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MS101: Physics

Chapter 7
Dr. Ahmed Amin Hussein

ahussein32125@gmail.com
2013-2014
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Chapter 7: Linear Momentum
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Definition of Momentum
Impulse
Conservation of Momentum
Center of Mass
Motion of the Center of Mass
Collisions (1d, 2d; elastic, inelastic)
Momentum
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The MOMENTUM of a body is equal to the product of its mass and its
velocity.



Is momentum a vector or a scalar?
What are the SI units of momentum?

p = m v
7.2 Momentum
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Consider two interacting bodies with m
2
> m
1
:
If we know the net force on each body then
t
m
t A = A = A
net
F
a v
The velocity change for each mass will be different if the masses are different.
F
21
F
12

m
1

m
2

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t m A = A
21 1 1
F v
Rewrite the previous result for each body as:
t t m A = A = A
21 12 2 2
F F v
Combine the two results:
( ) ( )
i f i f
m m
m m
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1
v v v v
v v
=
A = A
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The quantity (mv) is called momentum (p).
p = mv and is a vector.
The unit of momentum is kg m/s.
From slide (3):
2 1
2 2 1 1
p p
v v
A = A
A = A m m
The change in momentum of the two bodies is equal and opposite. Total momentum is
conserved during the interaction; the momentum lost by one body is gained by the other.
7.3 Impulse
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Definition of impulse:
t A = A F p
One can also define an average impulse when the force is variable.
Example
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[C] A boy standing at one end of a floating raft that is stationary relative to the
shore walks to the opposite end of the raft, away from the shore. As a consequence,
the raft.
(a) remains stationary,
(b) moves away from the shore,
(c) moves toward the shore
(d) Not enough information given
Impulse
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A force applied over a period of time is called an
IMPULSE.





What are the SI units of Impulse?

I = F At
The Impulse-Momentum Theorem
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When a net force acts upon a body for a period of time, the Impulse applied by
the force is equal to the bodys change in Momentum!



F At = A mv
( )
= m(v
f
v
0
)
Example
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A batter hits a 500g ball with a force of 200N.
If the time of contact was 0.205 seconds, find
the impulse of the ball.

I = F At
I = 200N 0.205sec
I = 41N sec
Example
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A batter hits a 500g ball with a force of 500N.
If the time of contact was 0.205 seconds, find
the impulse of the ball.

I = F At
a) 0 Ns
b) 102.5 Ns
c) 51250 Ns
d) 250000 Ns
e) I have no clue
Example
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A force of 30 N is applied for 5 sec to each of two bodies of different masses.
30 N
m
1
or m
2

Take m
1
< m
2

(a) Which mass has the greater momentum change?
t A = A F p
Since the same force is applied to each mass for the
same interval, Ap is the same for both masses.
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(b) Which mass has the greatest velocity change?
m
p
v
A
= A
Since both masses have the same Ap, the smaller mass (mass
1) will have the larger change in velocity.
(c) Which mass has the greatest acceleration?
t A
A
=
v
a
Since aAv the mass with the greater velocity change will
have the greatest acceleration (mass 1).
Example
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An object of mass 3.0 kg is allowed to fall from rest under the force of gravity for 3.4
seconds. What is the change in momentum? Ignore air resistance.
Want Ap = mAv.
(downward) m/s kg 100
m/sec 3 . 33
= A = A
= A = A
A = A
v p
v
a v
m
t g
t
Example
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What average force is necessary to bring a 50.0-kg sled from rest to 3.0 m/s in a period of
20.0 seconds? Assume frictionless ice.
( )( )
N 5 . 7
s 0 . 20
m/s 0 . 3 kg 0 . 50
av
av
av
= =
A
A
=
A
A
=
A = A
F
t
m
t
t
v p
F
F p
The force will be in the
direction of motion.
The Law of Conservation of Momentum
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Internal forces are forces that act within a system, external forces are
forces that act on a system from outside

If a system is not affected by any net external force, it is said to be
ISOLATED.

In an isolated system, the total linear momentum is always conserved!
7.4 Conservation of Momentum
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v
1i

v
2i

m
1
m
2

m
1
>m
2

m
1
m
2

A short time later the masses
collide.
What happens?
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During the interaction:
N
1

w
1

F
21

x
y
1 1 21
1 1
0
a m F F
w N F
x
y
= =
= =

2 2 12
2 2
0
a m F F
w N F
x
y
= =
= =

There is no net external


force on either mass.
N
2

w
2

F
12

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The forces F
12
and F
21
are internal forces. This means that:
( )
f f i i
i f i f
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
p p p p
p p p p
p p
+ = +
=
A = A
In other words, p
i
= p
f
. That is, momentum is conserved. This statement is valid
during the interaction only.
Example
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Example (text problem 7.18): A rifle has a mass of 4.5 kg and it fires a bullet of 10.0 grams
at a muzzle speed of 820 m/s. What is the recoil speed of the rifle as the bullet leaves the
barrel?
As long as the rifle is horizontal, there will be no net external force acting on the
rifle-bullet system and momentum will be conserved.
m/s 1.82 m/s 820
kg 4.5
kg 01 . 0
0
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+ =
=
b
r
b
r
r r b b
f i
v
m
m
v
v m v m
p p
Example - Recoil
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A hunter shoots a 0.22 rifle and the 3.0 kg gun recoils with a
speed of 0.042 m/s. If the bullet has a mass of 0.5 g, find the
muzzle speed of the gun.

(P)
before
= (P)
after
P
rifle
+ P
bullet
( )
before
= P
rifle
+ P
bullet
( )
after
mV
( )
rifle
+ mV
( )
bullet
( )
before
= mV
( )
rifle
+ mV
( )
bullet
( )
after
3000g 0
m
s
( )
+ 0.5g 0
m
s
( ) ( )
= 3000g 0.042
m
s
( ) ( )
+ 0.5g V
m
s
( ) ( )
0 = 126
g m
sec
+ 0.5V
126
g m
sec
= 0.5V
V = 252
m
s
= 564mph
TMA Exercises
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Problems :

Questions # # 5, 7, 15, 17