DC
EV
EH
(Active)
ES
LS
Strength Ia 0.90 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.75
Strength Ib 1.25 1.35 1.50 1.50 1.75
Service I 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Load Definitions
DC dead load of structural components
and attachments
EV vertical pressure from dead load of
earth fill
EH horizontal earth pressure load
ES earth surcharge load
LS live load surcharge (transient load)
Surcharge Loads
Earth surcharge AASHTO Section
3.11.6.1 and 3.11.6.2
Live load surcharge AASHTO
3.11.6.4
Conventional Retaining Walls
Strength Limit States
Sliding
Bearing resistance
Eccentricity
Service Limit States
Vertical settlement
Lateral wall movement
Overall stability
External Failure Mechanisms
Sliding Failure Overturning Failure
Bearing Failure
DeepSeated
Sliding Failure
1
.
2
5
D
C
 
0
.
9
0
D
C
1
.
0
0
W
A
V
1
.
0
0
W
A
V
+o +o
1.50
EHcos(+o)
1.50
EHcos(+o)
1.50 EH
1.50 EH
1
.
3
5
E
V
1
.
0
0
E
V
1.50 EHsin(+o)
1.50 EHsin(+o)
1.00 WA
H
1.00 WA
H
Load Factors for
Bearing Resistance
Load Factors for
Sliding and Eccentricity
Load Factors for Conventional Walls
Conventional Walls  Summary
Use resistance factors for spread footings
or deep foundations, as appropriate
(Section 10.5)
Eccentricity limited to:
e/B < 0.25 for soil (compare to ASD 0.167)
e/B < 0.375 for rock (compare to ASD 0.25)
Nongravity Cantilevered Walls
Strength Limit States
Bearing resistance of embedded portion of wall
Passive resistance of embedded portion of wall
Flexural resistance of wall/facing elements
Service Limit States
Vertical wall movement
Lateral wall movement
Overall stability
Resistance Factors
Bearing Resistance
Passive Resistance
Flexural Resistance
Section 10.5
1.00
0.90
Code allows increase in Resistance Factors
for temporary walls but specific guidance is
not provided
Pressure Diagrams Discrete Elements
ASD
LRFD
Nongravity Cantilevered Walls
Below excavation line, multiply by 3b
on passive side of wall and 1b on active
side of wall for discrete elements
Look at forces separately below
excavation line on passive side and
active side (because different load
factors)
Factor embedment by 1.2 for
continuous wall elements
Do not factor embedment for discrete
wall elements (conservatism of 3b
assumption)
Nongravity Cantilevered Walls
Example
Cantilevered sheet pile wall retaining a
10ft deep cut in granular soils
Assume 36 ksi yield stress for sheet
pile
Compare required embedment depth
and structural section for ASD and
LRFD
Load Factor of 1.5 used for EH (active)
= 125 pcf
K
a
= 0.33
p
= 1.5
K
p
= 3
p
= 1
Factored P
a
=
p
* 0.5 * (L+10)
2
* K
a
*
Factored P
p
=
p
* 0.5 * L
2
* K
p
*
P
a
L
p
L
a
L
A
10'
P
p
Example Geometry
Example Results
Method M
max
(kft)
Embedment
(ft)
Section
Modulus
(in
3
/ft)
ASD 15.4 12.2 9.23 (S)
(elastic)
LRFD 29.2 12.2 10.83 (Z)
(plastic)
Since Z is about 1.15 to 1.20 times S,
similar section would be acceptable
Anchored Walls
Strength Limit States
Bearing resistance of embedded portion of wall
Passive resistance of embedded portion of wall
Flexural resistance of wall/facing elements
Ground anchor pullout
Tensile resistance of anchor tendon
Service Limit States
Same as nongravity cantilevered wall
Apparent Earth Pressure
Diagrams
Based on FHWAsponsored research
Builds upon wellknown TerzaghiPeck
envelopes
Appropriate for walls built in competent
ground where maximum wall height is
critical design case
Same diagram shape for single or
multileveled anchored walls
Recommended AEP for Sands
H
H
1
H
1
H
n
+
1
p
p
2
/
3
H
1
2
/
3
H
1
2
/
3
H
n
+
1
2
/
3
(
H

H
1
)
1
/
3
H
T
h1
T
h1
T
h2
T
hn
H
2
H
n
R
R
(a) Walls with one level
of ground anchors
(b) Walls with multiple
levels of ground anchors
H K
H
LOAD TOTAL
p
A
3
2
~ =
1 n 3
1
1 3
1
H H  H
LOAD TOTAL
p
+
=
Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile
Strength (GUTS)
Select tendon with:

>
n
T
GUTS

>
i i
Q
GUTS
LRFD Check on Tensile Breakage
Resistance Factors for Ground
Anchors Tensile Rupture
Resistance factors are applied to
maximum proof test load
For high strength steel, apply
resistance factor to GUTS
Mild Steel 0.90
High Strength Steel 0.80
Comparison to ASD
Tensile Rupture
ASD
0.8 GUTS > 1.33 Design Load
(DL = EH + LS)
0.8 GUTS > 1.33 EH + 1.33 LS
LRFD
 GUTS >
p
EH + 1.75 LS
0.8 GUTS > 1.5 EH + 1.75 LS
Maximum proof test load must be at least
equal to the factored load
Anchor Bond Length
a
n
b(min)
Q
T
L

=
L
b
= anchor bond length
T
n
= factored anchor load
Q
a
= nominal anchor pullout resistance
Nominal Anchor Pullout
Resistance
b a a
L d Q t t =
Q
a
= nominal anchor pullout capacity
d = anchor hole diameter
t
a
= nominal anchor bond stress
L
b
= anchor bond length
Preliminary Evaluation Only
Bond stress values in AASHTO
should be used for FEASIBILITY
evaluation
AASHTO values for cohesionless
and cohesive soil and rock
Anchor/Soil Type
(Grout Pressure)
Soil Compactness or SPT
Resistance
Presumptive
Ultimate Bond
Stress, t
n
(ksf)
Gravity Grouted Anchors
(<50 psi)
Sand or SandGravel Mixtures
Medium Dense to Dense 1150
1.5 to 2.9
Pressure Grouted Anchors
(50 to 400 psi)
Fine to Medium Sand
Medium to Coarse Sand w/Gravel
Silty Sands
Sandy Gravel
Glacial Till
Medium Dense to Dense 1150
Medium Dense 1130
Dense to Very Dense 3050

Medium Dense to Dense 1140
Dense to Very Dense 4050+
Dense 3150
1.7 to 7.9
2.3 to 14
5.2 to 20
3.5 to 8.5
4.4 to 29
5.8 to 29
6.3 to 11
Presumptive Nominal Bond Stress
in Cohesionless Soils
Resistance Factors
Anchor Pullout
1) Using presumptive values for preliminary
design only
2) Where proof tests conducted to at least 1.0
times the factored anchor load
Cohesionless (Granular)
Soils
0.65
(1)
Cohesive Soils 0.70
(1)
Rock 0.50
(1)
Where Proof Tests Preformed 1.00
(2)
FS 1
LS
EH
(ASD) L
b(min)

.

\

+ =


.

\

+
=
1.75
LS
EH
1.5
(LRFD) L
b(min)
L
R
F
D
/
A
S
D
1.05
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0 5 10 15 20
Dead Load / Live Load
Rock (FS = 3.0,  = 0.50)
Sand (FS = 2.5,  = 0.65)
Clay (FS = 2.5,  = 0.70)
Comparison to ASD
Anchor Pullout
Final Anchor Design
Section 11.9.4.2 Anchor Pullout
Capacity
For final design, the contract documents
shall require that verification tests or
pullout tests on sacrificial anchors in each
soil unit be conducted
Different than current ASD practice, but
intent is not to require, in general, pullout
testing
Bearing Resistance of Wall
Element
Assume all vertical loads carried by portion
of wall below excavation level
Code refers designer to section on spread or
deep foundations for analysis methods
Resistance factors used are for static
capacity evaluation of piles or shafts (i.e.,  =
0.3 to 0.5 ~ FS ~ 3.0 to 4.5)
Resistance factors should be modified to
correlate to FS = 2.0 to 2.5 for bearing
resistance evaluation
MSE Walls
Strength Limit States
Same external stability checks as for
conventional gravity walls
Tensile resistance of reinforcement
Pullout resistance of reinforcement
Structural resistance of face elements and face
element connection
Service Limits States
Same as for conventional gravity walls
MSE Walls External Stability
MSE Walls Internal Stability
Check pullout and tensile
resistance at each reinforcement
level and compare to maximum
factored load, T
max
Apply factored load to the
reinforcements
o
H
= factored horizontal soil stress
at reinforcement (ksf)
S
v
= vertical spacing of
reinforcement
v H max
S T =
AASHTO 11.10.6.2.12
Maximum Factored Load
Factored Horizontal Stresses
Factored Horizontal Stress
P
= load factor (=1.35 for EV)
k
r
= pressure coefficient
o
V
= pressure due to resultant of
gravity forces from soil self weight
Ao
H
= horizontal stress
( )
H r V P H
k + =
AASHTO 11.10.6.2.11
T
al
= Nominal longterm
reinforcement design strength
 = Resistance factor for tensile
resistance
c al max
R T T  s
AASHTO 11.10.6.4.11
Reinforcement Tensile
Resistance
Resistance Factors for Tensile
Resistance
Metallic
Reinforcement
Strip Reinforcement
Static loading
Combined static/earthquake loading
Grid Reinforcement
Static loading
Combined static/earthquake loading
0.75
1.00
0.65
0.85
Geosynthetic
Reinforcement
Static loading
Combined static/earthquake
loading
0.90
1.20
ASD/LRFD Tensile Breakage
Example of Steel Strip Reinforcement
ASD LRFD
T
max
= o
h
S
v
T
max
= (o
v
k
r
+ Ao
h
) S
v
T
al
= (0.55 F
y
A
c
) / b
T
al
/ T
max
= 0.55 / 1 = 0.55
T
max
=
p
o
h
S
v
T
max
= 1.35 (o
v
k
r
+ Ao
h
) S
v
T
al
= ( F
y
A
c
) / b with  = 0.75
T
al
/ T
max
= 0.75 / 1.35 = 0.55
Other Developments
LRFD for Soil Nails NCHRP 2421
Draft LRFD Design and Construction
Specification for Micropiles
?
The
End