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TECTONIC EXAM QUESTIONS

Discuss the demographic and social impacts of one or more tectonic events.

What are social impacts?

Possible Approaches
1. A comparison of the Japanese (2011) and Pakistan Earthquakes (2005). MEDC-LEDC.

Japan 2011
Background

Pacific plate subducting under the Eurasian plate HDI Magnitude 9.03 (Mw) (Life Ex, education, 11 March 2011 income) Most powerful earthquake to ever hit Japan Rank 12th Occurred at a shallow depth of 32km Triggered tsunami waves up to 40 metres high The earthquake moved Honshu (the main island of Japan) 2.4m east and shifted the Earth on its axis by 10-25cm Sendai was the nearest city to the epicentre The Earthquake Early Warning system was sounded 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, one minute before the big quake hit Tokyo. This significantly reduced the social impacts. Thousands of aftershocks followed
http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_60 6921&feature=iv&src_vid=Wu6Gqph-Aw8&v=qqwEhx2vDm8

Japan 2011
Social Impacts

Nearly 16,000 confirmed dead 6,000 injured, nearly 3,000 missing Approximately 130,000 buildings totally collapsed, generating 24-25 million tonnes of rubble Nuclear reactors exploded at the Fukushima Power Plant, causing additional residents to be evacuated within 20km Soil liquefaction contributed to property damages Electricity was cut off for most of Northern Japan (4.4m homes) Sendai airport was flooded by the tsunami. Rail expressway was closed for weeks (road, rail, air and port damaged) 101 Tsunami evacuation zones were destroyed by the tsunami 11 hospitals completely destroyed Oil refineries caught on fire. Energy prices to go up. Stone monuments at the UNESCO Heritage Site were damaged. Heritage building destroyed.

Pakistan 2005
Background

8 October 2005 Magnitude 7.6Mw Collision of the Eurasian and Indo-Australian Tectonic Plates This is the same boundary responsible for the Himalayan Mountain Range 978 aftershocks
HDI Rank 145th (187)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrDjoJPxfk8

Impacts
75,000 deaths in Pakistan Less access to healthcare and technology to assist the wounded Lack of emergency services Severe damage to infrastructure and communication Heightened sense of religion- Islam Poor construction of buildings Saturday school day During the month of Ramadan so many people were at home

Comparison
The Earthquake in Japan was greater (9.03Mw) but the social impact in terms of fatalities was greater in Pakistan (59,000 more) Social fabric is different in Pakistan, poor quality housing, infrastructure, technology, roads, emergency services. Loss of some services, such as electricity, had a greater social impact in Japan- more developed country with a greater reliance on electricity.

Structure
Intro- overview Main Body- cause and social effect Conclusion- return to the question