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HOW THE UNIVERSE BEGAN
• Universe is a result of continuous which began many thousand years back. evolution • Other view maintains that the universe has no beginning and no end. • There are many more theories and speculations about origin about the universe like the Big Bang Theory.
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• Space is full of amazing sights. • Some planets can be seen by our own eyes like the moon, sun. • The space is made up of planets, comets, meteors, galaxies, milky ways, stars, constellations, satellites, space probes, two vast bands of drifting rocks called the asteroid belt and the kuiper belt.
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• There are many types of planets like some are frozen, some are very hot, some have water in frozen form but our Earth is the only planet which has water in liquid form and has a moderate climate for the survival of the life. • Each planet has different type of atmosphere.
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PLANETS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. MERCURY VENUS EARTH MARS JUPITER SATURN URANUS NEPTUNE PLUTO
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• Now you know about the planets and now you will read name of nine planets which are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
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• Inner planets. • So they are-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. • The definition of inner planets is the four planets which are closest to the sun are called inner planets. • Outer planets. • So they are-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. • The planets which are farther from sun are called outer planets.
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• The planet closest to the sun means Mercury. it’s the second hottest planet. • It is red in color because of the rays of the sun. • As the rays of the sun first come to Mercury, rays make planet Mercury hotter. • It’s temperature during day is 400 degree and -200 degree during night

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• Venus is the hottest planet. • It is the hottest planet because of it’s thick clouds. • These clouds trap a lot of heat which consists of droplets of acids. • It is the second planet to be closest to sun. • It is called the brightest planet.
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• Do you know, the distance between Earth and sun is 150 million kilometers. • Earth is made up of many things like gas, dust, water, rocks etc. • Earth is the only planet where the life exists. • Only Earth is the planet where water is present in liquid form.
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• Earth is called unique planet. • It’s a home of more than 7000000000 people. • It is also a home of animals, insects, plants and trees etc. • Earth also has the gravitational force. • It has water in liquid form which help in many things and to make minerals. NEXT >>>> March 3, 2008 12 PLANETS Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman

• Mars, as the fourth planet closest to the sun. • Mars is also hot but not so hot . • Scientists believe that there is a possibility of existence of life. • It also has reddish look and it is called red planet. PLANETS Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman NEXT >>>> March 3, 2008 13

• Jupiter is the largest planet in the universe. • Size compared of Jupiter with Earth, 1300 Earths can be easily fitted in one Jupiter. • It is a cold planet. • It has 63 moons. NEXT >>>> March 3, 2008 Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman 14 PLANETS

• Saturn is the second largest planet in the universe. • It has several wide rings made up of ice, dust, rocks etc. • These rings also help planet Saturn to revolve around the sun. • Saturn also has cold climate. PLANETS NEXT >>>> March 3, 2008 Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman 15

• This planet spins on its side. • Its outer surface is cloaked by a thin mist, which wraps around a thick gassy surface. • Further, inside, the planet Uranus has a core of a solid rocks. PLANETS March 3, 2008
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• Neptune has the worst storms in the solar system. • Winds of 2,000kph. whip clouds of methane around the planet. • Do you know? planet Neptune has eleven satellites .
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• Pluto, the smallest and the farthest planet in the universe. • It takes two and a half centuries to make one round around the sun or one revolution around the sun on it’s orbit. • Pluto is the coldest planet in the universe. • But now, in year 2007, scientists have proved that planet Pluto is not a planet, it is a meteor.

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• • • • • • • • • •

To remember planets MY = MERCURY VERY = VENUS EDUCATED = EARTH MOTHER = MARS JUST = JUPITER SHOW = SATURN US = URANUS NINE = NEPTUNE PLANETS = PLUTO NEXT >>>> 19

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• The main source of life, the main source of light, the main source of warmth, the main source of possibility of existence of life on various planets means the sun. • Like all the stars, sun is also a massive ball of exploding gas. • Do you know? Sun has small sunspots on it.
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• The sun makes sunlight by burning four million tones of fuel every second. • You can see in this picture that sun’s surface is churning mass of explosions.

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• The earth has a single satellite, moon that orbits it a distance of about 384,00k.m. • Most moons are tiny compared to the objects they orbit, but our moon is a quarter of the Earth’s surface. • The moon is kept in the orbit by the pull of the Earth’s gravity.
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• Now you will read about meteors. • The are made up of dust, gases, rocks etc. • If they fall on earth, they will destroy a large part of the planet Earth. • A meteor is called a “shooting” star. • Meteors are the smallest bodies of the solar system. NEXT • A3, brilliant meteor:-Shubham , Namanpreet fire ball. >>>> March 2008 Made by is called a ,Naman 25

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• Asteroids are lumps of rocks and metal. • Between Mars and Jupiter lies a large band of them, called the ASTEROID BELT. • The biggest one asteroid belt is Ceres and is about 975 kilometer long. • Some asteroids have their own very little moons.
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• There are many famous people which had been gone to outer space {specially from the Indian region} for example Rakesh Sharma, he was the first person from Indian region to go in the space. the first Indian woman astronomer to go to space was Kalpna Chawla but now she is no more because of her rocket as her rocket got damaged and got fired.
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• A day is the time, it takes for a planet to spin around once. • A year is the time takes for a planet to go all the way around the sun. • The planet Earth’s year lasts up to three hundred sixty five and a half days.
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• Most planets have an atmosphere- a layer of gas which covers the surface of a planet. • The planet Earth’s atmosphere is made up of air. • It stretches 400 kilometer above us. • It provides air to breathe, and helps us to protect from the sun’s heat.
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• As well as light and heat, the sun also sends out streams of invisible specks, called particles. This is called solar wind. • When the particles pass by the North and south poles of the Earth, they can make glow the air like beautiful reds, blues, greens and purples. • These lights glow in North and south poles
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• A galaxy is a very large group of thousands of stars. • It is a very wonderful ,mysterious and complete starsystem in itself. • For example, our galaxy, popularly known as Milky way. NEXT >>>> Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman 33

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• • • • • • • •

Now will read the types of galaxiesMilky way galaxy Spiral galaxy Barred spiral galaxy Elliptical galaxy Irregular galaxy Cartwheel galaxy Magellanic galaxy
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• Compared with other galaxies , the milky is relatively large, measuring about 100,000 light years across. The Earth and the solar system lie about 32,000 light years from the middle of Milky way. • Most of the astronomers believe that the Milky way is a spiral galaxy, some describe it as a barred spiral galaxy. It got it’s name from ancient time as ancient people believe that milk is spilled in the sky. NEXT >>>> March 3, 2008 Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman 37

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• A star is a ball of hot glowing gases. • There are more than 6,000 stars that can be seen by naked eyes in night. • They all belong to our galaxy, Milky way. • We can see few stars with naked eyes but there are few stars of billions and billions of stars scattered throughout the universe.
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• The types of the stars• Stars formed in a cloud of dust and gas are called nebulae. • Stars formed in clouds of dust and gas but are dark and are called dark nebulae.
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• • • • • • • •

Together stars are called constellations. Constellations Apparent Magnitude Canis Major 1.4 Canis Minor 0.4 Carina 0.7 Centaurus 0.1 Bootes 0.1 Auriga 0.1 0.04 Made by :-Shubham , Namanpreet ,Naman 46 0.1 NEXT >>>>

• Lyra March 3, 2008 • Orion

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• The names of constellations are• Canis major • Canis minor • Carina • Centaurus • Bootes • Lyra • Auriga • Orion
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• Stars began born and dying every day. The biggest star is estimated to have a life-span of about 10 million years and sun also have this life. When they fall, they are transformed into red giants, black holes etc. • They are of many shapes ex. Giant, tint etc. The stages of star life depend on it’s size.
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• Astronomy, one of the oldest branch of science, is the study of universe beyond the atmosphere of the Earth. • Because of Astronomy, scientists had founded many things in universe like Halley’s comet, meteors, other planets, milky ways, stars, constellations, black holes, natural satellites galaxies etc.
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• A comet is a large ball, made up of mainly dust, debris and ice. • As the comet comes near the sun during it’s orbit, it gets warmed up and then releases huge amounts of dust and gas which form a long bushy tail because of the sun’s gravitation. • They come in from outer edge of the solar system to circle the sun.
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• The Big Bang Theory created a huge fireball, which cooled and formed into tiny particles. Every thing in the universe is made up of these tiny particles, called matter. • Do you know that the Big Bang Theory was a weak signal like a echo, had been detected from space by powerful radio telescopes.
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• As well as many planets and moons, the solar system also contains millions of smaller objects, called asteroids, comets and meteoroids. They are believed to be pieces of debris left over from the birth of universe called space debris.
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• A pulling force, called gravity may eventually slow down the expansion of the universe. It will pull up everything back until the galaxies crash. • There would be a Big Crunch, like the Big Bang in reverse. • This is theory is known as Big Crunch Theory.
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Q. Name all nine planets ? • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Q. What is comet ? • A comet is a large ball, made up of mainly dust debris and ice Q. What is astronomy ? A. Astronomy is a study of universe
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Q. Name all the types of galaxies ? • Spiral galaxy, Barred galaxy , Elliptical galaxy , irregular galaxy, Cartwheel galaxy, Magllenic galaxy Q. What is galaxy made up of ? • Galaxy is made up of thousands of stars Q. What is solar wind ? A. As well as heat and light , the sun also send out streams of invisible specs called particles. This is called solar wind
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Q. What is asteroids ? B. Asteroids are lumps of rocks & metals Q. What is the name of satellite of the Earth ? • Aryabhatta Q. Is there is any end of universe ? A. No
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A

Universe ki aakhee bhulbhulaiya, solar sys universe ki galiyon main I keep looking for all nine planets. Earth main ham rehteh hain kyon ki earth ko watery planet kehte hain, earth has one satellite all they all my nights Hare stars hare stars, hare moon hare stars.
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