STANDARDS FOR BIODIESEL ASTM D 6751-02
Flash point, closed cup Kinematic viscosity, 40 ° C Sulfated ash Total Sulfur
130 min 1.9 ± 6.0 0.020 max 0.05 max
°C mm2/s wt. % wt. %
Cetane number Carbon residue Total glycerin
47 min 0.050 max 0.240 wt. % wt. %
What are fuels??...
Fuel - material that is burned or altered to obtain energy. Fuel releases its energy through a chemical reaction means, such as combustion .
Types of fuel....
1. Non-renewable . Cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused . e.g... petrol, diesel, gasoline etc.. 2. Renewable. Can be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused . e.g... Bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas etc
What is Biodiesel?
Alternative fuel for diesel engines Made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters by transesterification.
Fatty Acid Alcohol Glycerin
FA FA FA
Biodiesel can be used in existing Diesel Engines
Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel (B20, BXX). Little or no engine modifications Use existing fuel distribution network. Available now
Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide. Biodiesel maintain the present CO2 level.
Biodiesel¶s Closed Carbon Cycle
Relative emissions: Diesel and Biodiesel
B100 ** B20 Diesel
CO2 Mutagenicity n-PAHs PAHs Sulfates **NOx
Particulate Matter CO Total Unburned HCs
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Manufacturing of Bio Diesel«.
1. Collection of J. seeds. 2. Crushing & grinding of seeds. 3. Tranesterification of oil. 4. Purification.
Manufacturing flow chart«.
Methanol Raw material (seed) Catalyst
By product meal
Wash and separate
(Glycerin layer )
Explorer or oil press.
Transesterification of oil«..
Transesterification is the general term used to describethe important class of organic reactions where an ester is transformed into another through interchange of the alkoxy moiety.
Simple transesterification reaction
O O C CH3 + ROH CH3 + CH3CH2OH
CH3 CH2O Ester + alcohol
Different Ester + Different alcohol
Needs of transesterification
Jatrpha curcas oil has:
High viscosity . Poor volatility . Polymerization in combustion chamber leading to deposit. Fuel line and filter clogging .
The easiest way to make it fuel grade is the transesterification process.
Advantages from transesterification
Bio-diesel is non toxic and biodegradable It reduces the emission of harmful pollutants from diesel engine (80% less CO2 and 100% less sulpher dioxide) It has a high cetane number than diesel. Cetane number is a measure of fuels ignition quality. The high cetane number of bio-diesel contributes to easy cold starting and low idle noise. It increases the life of diesel engine as it is more lubricating Bio-diesel replaces the exhaust order of engine with a more pleasant smell.
Chemistry of Triglycerides
Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride(oil) with a alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol ). What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:
While actually a multi-step process, the overall reaction looks like this:
CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH | | CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH 3CH3OORx + CHOH | | CH2OOR3 CH2OH Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin
R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same), and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)
1. First dissolve the Catalyst(KOH) into the methanol. Shake or swirl until all has dissolved. 2. This may take 10 minutes. This mixture is called sodium methoxide or potassium methoxide. 3. Take the Jatropha Oil in a large vessel and heat it to about 60 °C.
4. The alcohol/catalyst mix is then charged into a closed reaction vessel and the biolipid (vegetable oil) is added. The system from here on is totally closed to the atmosphere to prevent the loss of alcohol. 5. Leave the vessel and let the different constituents separate by Sedimentation. 6. After 8 to 24 hours the sedimentation is complete and the glycerine can be drained off at the bottom; what remains is biodiesel.
The wonder oil bearing tree!
Jatropha curcas belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Can grow almost anywhere even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils.
Uses of Jatropha curcas
Jatropha oil as an alternative to diesel Jatropha: As a fence Jatropha oil: As raw material for industrial use. Jatropha: Potential as medicinal plant . Jatropha- For enrichment of soil .