Chapter 7
Dr. Ahmed Amin Hussein
ahussein32125@gmail.com
20132014
29 April 2014 Prepared By: Dr. Ahmed Amin 1
Chapter 7: Linear Momentum
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Definition of Momentum
Impulse
Conservation of Momentum
Center of Mass
Motion of the Center of Mass
Collisions (1d, 2d; elastic, inelastic)
Momentum
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The MOMENTUM of a body is equal to the product of its mass and its
velocity.
Is momentum a vector or a scalar?
What are the SI units of momentum?
p = m v
7.2 Momentum
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Consider two interacting bodies with m
2
> m
1
:
If we know the net force on each body then
t
m
t A = A = A
net
F
a v
The velocity change for each mass will be different if the masses are different.
F
21
F
12
m
1
m
2
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t m A = A
21 1 1
F v
Rewrite the previous result for each body as:
t t m A = A = A
21 12 2 2
F F v
Combine the two results:
( ) ( )
i f i f
m m
m m
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1
v v v v
v v
=
A = A
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The quantity (mv) is called momentum (p).
p = mv and is a vector.
The unit of momentum is kg m/s.
From slide (3):
2 1
2 2 1 1
p p
v v
A = A
A = A m m
The change in momentum of the two bodies is equal and opposite. Total momentum is
conserved during the interaction; the momentum lost by one body is gained by the other.
7.3 Impulse
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Definition of impulse:
t A = A F p
One can also define an average impulse when the force is variable.
Example
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[C] A boy standing at one end of a floating raft that is stationary relative to the
shore walks to the opposite end of the raft, away from the shore. As a consequence,
the raft.
(a) remains stationary,
(b) moves away from the shore,
(c) moves toward the shore
(d) Not enough information given
Impulse
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A force applied over a period of time is called an
IMPULSE.
What are the SI units of Impulse?
I = F At
The ImpulseMomentum Theorem
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When a net force acts upon a body for a period of time, the Impulse applied by
the force is equal to the bodys change in Momentum!
F At = A mv
( )
= m(v
f
v
0
)
Example
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A batter hits a 500g ball with a force of 200N.
If the time of contact was 0.205 seconds, find
the impulse of the ball.
I = F At
I = 200N 0.205sec
I = 41N sec
Example
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A batter hits a 500g ball with a force of 500N.
If the time of contact was 0.205 seconds, find
the impulse of the ball.
I = F At
a) 0 Ns
b) 102.5 Ns
c) 51250 Ns
d) 250000 Ns
e) I have no clue
Example
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A force of 30 N is applied for 5 sec to each of two bodies of different masses.
30 N
m
1
or m
2
Take m
1
< m
2
(a) Which mass has the greater momentum change?
t A = A F p
Since the same force is applied to each mass for the
same interval, Ap is the same for both masses.
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(b) Which mass has the greatest velocity change?
m
p
v
A
= A
Since both masses have the same Ap, the smaller mass (mass
1) will have the larger change in velocity.
(c) Which mass has the greatest acceleration?
t A
A
=
v
a
Since aAv the mass with the greater velocity change will
have the greatest acceleration (mass 1).
Example
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An object of mass 3.0 kg is allowed to fall from rest under the force of gravity for 3.4
seconds. What is the change in momentum? Ignore air resistance.
Want Ap = mAv.
(downward) m/s kg 100
m/sec 3 . 33
= A = A
= A = A
A = A
v p
v
a v
m
t g
t
Example
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What average force is necessary to bring a 50.0kg sled from rest to 3.0 m/s in a period of
20.0 seconds? Assume frictionless ice.
( )( )
N 5 . 7
s 0 . 20
m/s 0 . 3 kg 0 . 50
av
av
av
= =
A
A
=
A
A
=
A = A
F
t
m
t
t
v p
F
F p
The force will be in the
direction of motion.
The Law of Conservation of Momentum
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Internal forces are forces that act within a system, external forces are
forces that act on a system from outside
If a system is not affected by any net external force, it is said to be
ISOLATED.
In an isolated system, the total linear momentum is always conserved!
7.4 Conservation of Momentum
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v
1i
v
2i
m
1
m
2
m
1
>m
2
m
1
m
2
A short time later the masses
collide.
What happens?
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During the interaction:
N
1
w
1
F
21
x
y
1 1 21
1 1
0
a m F F
w N F
x
y
= =
= =
2 2 12
2 2
0
a m F F
w N F
x
y
= =
= =
\

= =
+ =
=
b
r
b
r
r r b b
f i
v
m
m
v
v m v m
p p
Example  Recoil
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A hunter shoots a 0.22 rifle and the 3.0 kg gun recoils with a
speed of 0.042 m/s. If the bullet has a mass of 0.5 g, find the
muzzle speed of the gun.
(P)
before
= (P)
after
P
rifle
+ P
bullet
( )
before
= P
rifle
+ P
bullet
( )
after
mV
( )
rifle
+ mV
( )
bullet
( )
before
= mV
( )
rifle
+ mV
( )
bullet
( )
after
3000g 0
m
s
( )
+ 0.5g 0
m
s
( ) ( )
= 3000g 0.042
m
s
( ) ( )
+ 0.5g V
m
s
( ) ( )
0 = 126
g m
sec
+ 0.5V
126
g m
sec
= 0.5V
V = 252
m
s
= 564mph
TMA Exercises
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Problems :
Questions # # 5, 7, 15, 17