# Seepage and uplift pressure

Seepage and uplift pressure • • • • • What is it? Methods Bligh’s creep theory Lane’s weighted creep theory Application .

• The loss of head per unit of creep length is called the hydraulic gradient. (HL / L) . water creeps along the bottom contour of the structure.• According to Bligh’s theory. • The length of the path of water is called the length of creep • The loss of head is proportional to the length of creep.

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.Bligh’s Creep Theory • The loss of head is proportional to the length of creep • Dissipation of head per unit length of creep is constant throughout the seepage path. • LBligh = CBligh . H • CB = Bligh’s coefficient of percolation • Your views on the theory? • Bligh’s theory makes no discrimination between horizontal and vertical creeps.

Bligh’s Creep Theory • Safety against piping or undermining • Sufficient creep length • H/L < 1/C .

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Bligh’s Creep Theory • Safety against uplift pressure • If the uplift head at any point is H1 (metres of water). then uplift head has to be counterbalanced by the weight of floor thickness. • Weight of water upstream? .

4 .Example • Calculate hydraulic gradient and uplift pressure at point C • Specific gravity of concrete is 2.

• Calculate creep length using Lane’s theory. • Lane suggested a factor of 1/3 for horizontal creep against 1 for the vertical creep. .Lane’s weighted creep theory • Horizontal creep is less effective in reducing uplift than vertical creep.

Definitions • Percolation is the flow of water under the ground surface due to an applied differential head • Percolation length (creep length) is the length to dissipate the total hydraulic pressure on the structure • Undermining (Piping) is to carry away (wash) soil particles with flowing water below the ground surface causing collapse or failure of the above structure .

A weir on solid rock (impervious foundation) does not need long apron (Floor). . but needs sufficient width “b” to resist soil stresses.

• Resist scour from falling water .A weir on pervious soil needs length “L” to: • Cover creep or percolation length.

L` = 2 t + L • If L` > LB (Design is safe. leads to failure) . undermining occurs. no possibility of undermining) • If L` < LB (Design is unsafe.

leads to failure) . no possibility of undermining) • L` < LB (design is unsafe. undermining occurs.L` = L + 2 t + 2 S1 + 2 S2 • L` LB (design is safe.

hence is safe .• Distance between sheet piles a-a and b-b > d1 + d2 • Water percolation length takes the right path.

• Distance between sheet piles a-a & b-b < d1 + d2 • Water percolation length takes a short cut from a to b • Actual percolation length is smaller than designed .