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Project management

MEM 612 Project Management

PERT AND CPM NETWORKS

MEM 612 Project Management

Project Scheduling
Identifying relationships among activities Project network diagrams Identifying critical paths and critical activities Determining activity slack times Gantt charts Project scheduling exercise Management of project schedules

Part 5 - Project Scheduling

3 MEM 612 Project Management

Project Scheduling
Split project into tasks (= create a WBS) Estimate time and resources required to complete each task. Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.
MEM 612 Project Management

.Project Scheduling..
The scheduling process

Identify activities

Identify activity dependencies

Estimate resources for activities

Allocate people to activities

Create project charts

Software requirements

Activity charts and bar charts

MEM 612 Project Management

Estimation
The single most important task of a project: setting realistic expectations. Unrealistic expectations based on inaccurate estimates are the single largest cause of failure.
Futrell, Shafer, Shafer, Quality Software Project Management

MEM 612 Project Management

Estimation
Activities/task characterized by: Effort: how much work will the activity need to be completed Resources: how many resources will be working on the activity Duration: how long will the activity last for estimation technique provide (at least) two of the quantities specified above
MEM 612 Project Management

Effort
Your best shot for providing estimations (how complex/how much work does the activity require?) Measured in man/month (3 m-m = 1 person working for 3 months; 3 people working for one 1 month) Mind you though: communication increases the time to complete activities

MEM 612 Project Management

Duration
How much time will the activity last for Measured in (work-)hours, (work-)days, (work)months, Calendar time != duration: calendar time includes non-working days, holidays, Usually:
A duration of 5 days == 40 hours (8 hours a day) = 1 calendar week (sat and sun rest time)

MEM 612 Project Management

Scheduling
Once tasks (from the WBS) and size/effort (from estimation) are known: then schedule Primary objectives
Best time Least cost Least risk

Secondary objectives
Evaluation of schedule alternatives Effective use of resources Communications
MEM 612 Project Management

History
Late 1950s
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
U.S. Navy, Booz-Allen Hamilton, and Lockeheed Aircraft Probabilistic activity durations

Critical Path Method (CPM)


Dupont De Nemours Inc. Deterministic activity durations
MEM 612 Project Management

The Language of PERT/CPM


Activity
task or set of tasks use resources

Event
state resulting from completion of one or more activities consume no resources or time predecessor activities must be completed
MEM 612 Project Management

http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/W ebcourse-contents/IITDelhi/project%20and%20product ion%20management/

MEM 612 Project Management

The Language of PERT/CPM


continued
Milestones
events that mark significant progress

Network
diagram of nodes and arcs used to illustrate technological relationships

Path
series of connected activities between two events
MEM 612 Project Management

The Language of PERT/CPM


concluded
Critical Path
set of activities on a path that if delayed will delay completion of project

Critical Time
time required to complete all activities on the critical path

MEM 612 Project Management

Importance of Networks (pert, cpm)


Reduction in cost Saving of time Determination of activities Elimination of risk Easy supervision Flexibility Evaluation of alternatives Effective control Decision making Optimization Reduction in uncertainty Research

MEM 612 Project Management

Building the Network


AOA Network AON Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Table 5-1 A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences


Task
a b c d e f g

Predecessor
--a b b c, d e
MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-1 Stage 1 of a Sample AON Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-2 Stage 2 of a Sample AON Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-3 A Completed Sample AON Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-4 Stage 1 of a Sample AOA Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-5 Stage 2 of a Sample AOA Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-6a A Completed Sample AOA Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-6b A Completed Sample AOA Network Showing the Use of a Dummy Task

MEM 612 Project Management

Table 5-2 A Sample Problem for Finding the Critical Path and Critical Time
Activity a b c d e f g h i j Predecessor --a a a b, c d d, e f g, h Duration 5 days 4 3 4 6 4 5 6 6 4

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-7 Stage 1 of a Sample Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-8 A Complete Network

MEM 612 Project Management

Earliest start time (ES): the earliest time an activity can start Earliest finish time (EF): the earliest time an activity can finish (equals the activity's earliest start time plus the activity's duration time) Calculate ES and EF times by working forward through the network from beginning to end. Latest start time (LS): the latest time an activity can be started without delaying the entire project (equals the activity's latest finish time minus the activity's duration time) Latest finish time (LF): the latest time an activity can be finished without delaying the entire project (equals the minimum of the latest start times of all activities that start immediately after the activity being considered)
MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-9 Information Contents in an AON Node

MEM 612 Project Management

Calculating Activity Slack


Slack or Float
LST - EST = LFT - EFT = Slack

MEM 612 Project Management

PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Technique Based on idea that estimates are uncertain
Therefore uses duration ranges And the probability of falling to a given range

Uses an expected value (or weighted average) to determine durations Use the following methods to calculate the expected durations, then use as input to your network diagram

MEM 612 Project Management

PERT
Start with 3 estimates
Optimistic
Would likely occur 1 time in 20

Most likely
Modal value of the distribution

Pessimistic
Would be exceeded only one time in 20

MEM 612 Project Management

PERT Formula
Combined to estimate a task duration

MEM 612 Project Management

PERT
Advantages
Accounts for uncertainty

Disadvantages
Time and labor intensive Assumption of unlimited resources is big issue Lack of functional ownership of estimates Mostly only used on large, complex project

Get PERT software to calculate it for you

MEM 612 Project Management

CPM vs. PERT


Both use Network Diagrams CPM: deterministic PERT: probabilistic CPM: one estimate, PERT, three estimates

MEM 612 Project Management

THE GANNT CHART

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-23 A Gantt Chart of a Sample Project

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-24 A Gantt Chart of Sample Project Showing Critical Path, Path Connections, Slack, EST, LST, EFT, and LFT

MEM 612 Project Management

Crashing of projects Crashing refers to a particular variety of project schedule compression which is performed for the purposes of decreasing total period of time (also known as the total project schedule duration). The diminishing of the project duration typically take place after a careful and thorough analysis of all possible project duration minimization alternatives in which any and all methods to attain the maximum schedule duration for the least additional cost. There are a number of standard and typical approaches to attempting to crash a project schedule. One of the most commonly utilized methods of crashing a project schedule involves minimizing the schedule activity durations while, at the same time, increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities. Crashing is something which can be utilized to attempt to get the most value out of a project assignment. Essentially, it boils down to an attempt to get the most productivity out of the least time and expense. Crashing is also similar to schedule compression as well as schedule fast tracking.

MEM 612 Project Management

Figure 5-25 A Gantt Chart of a Day Care Project Showing Expected Durations, Critical Path, Milestone, and Resource Requirements

MEM 612 Project Management

Time cost relation

MEM 612 Project Management