Naming Compounds Writing Formulas

1A

Representative elements
2Aq The tall columns 5A 7A 3A4A 6A

0

Transition metals
q Short

columns

Charges on ions
q For

most of tall column elements, location on the Periodic Table can tell what kind of ion they form q Elements in the same group have similar properties. q Including the charge when they are ions.

Charge in groups 1A, 2A and 3A is the group number 1+ 2+ in 5A, 6A and 7A 3+ 3- 2- 1is the group number - 8

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same. q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluorine

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same. q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluorin

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluori

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluor

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluori

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluorid

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluoride

Naming Anions
q Anions

are always the same q Change the element ending to – ide
q F1-

Fluoride ion

Name these
qCl1qN3qBr1qO2qGa3+

Chloride ion Nitride ion Bromide ion Oxide ion Gallium ion

Write these
ion S2qIodide ion I1qPhosphide ion P3qStrontium ion Sr2+
qSulfide

Ions in Ionic Compounds

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
q Binary

Compounds - 2 elements. q Ionic - a cation and an anion. q The name is just the names of the ions. q Cation first anion second q Easy with Group A elements.
q NaCl q MgBr q Na
2S

= Na+ Cl- = sodium chloride = Mg2+ Br- = magnesium bromide 2

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
q The

problem comes with the transition metals. q Cation name includes the charge. q The compound must be neutral. q same number of + and – charges. q Use the negative charge to find the charge on the positive ion.

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
Write the name of CuO q Need the charge of Cu q O is 2q copper must be 2+ q Copper(II) oxide
q q q

Name CoCl3

Cl is 1- and there are three of them = 3q Co must be 3+ q Cobalt(III) chloride

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
q Write q Since

the name of Cu2S.

S is 2-, the Cu2 must be 2+, so each one is 1+. q copper(I) sulfide
q Fe
2O3

q Each

O is 23 x 2- = 6q 2 Fe must = 6+, so each is 3+. q iron(III) oxide

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
q Write q KCl q Na
3N

the names of the following

q CrN q Sc
3P2

q PbO q PbO q Na
2

Se

q Write

the names of the following q KCl potassium chloride
q Na
3N

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
sodium nitride chromium (III)nitride scandium phosphide lead (II)oxide
2

q CrN q Sc
3P2

q PbO q PbO q Na

lead (IV)oxide sodium selenide

2Se

q Will

have polyatomic ions q At least three elements (3 capital letters) q Still just name the ions
q NaNO q CaSO q CuSO
3

Ionic Compounds

4

3

Ionic Compounds
q (NH
4)2O
3

q Fe(OH) q LiCN q (NH

4)2CO3

q NiPO

4

Ionic Compounds
q (NH
4)2O
3

ammonium oxide
iron (III) hydroxide lithium ammonium carbonate nickel (III) phosphate

q Fe(OH) q LiCN q (NH

4)2CO3

q NiPO

4

Writing Formulas
q The

charges have to add up to zero. q Get charges on pieces. q Cations from name or periodic table. q Anions from periodic table or polyatomic. q Balance the charges by adding subscripts. q Put polyatomics in parenthesis if there is more than one of them

Writing Formulas
q Write

the formula for calcium chloride. is Ca2+ is Cl1-

q Calcium q Chloride q Ca2+

Cl1- would have a 1+ charge. another Cl1Cl21-

q Need q Ca2+

Crisscross
q Switch

the numerical value of the charges

2 + Ba2

3 3 N

q Reduce

ratio if possible

Ba3 N2

Write the formulas for these
q Lithium

sulfide q tin (II) oxide q tin (IV) oxide q Copper (II) sulfate q Iron (III) phosphide q gallium nitrate q Iron (III) sulfide q ammonium sulfide

Write the formulas for these
q Lithium

sulfide q tin (II) oxide q tin (IV) oxide
q Copper q Iron q Iron

Li S SnO SnO2 CuSO4 FeP Ga(NO4)3 Fe2S3 (NH4)2S

(II) sulfate

(III) phosphide q gallium nitrate (III) sulfide sulfide
q ammonium

Write the formulas for these
q Ammonium

chloride q barium nitrate

Roman Numeral?
Yes
Charge from name

Polyatomic?

No
Charge from table

Yes
Formula and charge from memory

No
Charge from table

M+X

Nm-Y

MYNmX Ionic

Group 1A, 2A or 3A?

Poly atomic?

No

Yes Metal

Yes Name Ionic

No Name +ide

Metal (charge)

Things to look for
q If

cations have (), the number is their charge. Not how many. q If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic) q If anion ends in -ate or -ite it is polyatomic q The positive piece always gets written first q Hydrogen- it depends on where it’s at – If it is second, it’s a nonmetal -hydride

Molecular Compounds
Writing names and Formulas

Molecular compounds
q made

of just nonmetals q smallest piece is a molecule q can’t be held together because of opposite charges. q can’t use charges to figure out how many of each atom

Easier
q Ionic

compounds use charges to determine how many of each. – Have to figure out charges. – Have to figure out numbers.

q Molecular

compounds name tells you the number of atoms. q Uses prefixes to tell you the number

Prefixes
q1

monoq 2 diq 3 triq 4 tetraq 5 penta-

q6

hexaq 7 heptaq 8 octaq 9 nonaq 10 deca-

Naming
q

To write the name write two words

Prefix name Prefix name -ide
q Exception

- we don’t write mono- if there is only one of the first element. q No ao oo double vowels when writing name, io, oi, and ai are okay.

Name These
qNO 2 q NO
2

q Cl O 2 7 q CBr q CO
4

2

q BaCl 2

Name These
qNO 2 q NO
2

dinitrogen oxide nitrogen dioxide dichlorine heptoxide carbon tetrabromide carbon dioxide barium dichloride

q Cl O 2 7 q CBr q CO
4

2

q BaCl 2

Write formulas for these
q diphosphorus

pentoxide q tetraiodine nonoxide q sulfur hexaflouride q nitrogen trioxide q phosphorus trifluoride q aluminum chloride

Write formulas for these
q diphosphorus

pentoxide q tetraiodine nonoxide q sulfur hexaflouride q nitrogen trioxide q phosphorus trifluoride q aluminum chloride

P2O5 I4O9 SF6 NO3 PF3 AlCl

Acids
Writing names and Formulas

Acids
q Compounds

that give off hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. q Must have H in them. q will always be some H next to an anion. q The anion determines the name.

Naming acids
q If

the anion attached to hydrogen is ends in -ide, put the prefix hydro- and change -ide to -ic acid q HCl - hydrogen ion and chloride ion q hydrochloric acid q H2S hydrogen ion and sulfide ion
q hydrosulfuric

acid

Naming Acids
q If

the anion has oxygen in it q it ends in -ate or -ite q change the suffix -ate to -ic acid
q HNO
3

Hydrogen and nitrate ions

q Nitric

acid q change the suffix -ite to -ous acid
q HNO
2

Hydrogen and nitrite ions acid

q Nitrous

Name these
q HF qHP 3 q H SO
2 2

4 3

q H SO q HCN

q H CrO
2

4

Writing Formulas
q Hydrogen

will always be first q name will tell you the anion q make the charges cancel out. q Starts with hydro- no oxygen, -ide q no hydro, -ate comes from -ic, -ite comes from -ous

Write formulas for these
q hydroiodic q acetic

acid

acid q carbonic acid q phosphorous acid q hydrobromic acid q diagram

Name 1 Name 2
Is Name 2 acid? No Does Name 2 have a prefix? Yes

Yes

No

No

Hydro- ?

Yes Charge from table

No

-ic acid?
Yes No

-ate

-ite

Nm-Y HYNm

XxYy
Is X hydrogen? No Yes Is X a metal? No Yes

Oxygen?
Yes

-ate?
No No Yes

____ ic acid

____ ous acid

Hydro____ ic acid

Acid

• Name these acids a) H2C2O4 b) HF c) HClO2 d) H2CO3 • Write formulas for these compounds a) nitrous acid b) hydroselenic acid c) phosphoric acid d) acetic acid 43. Name these compounds a) AlF3 b) SnO2 c) Fe(C2H3O2)3 d) KHSO4 e) CaH2 f) HClO3 g) Hg2Br2 h) H2CrO4 44. Write formulas for these a) Phosphorus pentabromide b) Carbon chloride c) potassium permanganate

43. Name these compounds a) AlF3 b) SnO2 c) Fe(C2H3O2)3 d) KHSO4 e) CaH2 f) HClO3 g) Hg2Br2 h) H2CrO4 44. Write formulas for these a) Phosphorus pentabromide b) Carbon chloride c) potassium permanganate d) Calcium hydrogen carbonate e) dichlorine heptoxide f) trisilicon tetrahydride g) sodium dihydrogen phosphate

q Periodic

table – Grouped by properties q Metals- make cations – 2 types those with () and those without q Nonmetals make anions – Three types • Without O -ide • With O -ite and -ate q Only electrons can move to make ions

Summary

Summary
q q q q q q q q q

Make all the decisions. First determine type of compound Then figure out name or formula Acid = H to start Metal = Ionic No H, No metal = molecular Only molecular get prefixes Roman numeral is NOT how many Hydro means no O

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