.• Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms • Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere • Almost all heterotrophs.

. Inc.• The Earth’s supply of fossil fuels was formed from the remains of organisms that died hundreds of millions of years ago • In a sense. fossil fuels represent stores of solar energy from the distant past © 2011 Pearson Education.

3 .Figure 10.

Inc.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food • Chloroplasts are structurally similar to and likely evolved from photosynthetic bacteria • The structural organization of these cells allows for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis © 2011 Pearson Education. .Concept 10.

the green pigment within chloroplasts • Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll. the interior tissue of the leaf • Each mesophyll cell contains 30–40 chloroplasts © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants • Leaves are the major locations of photosynthesis • Their green color is from chlorophyll. .

. thylakoids may be stacked in columns called grana • Chloroplasts also contain stroma.• CO2 enters and O2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata • The chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids (connected sacs in the chloroplast). Inc. a dense interior fluid © 2011 Pearson Education.

Figure 10.4 Leaf cross section Chloroplasts Vein Mesophyll Stomata Chloroplast CO2 O2 Mesophyll cell Thylakoid Stroma Granum Thylakoid space Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane 20 m 1 m .

Figure 10.4a Leaf cross section Chloroplasts Vein Mesophyll Stomata Chloroplast CO2 O2 Mesophyll cell 20 m .

Figure 10.4b Chloroplast Thylakoid Stroma Granum Thylakoid space Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane 1 m .

4c Mesophyll cell 20 m .Figure 10.

4d Stroma Granum 1 m .Figure 10.

Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry • Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions that can be summarized as the following equation: 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

. Inc.The Splitting of Water • Chloroplasts split H2O into hydrogen and oxygen. incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules and releasing oxygen as a by-product © 2011 Pearson Education.

5 Reactants: 6 CO2 12 H2O Products: C6H12O6 6 H2O 6 O2 .Figure 10.

the energy boost is provided by light © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .Photosynthesis as a Redox Process • Photosynthesis reverses the direction of electron flow compared to respiration • Photosynthesis is a redox process in which H2O is oxidized and CO2 is reduced • Photosynthesis is an endergonic process.

UN01 becomes reduced Energy  6 CO2  6 H2O C6 H12 O6  6 O2 becomes oxidized .Figure 10.

.The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview • Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions (the photo part) and Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) • The light reactions (in the thylakoids) – – – – Split H2O Release O2 Reduce NADP+ to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

• The Calvin cycle (in the stroma) forms sugar from CO2. using ATP and NADPH • The Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation. . incorporating CO2 into organic molecules © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

6-1 H2O Light NADP ADP + Pi Light Reactions Chloroplast .Figure 10.

6-2 H2O Light NADP ADP + Pi Light Reactions ATP NADPH Chloroplast O2 .Figure 10.

6-3 H2O CO2 Light NADP ADP + Pi Light Reactions ATP Calvin Cycle NADPH Chloroplast O2 .Figure 10.

6-4 H2O CO2 Light NADP ADP + Pi Light Reactions ATP Calvin Cycle NADPH Chloroplast O2 [CH2O] (sugar) .Figure 10.

. Inc.Concept 10.2: The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH • Chloroplasts are solar-powered chemical factories • Their thylakoids transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education.

The Nature of Sunlight • Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. light travels in rhythmic waves • Wavelength is the distance between crests of waves • Wavelength determines the type of electromagnetic energy © 2011 Pearson Education. . also called electromagnetic radiation • Like other electromagnetic energy. Inc.

Inc. or radiation • Visible light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see • Light also behaves as though it consists of discrete particles. .• The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy. called photons © 2011 Pearson Education.

Figure 10.7 105 nm 103 nm 1 nm 103 nm 106 nm 1m (109 nm) 103 m Gamma X-rays rays UV Infrared Microwaves Radio waves Visible light 380 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm Shorter wavelength Higher energy Longer wavelength Lower energy .

Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors • Pigments are substances that absorb visible light • Different pigments absorb different wavelengths • Wavelengths that are not absorbed are reflected or transmitted • Leaves appear green because chlorophyll reflects and transmits green light Animation: Light and Pigments © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

8 Light Reflected light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light .Figure 10.

• A spectrophotometer measures a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths • This machine sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

9 TECHNIQUE Refracting Chlorophyll Photoelectric solution tube White prism Galvanometer light Slit moves to pass light of selected wavelength. . Blue light Low transmittance (high absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs most blue light. Green light High transmittance (low absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs very little green light.Figure 10.

.• An absorption spectrum is a graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength • The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis • An action spectrum profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a process © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

10 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids (a) Absorption spectra 400 500 600 Wavelength of light (nm) 700 Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O2 release) (b) Action spectrum 400 500 600 700 Aerobic bacteria Filament of alga (c) Engelmann’s experiment 400 500 600 700 .RESULTS Absorption of light by chloroplast pigments Figure 10.

• The action spectrum of photosynthesis was first demonstrated in 1883 by Theodor W. he exposed different segments of a filamentous alga to different wavelengths • Areas receiving wavelengths favorable to photosynthesis produced excess O2 • He used the growth of aerobic bacteria clustered along the alga as a measure of O2 production © 2011 Pearson Education. Engelmann • In his experiment. . Inc.

such as chlorophyll b. broaden the spectrum used for photosynthesis • Accessory pigments called carotenoids absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophyll © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .• Chlorophyll a is the main photosynthetic pigment • Accessory pigments.

11 CH3 CH3 in chlorophyll a CHO in chlorophyll b Porphyrin ring Hydrocarbon tail (H atoms not shown) .Figure 10.

giving off light and heat © 2011 Pearson Education.Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light • When a pigment absorbs light. an afterglow called fluorescence • If illuminated. . it goes from a ground state to an excited state. photons are given off. an isolated solution of chlorophyll will fluoresce. Inc. which is unstable • When excited electrons fall back to the ground state.

Figure 10.12 e Energy of electron Excited state Heat Photon (fluorescence) Photon Chlorophyll molecule Ground state (a) Excitation of isolated chlorophyll molecule (b) Fluorescence .

12a (b) Fluorescence .Figure 10.

A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with Light-Harvesting Complexes • A photosystem consists of a reaction-center complex (a type of protein complex) surrounded by light-harvesting complexes • The light-harvesting complexes (pigment molecules bound to proteins) transfer the energy of photons to the reaction center © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

Figure 10.13 Photosystem Photon Lightharvesting complexes Reactioncenter complex STROMA Primary electron acceptor Thylakoid membrane e Transfer of energy Pigment Special pair of molecules chlorophyll a molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Thylakoid membrane Chlorophyll STROMA Protein subunits (b) Structure of photosystem II THYLAKOID SPACE (a) How a photosystem harvests light .

13a Photosystem Photon Lightharvesting complexes Reactioncenter complex STROMA Primary electron acceptor Thylakoid membrane e Transfer of energy Pigment Special pair of molecules chlorophyll a molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) (a) How a photosystem harvests light .Figure 10.

Figure 10.13b Thylakoid membrane Chlorophyll STROMA Protein subunits (b) Structure of photosystem II THYLAKOID SPACE .

• A primary electron acceptor in the reaction center accepts excited electrons and is reduced as a result • Solar-powered transfer of an electron from a chlorophyll a molecule to the primary electron acceptor is the first step of the light reactions © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

• There are two types of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane • Photosystem II (PS II) functions first (the numbers reflect order of discovery) and is best at absorbing a wavelength of 680 nm • The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS II is called P680 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

• Photosystem I (PS I) is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700 nm • The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS I is called P700 © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

Inc. involves both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy © 2011 Pearson Education. . the primary pathway.Linear Electron Flow • During the light reactions. there are two possible routes for electron flow: cyclic and linear • Linear electron flow.

. Inc.• A photon hits a pigment and its energy is passed among pigment molecules until it excites P680 • An excited electron from P680 is transferred to the primary electron acceptor (we now call it P680+) © 2011 Pearson Education.

Figure 10.14-1 Primary acceptor e 2 P680 1 Light Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II) .

. Inc.• P680+ is a very strong oxidizing agent • H2O is split by enzymes. and the electrons are transferred from the hydrogen atoms to P680+. thus reducing it to P680 • O2 is released as a by-product of this reaction © 2011 Pearson Education.

14-2 Primary acceptor H2O 3 2 H + 1/ O 2 2 e 2 e e P680 1 Light Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II) .Figure 10.

.• Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS II to PS I • Energy released by the fall drives the creation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane • Diffusion of H+ (protons) across the membrane drives ATP synthesis © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

14-3 Primary acceptor H2O 3 4 2 1/ 2 H + O2 e 2 Pq Cytochrome complex Pc 5 e e P680 1 Light ATP Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II) .Figure 10.

which loses an electron to an electron acceptor • P700+ (P700 that is missing an electron) accepts an electron passed down from PS II via the electron transport chain © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.• In PS I (like PS II). . transferred light energy excites P700.

Figure 10.14-4 Primary acceptor H2O 3 4 Primary acceptor e 2 1/ 2 H + O2 e 2 Pq Cytochrome complex Pc e e P680 5 P700 Light 6 1 Light ATP Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II) Photosystem I (PS I) .

. Inc.• Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS I to the protein ferredoxin (Fd) • The electrons are then transferred to NADP+ and reduce it to NADPH • The electrons of NADPH are available for the reactions of the Calvin cycle • This process also removes an H+ from the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education.

Figure 10.14-5 Primary acceptor H2O 3 4 Primary acceptor e Fd e  e 7 2 H e 2 Pq Cytochrome complex Pc 8 + 1/ O 2 2 NADP reductase NADP + H NADPH e e P680 5 P700 Light 6 1 Light ATP Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II) Photosystem I (PS I) .

Figure 10.15 e e e e Mill makes ATP e NADPH e e ATP Photosystem II Photosystem I .

satisfying the higher demand in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education.Cyclic Electron Flow • Cyclic electron flow uses only photosystem I and produces ATP. but not NADPH • No oxygen is released • Cyclic electron flow generates surplus ATP. . Inc.

Figure 10.16 Primary acceptor Fd Primary acceptor Fd NADP + H NADPH Pc Pq Cytochrome complex NADP reductase Photosystem I Photosystem II ATP .

. Inc.• Some organisms such as purple sulfur bacteria have PS I but not PS II • Cyclic electron flow is thought to have evolved before linear electron flow • Cyclic electron flow may protect cells from light-induced damage © 2011 Pearson Education.

but use different sources of energy • Mitochondria transfer chemical energy from food to ATP. . Inc. chloroplasts transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP • Spatial organization of chemiosmosis differs between chloroplasts and mitochondria but also shows similarities © 2011 Pearson Education.A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria • Chloroplasts and mitochondria generate ATP by chemiosmosis.

protons are pumped to the intermembrane space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix • In chloroplasts. protons are pumped into the thylakoid space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education. .• In mitochondria. Inc.

17 Mitochondrion Chloroplast MITOCHONDRION STRUCTURE CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE H Electron transport chain ATP synthase Diffusion Thylakoid space Thylakoid membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Matrix ADP  P i Key Higher Lower [H ] [H ] H ATP Stroma .Figure 10.

. Inc. light reactions generate ATP and increase the potential energy of electrons by moving them from H2O to NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education. where the Calvin cycle takes place • In summary.• ATP and NADPH are produced on the side facing the stroma.

18 STROMA (low H concentration) Photosystem II Light 4 H+ Cytochrome complex Photosystem I Light Fd Pq NADP reductase 3 NADP + H NADPH H2O 2 1 1/ 2 Pc O2 4 H+ THYLAKOID SPACE (high H concentration) +2 H+ To Calvin Cycle Thylakoid membrane STROMA (low H concentration) ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP H+ .Figure 10.

regenerates its starting material after molecules enter and leave the cycle • The cycle builds sugar from smaller molecules by using ATP and the reducing power of electrons carried by NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education.3: The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar • The Calvin cycle. like the citric acid cycle.Concept 10. . Inc.

Inc.• Carbon enters the cycle as CO2 and leaves as a sugar named glyceraldehyde 3-phospate (G3P) • For net synthesis of 1 G3P. fixing 3 molecules of CO2 • The Calvin cycle has three phases – Carbon fixation (catalyzed by rubisco) – Reduction – Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP) © 2011 Pearson Education. the cycle must take place three times. .

19-1 Input 3 (Entering one CO2 at a time) Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3 P Short-lived intermediate P 3P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P 6 P 3-Phosphoglycerate .Figure 10.

19-2 Input 3 (Entering one CO2 at a time) Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3 P Short-lived intermediate P 3P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P 6 P 3-Phosphoglycerate 6 6 ADP ATP Calvin Cycle 6 P P 1.Figure 10.3-Bisphosphoglycerate 6 NADPH 6 NADP 6 Pi 6 P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) Phase 2: Reduction 1 G3P (a sugar) Output P Glucose and other organic compounds .

19-3 Input 3 (Entering one CO2 at a time) Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3 P Short-lived intermediate P 3P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P 6 P 3-Phosphoglycerate 6 6 ADP ATP 3 ADP 3 ATP Calvin Cycle 6 P P 1.Figure 10.3-Bisphosphoglycerate 6 NADPH Phase 3: Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP) 6 NADP 6 Pi 5 G3P P 6 P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) Phase 2: Reduction 1 G3P (a sugar) Output P Glucose and other organic compounds .

Concept 10.4: Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates
• Dehydration is a problem for plants, sometimes requiring trade-offs with other metabolic processes, especially photosynthesis • On hot, dry days, plants close stomata, which conserves H2O but also limits photosynthesis • The closing of stomata reduces access to CO2 and causes O2 to build up • These conditions favor an apparently wasteful process called photorespiration
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Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic?
• In most plants (C3 plants), initial fixation of CO2, via rubisco, forms a three-carbon compound (3-phosphoglycerate) • In photorespiration, rubisco adds O2 instead of CO2 in the Calvin cycle, producing a twocarbon compound • Photorespiration consumes O2 and organic fuel and releases CO2 without producing ATP or sugar

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• Photorespiration may be an evolutionary relic because rubisco first evolved at a time when the atmosphere had far less O2 and more CO2 • Photorespiration limits damaging products of light reactions that build up in the absence of the Calvin cycle • In many plants, photorespiration is a problem because on a hot, dry day it can drain as much as 50% of the carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle

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it can fix CO2 even when CO2 concentrations are low • These four-carbon compounds are exported to bundle-sheath cells. Inc. . where they release CO2 that is then used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education.C4 Plants • C4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration by incorporating CO2 into four-carbon compounds in mesophyll cells • This step requires the enzyme PEP carboxylase • PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for CO2 than rubisco does.

20 C4 leaf anatomy Mesophyll cell Photosynthetic cells of C4 Bundleplant leaf sheath cell Vein (vascular tissue) The C4 pathway Mesophyll cell PEP carboxylase CO2 Oxaloacetate (4C) Malate (4C) PEP (3C) ADP ATP Stoma Bundlesheath cell Pyruvate (3C) CO2 Calvin Cycle Sugar Vascular tissue .Figure 10.

Figure 10.20a C4 leaf anatomy Photosynthetic cells of C4 plant leaf Mesophyll cell Bundlesheath cell Vein (vascular tissue) Stoma .

20b The C4 pathway Mesophyll cell PEP carboxylase CO2 Oxaloacetate (4C) Malate (4C) PEP (3C) ADP ATP Pyruvate (3C) Bundlesheath cell CO2 Calvin Cycle Sugar Vascular tissue .Figure 10.

• In the last 150 years since the Industrial Revolution. CO2 levels have risen greatly • Increasing levels of CO2 may affect C3 and C4 plants differently. . perhaps changing the relative abundance of these species • The effects of such changes are unpredictable and a cause for concern © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

including succulents. incorporating CO2 into organic acids • Stomata close during the day. use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to fix carbon • CAM plants open their stomata at night. and CO2 is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education. .CAM Plants • Some plants. Inc.

21 Sugarcane C4 Mesophyll Organic acid cell CO2 Bundlesheath cell Calvin Cycle Sugar (a) Spatial separation of steps CO2 Pineapple CAM 1 CO2 incorporated (carbon fixation) Organic acid CO2 Night CO2 2 CO2 released to the Calvin cycle Calvin Cycle Sugar Day (b) Temporal separation of steps .Figure 10.

21a Sugarcane .Figure 10.

21b Pineapple .Figure 10.

seeds. . Inc. photosynthesis produces the O2 in our atmosphere © 2011 Pearson Education.The Importance of Photosynthesis: A Review • The energy entering chloroplasts as sunlight gets stored as chemical energy in organic compounds • Sugar made in the chloroplasts supplies chemical energy and carbon skeletons to synthesize the organic molecules of cells • Plants store excess sugar as starch in structures such as roots. tubers. and fruits • In addition to food production.

22 H2O CO2 Light NADP ADP + Pi Light Reactions: Photosystem II Electron transport chain Photosystem I Electron transport chain RuBP 3-Phosphoglycerate Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH Chloroplast O2 G3P Starch (storage) Sucrose (export) .Figure 10.

Figure 10.UN02 Primary acceptor H2O O2 Pq Cytochrome complex Primary acceptor Fd NADP reductase NADP + H NADPH Pc Photosystem II ATP Photosystem I .

Figure 10.UN03 3 CO2 Carbon fixation 3  5C Calvin Cycle Regeneration of CO2 acceptor 5  3C 6  3C Reduction 1 G3P (3C) .

UN04 pH 7 pH 4 pH 4 pH 8 ATP .Figure 10.

UN05 .Figure 10.

Figure 10.UN06 .

Figure 10.UN07 .

UN08 .Figure 10.