Internal

Principles of the WCDMA System
GSM-to-UMTS Training Series_V1.0
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Date 2008-10-25 2008-12-31

Version 1.0 1.1

Description Draft Completed. Updated the access technology in the latest products in page 8. Added the comparison of frequency computation between the GSM and the WCDMA in page 13. Added the comparison of encoding process in page 27. Added explanations about closed loop power control in page 66. Added explanations about handover in page 79.

Author Zang Liang Dong Qihuan

2009-01-14

1.11

Added information about EGSM/RGEM frequency bands in page 10. Added handover modes and interference modes to the major differences between the GSM and the UMTS in page 11. Added the method of computing frequencies at the EGSM/RGEM frequency bands in page 13. Added association control channels in page 47.

Kuang Jun

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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Objectives
 After studying this course, you will be able to:

 Know the similarities and differences between the GSM and the WCDMA technologies.  Master the basic principles of the CDMA technology.

 Master the structure and radio interfaces of the WCDMA system.
 Master the principle of WCDMA radio resource management.

 Know technical features of the WCDMA FDD.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

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.6 kbit/s GPRS Supports higher data rates through the introduction of packet channels Theoretical rate/actual rate: 171. Has the capability of high-speed data access and provide various services Theoretical rate/actual rate: R99 and R4: 2 Mbit/s/384 kbit/s R5 (HSDPA): 14.2 kbit/s/20 kbit/s-40 kbit/s With the introduction of new modulation mode. LTD. the theoretical rate is three times higher than that of the GPRS Theoretical rate/actual rate: about 473.Evolution from GSM to WCDMA GSM Mainly designed for the speech service Theoretical rate/actual rate: 64 kbit/s/9.4 Mbit/s/1 Mbit/s higher Huawei Confidential Page 5 .6 kbit/s/100 kbit/s EDGE WCDMA HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 6 .Distinguish Different Users FDMA Power CDMA TDMA Power Power HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..Multiple Access Technology .

It can be estimated according to the timeslot quantity. C/I: > -8 dB With eight timeslots for a single carrier. Since different users occupy different timeslots. they rarely interfere with each other. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Users interfere with each other. LTD. The capacity is not fixed (soft capacity). They must be well controlled. closely related to user distribution. the system capacity is relatively fixed. service type.. Huawei Confidential Page 7 . C/I: > 9 dB WCDMA: FDMA + CDMA Bandwidth of a single carrier: 5 MHz Strong anti-interference capability.Comparison of Multiple Access Technology Between the GSM and the WCDMA GSM: FDMA + TDMA Bandwidth of a single carrier: 200 kHz Weak anti-interference capability. and interference.

5 kbit/s AMR coding Channel coding Channelization Modulation technology Power control technology Convolutional code (1/2) Packed in the pulse mode. 13 kbit/s EFR: enhancing the voice quality. capacity. GMSK. helpful for designing multimode terminals Provided with the traffic-adaptive capability: able to automatically adjust the speech rate so that the system can balance between the coverage.. QPSK. data is sent out in different timeslots. 8PSK (EDGE) Slow power control (2 Hz) WCDMA AMR: eight types of speech rates Compatible with the coding of current mainstream mobile communication systems. data is combined and outputted.Comparison of Radio Access Technology Between the GSM and the WCDMA GSM Source coding FR: RPE-LTP coding. 6. 13 kbit/s HR: increasing the system capacity. LTD. 16QAM (HSDPA) Fast power control (1500 Hz): used to restrain fading Transmit diversity Receiving technology (antifading) Transmit diversity (BTS3012) Space diversity and polarization diversity The effect similar to that of the frequency diversity can be realized through frequency hopping. and speech quality Speech service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3) High-speed data service: Turbo code Through spread spectrum and scrambling. Huawei Confidential . Transmit diversity Space diversity and polarization diversity Frequency diversity: rake receiver Page 8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Cell = Carrier Huawei Confidential Page 9 . One sector can include multiple cells. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA Network Interfaces GSM NSS A Gb Iu-CS WCDMA Core Network Iu-PS Iu RNS Iur BSS BSC Abis Abis RNS RNC Iub RNC Iub Iub Iub BTS BTS Node B Node B Node B Node B Sector = Cell.. One cell can include multiple carriers.

) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 10 . only 30 MHz in the high frequency band serves as a supplementary frequency band. LTD.Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA Protocols GSM L3: BSSAP A/Iu-CS L2: MTP L1: E1 L3: RANAP L2: ATM L1: E1 or STM-1 WCDMA L3: BTSM Abis/Iub L2: LAPD L1: E1 L3: RR L2 (data link layer): LAPDm L3: NBAP L2: ATM L1: E1 or STM-1 RRC L2 (data link layer): RLC/MAC L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz): Radio interface Major frequency band: 1920-1980 / 2110-2170 L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz): 890-915/935-960 1710-1785/1805-1880 Supplementary frequency band: 17101785/1805-1880 (In China..

Major Differences Between WCDMA and GSM Air Interfaces GSM Carrier spacing Frequency reuse coefficient 200 kHz 1-18 Frequency + BSIC 2 Hz or lower Network planning (frequency planning) 5 MHz 1 Frequency + Scrambling code 1500 Hz Algorithm of radio resource management The 3.84-MHz bandwidth enables the network to use the rake receiver for multipath diversity Packet scheduling based on loads Supported for increasing the capacity of downlinks WCDMA Method for differentiating cells Power control frequency QoS control Frequency diversity Frequency hopping Timeslot-based scheduling in the GPRS Not supported by the standards but applicable Packet data Downlink transmit diversity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. Huawei Confidential Page 11 .

2000 MSS 1885 1890 1895 1910 1990 MHz 2165 MHz Broadcast auxiliary Reserve MSS USA PCS A D B EF C A D B EF C MSS 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.Allocation of 3G Spectrum 1850 1900 1950 2000 2010 MHz 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 ITU 1885 MHz IMT 2000 GSM 1800 DECT 1805 MHz cellular(1) MSS 2025 MHz IMT 2000 2110 MHz MSS 2170 MHz Europe UMTS cellular(2) MSS 1980 MHz 2025 MHz UMTS MSS 1880 MHz cellular(2) CDMA 1865 China GSM 1800 FDD TDD WLL WLL 1920 1945 CDMA FDD WLL 1960 1980 1885 1895 1918 2170 MHz Japan 1865 1870 C PHS IMT A 2000 1945 1965 1970 1975 1930 MSS B IMT A. Huawei Confidential Page 12 .

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Computing GSM frequencies  GSM900: BS reception: f1 (n) = 890 + n x 0.Comparison of Frequency Computation Between the WCDMA and the GSM Computing WCDMA frequencies  Main working bands: 1920-1980 MHz/2110-2170 MHz Formula for computing WCDMA frequencies: Frequency number = Frequency x 5 Central frequency number of uplink: 9612-9888 Central frequency number of downlink: 10562-10838  Supplementary working bands: 1755-1785 MHz/1850-1880 MHz The currently existing GSM frequency bands of China Mobile and China Union can be used for the WCDMA later.2 MHz BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 45 MHz  GSM1800: BS reception: f1 (n) = 1710 + (n 511) x 0.2 MHz BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 95 MHz Huawei Confidential Page 13 . LTD..

Contents Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 14 .. LTD.

Overview of CDMA Principles  Radio Propagation Environment  Multiple Access Technology and Duplex Technology  CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 15 ..

.Multipath Environment Tx signals Rx signals Intensity Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 16 . LTD.

LTD..Fading Tx data Rx data 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 dB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 17 .

LTD.Fading Rx power (dBm) -20 Fast fading Slow fading -40 -60 10 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. 20 Huawei Confidential 30 Page 18 Distance (m) .

Huawei Confidential Page 19 .Frequency-Selective Fading Intensity Intensity Narrowband system (GSM) Tx signals Large fading Frequency Rx fading signals Frequency Intensity Intensity Broadband system (CDMA) Large fading Frequency Tx signals Rx fading signals Frequency HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

Classification of Typical Radio Mobile Channels  Static channels (static)  Pedestrian channels in typical urban areas (TU3)  Vehicle-mounted channels in typical urban areas (TU30)  Vehicle-mounted channels in rural areas (RA50)  Vehicle-mounted channels on expressways (HT120) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 20 .

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 21 ..Overview of CDMA Principles  Radio Propagation Environment  Multiple Access Technology and Duplex Technology  CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

 Adopted by the TD-SCDMA  Advantage: The uplink and downlink can be allocated with different numbers of timeslots when the uplink and downlink services are asymmetrical.Duplex Technology – Distinguish User’s UL and DL Signal  Frequency division duplex (FDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to frequencies. LTD. the spectrum utilization is high.. Huawei Confidential Page 22 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Disadvantage: The spectrum utilization is low when the uplink and downlink services (mainly the data services) are asymmetrical. In the CDMA system.  Disadvantage: − It cannot be easily implemented and needs precise synchronization. it is difficult to control interference between the uplink and the downlink.  Time division duplex (TDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to timeslots.  Adopted by the WCDMA and CDMA2000  Advantage: It can be easily implemented. − When it is used with the CDMA technology. Therefore. . GPS synchronization is needed.

Users are identified through pseudo numbers.  That is.  The CDMA system supports soft capacity.. This greatly improves spectrum utilization. the system performance improves when the number of users decreases. This causes mutual interference between users. the CDMA system can obtain larger capacity by deteriorating parts of the system performance.  For all the users. Huawei Confidential Page 23 . LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Contrarily.Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  Multiple users share a same frequency at the same time.  It is difficult to implement such technologies as power control and load control.  Disadvantages of the CDMA system:  It occupies a wide bandwidth. the system performance deteriorates when the number of users increases.  It is a self-interference system.

Overview of CDMA Principles  Radio Propagation Environment  Multiple Access Technology and Duplex Technology  CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 24 ..

the processing gain depends on the specific service.  Symbol (sps): the data obtained upon channel coding and interleaving.  In the WCDMA system..84 Mcps  Processing gain  It refers to the ratio of the final spreading rate to the bit rate (cps/bit/s). Huawei Confidential Page 25 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. symbol and chip  Bit (bit/s): the data that is obtained upon source coding and contains information. − The spreading rate of WCDMA is: 3.Common Terms  Bit.  Chip (cps): the data obtained upon final spreading. LTD.

 For CDMA2000-1x.  For CDMA2000-1x. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the symbol rate is 19.84 MHz and the spreading factor is 4.6 Kbit/s and the channel code is 1/3 convolutional code. Huawei Confidential Page 26 . if the service rate is 384 Kbit/s and the channel code is 1/3 Turbo.2 Kbit/s.Spreading Factor and Service Rate  Symbol rate = (service rate + check code) × channel code ×repetition or punching rate  For WCDMA. if the service rate is 9.2 Kbit/s. if the chip rate is 1.2288 MHz and the spreading factor is 64. the symbol rate is 19. if the chip rate is 3. the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s. LTD. the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s.  Chip rate = symbol rate  spreading factor  For WCDMA..

Huawei Confidential Page 27 . LTD.Basic Block Diagram of CDMA System Source coding Channel Interleaving coding and interleaving Spreading Scrambling Modulation RF emission Radio channel Source decoding Dedeinterleaving interleaving RF De-spreading Descrambling Demodulation Channel reception decoding HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

thus reducing the number of handovers and call drop. LTD. This facilitates the design of multimode terminals. Huawei Confidential Page 28 .Source Coding in WCDMA  The WCDMA system adopts the adaptive multi-rate (AMR) speech coding.2 Kbit/s to 4. Source coding Interleaving Spreading coding and interleaving Channel Scrambling Modulation RF emission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..  Multiple voice rates are compatible with the coding modes used by current mainstream mobile communication systems. The coding rate ranges from 12. thus saving power and containing more users.  A total of eight coding modes are available.  The system automatically decreases the voice rate of some users according to the cell load.  The system automatically adjusts the voice rate according to the distance between the user and the NodeB.75 Kbit/s.

LTD. Source coding Interleaving coding and Spreading interleaving Channel Scrambling Modulation RF emission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 29 ..  Data service: Turbo code (1/3).Channel Coding in WCDMA  Channel coding can enhance symbol correlation to recover signals in the case of interference.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Code type  Voice service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3).

. . .C0} {B5..B1} {A6. B1 2 10 18 26 . . . 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 2nd interleaving {A4. . . B4 5 13 21 29 . Huawei Confidential Page 30 .... B3 4 12 20 28 .. B6 7 15 23 31 . 452 453 454 …… .C1} {B6. LTD.C3} HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. .B3} {B4. B7 8 16 24 32 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .B0} {A5. C0 C1 C2 C3 . . .B2} {A7. B2 3 11 19 27 .Interleaving  Interleaving is used to disarrange symbol correlation and reduce the impact caused by fast fading and interference of the channel..C2} {B7.. Ist interleaving A4 A5 A6 A7 B0 1 9 17 25 .. B5 6 14 22 30 ..

UE2 and UE3  UE1 uses c1 for spreading: UE1 x c1  UE2 uses c2 for spreading: UE2 x c2  UE3 uses c3 for spreading: UE3 x c3  c1. Huawei Confidential Page 31 .. c2 and c3 are orthogonal to each other  Information sent: UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3 Source coding Interleaving Spreading coding and interleaving Channel Scrambling Modulation RF emission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Spreading Principle  Users who need to send information: UE1.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.De-spreading Principle  UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading..  (UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3) x c1 = UE1 x (c1 x c1) + UE2 x (c2 x c1) + UE3 x (c3 x c1) = UE1 x 1 + UE2 x 0 + UE3 x 0 = UE1  In the same way. LTD. UE2 uses c2 for de-spreading and UE3 uses c3 for de-spreading to get their own signals. Huawei Confidential Page 32 .

Spreading and De-spreading (DS-CDMA) Symbol Data 1 -1 Chip Spreading 1 -1 Spreading code Spreading signal = Data x Code word 1 -1 Despreading Spreading code 1 -1 Data = Spreading signal x Code word 1 -1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 33 ..

Spreading Principle ____________ UE1: UE2: c1: c2: UE1×c1: UE2×c2: +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 _____________ +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 UE1×c1+ UE2×c2: 0 -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 34 ..

.De-spreading Principle UE1×c1+ UE2×c2: UE1 de-spreading with c1: De-spreading result: Integral: Decision: UE2 de-spreading with c2: De-spreading result: Integral: Decision : 0 -2 0 -2 -1 +2 0 +1 0 +2 0 +2 -1 +1 -1 -2 0 -4 -4/4 = -1 -2 +1 -1 +1 0 +2 0 +4 +4/4 = +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 -2 -4 -4/4 = -1 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 +4 +4/4 = +1 Question: How to generate those orthogonal codes like c1 and c2? HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 35 . LTD.

If error codes occur in the propagation process UE1 × c1 + UE2 × c2: 0 -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 1 +2 0 +2 UE1 × c1 + UE2 × c2 error code: 2 -2 0 -2 UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading: c1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 De-spreading result: Integral detection: Normalization: 2 +2 0 +2 +6 +6/4=1.5 +4/4=1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.4/4= -1 UE1 uses c2 for de-spreading: c2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 De-spreading result: Integral detection: 2 -2 0 -2 -2 0 +2 0 +2 +4 Normalization: -2/4=-0. LTD..5 0 -2 0 -2 -4 . Huawei Confidential Page 36 .

1. LTD.OVSF and Walsh Cch.-1..2.3 = (1.4.4.0 =(1.1.2 = (1.0 = (1) Cch.-1.4.2.4.1 = (1. Huawei Confidential Page 37 .1) Cch.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 OVSF codes (Walsh) are completely orthogonal and their mutual correlation is zero.-1) Cch.0 = (1.-1) Cch.1) Cch.-1.1 = (1.1.1. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.-1.-1) Cch.1.

 Over uplink channels.2 kbit/s AMR and 64 kbit/s packet data 12.Use of OVSF Code  Over downlink channels. OVSF codes are used to differentiate users.2 kbit/s AMR and 144 kbit/s packet data 12. OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services of a user.2 kbit/s AMR and 384 kbit/s packet data Data Rate (bit/s) 12.2 + 3..4 32 16 8 16 8 4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.8 + 3. LTD.4 12. Huawei Confidential Page 38 .4 28.4 12.2 + 144 + 3.8 kbit/s 12.2+384+3.4 Downlink SF 128 64 Uplink SF 64 32 12.2 + 64 + 3. Typical Service AMR Modem 28.

 In a cell. Huawei Confidential Page 39 .Scrambling in the WCDMA System  Downlink: Different cells (sector carrier frequencies) have different downlink scrambling codes. LTD.  Each cell is configured with a unique downlink scrambling code.  OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services of a user. The UE identifies a cell based on the scrambling code. Source coding Interleaving Spreading coding and interleaving Channel Scrambling Modulation RF emission HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Uplink: Scrambles are used to differentiate different users. each user is configured with a unique uplink scrambling code..  OVSF codes are used to differentiate different users in a cell.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 40 . OVSF codes are used to differentiate users. scrambling codes are used to differentiate cells (sectors/carriers).  There are 224 uplink long scrambling codes and 224 uplink short scrambling codes. It is 38400 chips long. Currently.0 to No.  There are (218 ..WCDMA Scrambling Code: G old Sequence  Over downlink channels.  Over downlink channels.8191 are used. however.  A scrambling code is repeated every 10 ms.1 = ) 262143 scrambling codes on the downlink. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. only the primary scrambling codes in the scrambling codes from No.

Downlink scrambling code Set 0 Set 1 … Set 511 Secondary scrambling code 15 Primary scrambling code 511×16 Secondary scrambling code 511×16+1 … 512 sets Secondary scrambling code 511×16+15 Each set contains 1 primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes. the system mainly uses primary scrambling codes.. Huawei Confidential Page 41 . Currently.Primary and Secondary Scrambling Codes Primary scrambling code 0 Secondary scrambling code 1 … 8192 scrambling codes HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

. Scrambling code planning in the network planning is to plan and allocate the 512 primary scrambling codes. one of which is the primary scrambling code. Downlink scrambling code Group 0 Group 1 … Group 63 Primary scrambling code 7 Primary scrambling code 504 Primary scrambling code 505 … 64 groups Primary scrambling code 511 Each group contains eight scrambling codes. LTD.Primary Scrambling Codes and Scrambling Code Groups Primary scrambling code 0 Primary scrambling code 1 … 512 scrambling codes HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 42 .

Spreading/De-spreading Principle — Explanations for Frequency Domain Eb/No = Ec/Io × Gain Power spectrum a2Tbit = Ebit Eb/No required Allowed maximum interference level Gain Power sharable for all users Other user interference signals Echip HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 43 . LTD.

Spectrum Change in CDMA Spreading code P(f) P(f) f Broadband signal f Narrowband signal Noise f P (f) Separation of signals and noise P (f) Signal combination f Spreading code Noise + broadband signal P (f) f The CDMA broadband spreading technology effectively avoids frequency-selective fading of radio channels. Huawei Confidential Page 44 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

. Huawei Confidential Page 45 .Rake Receiver Receiving path 1 Receiving path 2 Front-end receiver Receiving path 3 Signal synthesizer Consolidate signals Delay estimator Compute delay and phase deflection s(t) s(t) t t HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

Contents Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 46 . LTD.

LTD. but has different functions from that in the GSM system P-CCPCH:  primary common control physical channel PICH:  page indicator channel.Mapping of Channel Function Between the GSM and the WCDMA GSM FCCH: frequency correction channel Cell SCH:  synchronization channel search BCCH: broadcast control channel Paging PCH: paging channel Uplink: RACH: random access channel SDCCH:  stand-alone  dedicated control channel Access Downlink: AGCH: access grant channel SDCCH:  standalone  dedicated control channel Speech TCH: traffic channel service Data PDCH: packet data channel service HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. WCDMA (P-)CPICH: (Primary)  common pilot channel SCH: s  ynchronization channel. helpful for power saving on a terminal S-CCPCH:  secondary common control physical channel Uplink: PRACH: physical random access channel Downlink: AICH:  acquisition indication channel S-CCPCH:  secondary common control physical channel DPDCH:  dedicated physical data control channel DPDCH: d  edicated physical data control channel HS-PDSCH:  high-speed physical downlink shared channel HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel Page 47 Huawei Confidential ..

.  Physical channel: It is the final form of all kinds of information when they are transmitted on radio interfaces. it is divided into dedicated channel and common channel. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Classification of WCDMA Channels  In terms of protocol layer. the WCDMA radio interface has three channels:  Logical channel: Carrying user services directly − According to the types of the carried services. Huawei Confidential Page 48 . LTD.  Transport channel : Provided service for MAC layer by the physical layer − According to whether the information transported is dedicated information for a user or common information for all users. it is divided into two types: control channel and service channel.

LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 49 .Logical Channels Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging control channel Dedicate control channel (PCCH) (DCCH) CCH Common control channel (CCCH) Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel (DTCH) (CTCH) TCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

LTD.Transport Channels Dedicated Channel (DCH) -DCH can be uplink or downlink channel Dedicated transport channel Broadcast channel Forward access channel Paging channel Random access channel (BCH) (FACH) (PCH) (RACH) Common transport channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 50 .

Huawei Confidential Page 51 .  A physical channel can be determined by a carrier. LTD.. Most channels consist of radio frames and timeslots. codes (channel code and scrambling code). Data The timeslot concept in the WCDMA system differs greatly from that in the GSM system. 38400 chips HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Each radio frame has 10 ms and consists of 15 timeslots. Timeslot 0 Timeslot 1 Data T timeslot = 2560 chips Timeslot i Timeslot 14 T = 10 ms.Physical Channels  Physical channels are divided into uplink and down physical channels. and a phase.

Uplink Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink DPCCH) Uplink Physical Channel Uplink Common Physical Channel Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 52 . LTD.

Huawei Confidential Page 53 .. LTD.Downlink Physical Channel Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (downlink DPCH) Downlink Common Physical Channel Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Downlink Physical Channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

1):PCCPCH 3 channels (BCHs)                     ┏ 0 ┫                     ┃   ┃   ┏━●C(256.2): AICH 6                     ┃   ┗ 1 ┫                     ┃       ┗━●C(256.3): PICH 10                 ┏ 0 ┫                 ┃   ┗━●C(64.0):PCPICH 2                         ┏ 0 ┫ Used to bear broadcast                         ┃   ┗━●C(256.1):SCCPCH 8 Used to bear forward             ┏ 0 ┫ access channels             ┃   ┃   ┏━●C(64. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 54 ..Configuration Example of Downlink Physical Channel SCH 0.1 SF 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 Pilot channel (PICH)                             ┏━●C(256.2):SCCPCH 9 (FACHs) and paging             ┃   ┗ 1 ┫ channels (PCHs)             ┃       ┗━○3         ┏ 0 ┫         ┃   ┗━○1 Allocated to dedicated     ┏ 0 ┫ physical channels     ┃   ┗━○1 (DPCHs) in real time ┃     ┗━○1    ┏━○2 ┃     ┗━○3 Synchronization channel (SCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Huawei Confidential Page 55 . LTD.Functions of Physical Channels Cell broadcast channel (CBCH) P-CPICH: primary common pilot channel S-CPICH: secondary common pilot channel P-CCPCH: primary common control physical channel SCH: synchronization channel Paging channel (PCH) S-CCPCH:  secondary common control physical channel PICH: paging indicator channel Random  access channel (RACH) PRACH:  physical random access channel User equipment (UE) NodeB (BS) AICH: a  cquisition indication channel Dedicated access channel DPDCH: d  edicated physical data channel DPCCH:  dedicated physical control channel High-speed downlink shared channel HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel HS-PDSCH:  high-speed physical downlink shared channel HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

0. LTD.  Each cell must be configured with all these channels. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 56 . S-CPICH: used for smart antennas  P-CCPCH: used to carry system messages  channel codes are fixed to be Cch. but only one for each type.256.Functions of Common Physical Channels  SCH: used for cell search  Divided into P-SCH and S-SCH  CPICH: used to identify scrambling codes  Divided into P-CPICH and S-CPICH − P-CPICH: Their channel codes are fixed to be Cch.1.256. They use primary scrambling codes.. − P-CPICH is the power benchmark of other physical downlink channels.

LTD.  AICH: used to carry acquisition indications of PRACH prefix.  PRACH: used to carry uplink signaling messages  The interval for timeslot access is 5120 chips. at least one for each type.. indicating that the maximum coverage radius of a WCDMA BS is 200 km.  Each cell must be configured with all these channels. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. An AICH must be configured with a PRACH as a pair. A PICH must be configured with an S-CCPCH as a pair. Huawei Confidential Page 57 .Functions of Common Physical Channels  S-CCPCH: used to carry downlink signaling messages  PICH: used to carry paging indicators.

. LTD.Functions of Dedicated Physical Channels  DPDCH: used to carry users' service data. Huawei Confidential Page 58 .  Maximum uplink data rate: 384 kbit/s x 6 code channels  Maximum downlink data rate: 384 kbit/s x 7 code channels HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  DPCCH: used to carry control information.  When the required data rate is higher than the maximum data rate of a single code channel. On the downlink. DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals in the mode of time multiplexing. The maximum data rate of a single code channel is 384 kbit/s. and provide control data such as demodulation and power control for DPDCHs  On the uplink. the system can use multiple code channels for transmission. DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals over different code channels.

LTD.Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels Logical Channels CCCH (uplink) DCCH/DTCH (uplink) BCCH (downlink) PCCH (downlink) CCCH/CTCH (downlink) DCCH/DTCH (downlink) Transport Channels RACH RACH DCH BCH PCH FACH DCH FACH DTCH (downlink) HS-DSCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 59 ..

LTD.Mapping Between Transport Channels and Physical Channels Transport Channels DCH RACH Physical Channels Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) BCH FACH PCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) HS-DSCH PDSCH) High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS- HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for Hs-DSCH HS-DPCCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 60 .

Contents Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 61 .

Huawei Confidential Page 62 .  Power is a final radio resource. as WCDMA is self interference system. the use of power is incompatible in WCDMA system. LTD.Overview of Radio Resource Management  RRM-Radio Resource Management  Since the WCDMA system is a self-interference system. .. The only way to make radio resources utility is to strictly control the use of power.  The RRM is to manage the power by combining QoS objectives.  On the other hand. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. power enhancement will interfere other user and make the reception quality worse. increasing the Tx power for a user can improve the quality of service (QoS) of this user.  On one hand.

. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 63 .Purposes of RRM  The RRM is intended to: Ensure the QoS requested by the CN Enhance the system coverage Improve the system capacity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. QoS assurance and power saving run through the entire RRM. LTD.  Mobility management: The RRM maintains the QoS when a UE moves.  Load control: After a certain number of UEs access to the system. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and to improve the system capacity and coverage.Tasks of RRM  Channel configuration: To ensure the QoS requested by the CN.  Power control: When the QoS requested by the CN is ensured. the RRM minimizes the Tx power of a UE to reduce the interference of this UE to the entire system. the RRM must ensure that the load of the entire system retains at a stable level to ensure the QoS of each connection in the system. Huawei Confidential Page 64 . the RRM maps the QoS into some features of the access stratum and thus uses the resources at the access stratum to serve the local connection.

Huawei Confidential Page 65 . That is because it cannot overcome the near-far effect. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Communications fail.Power Control—Near-Far Effect  The CDMA has not been put into commercial use in a large scale since it was put forward. One UE can congest an entire cell All other signals are overwhelmed by the signals of a UE closest to the BS. LTD..

the WCDMA system must introduce power control.  Reduce network interference and improve the system quality and capacity. In addition.  Overcome slow and fast fading.Purpose and Classification of Power Control  Owing to the near-far effect. LTD.Uplink and downlink outer loop power control HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  Power control is classified into:  Open loop power control  Closed loop power control .Uplink and downlink inner loop power control . Huawei Confidential Page 66 .. power control can also bring many other benefits:  Adjust the transmit power to maintain the uplink and downlink communication quality.

there is a retransmission mechanism for improving the power.  If the BS fails to receive the initial transmit power. Huawei Confidential Page 67 . so accuracy cannot be guaranteed.  Basic function To overcome slow fading and path loss  Major disadvantage Asymmetry between the wave power of the uplink and downlink channels is not considered.Principles of Open Loop Power Control  Basic principle  Suppose the coupling loss between the transmit power and the received power is the same as the interference level between them..  Major application  Uplink: applied to PRACHs and DPCCHs  Downlink: applied to DPCCHs HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Use the previouslymeasured received power to determine the initial transmit power. LTD.

(1) X _ EcNo  X _ Pow  PLUL  InterferenceUL ........................(2) Suppose the uplink and downlink path losses are the same: PLDL  PLUL ........... Huawei Confidential Page 68 .........(3)  X _ Pow  CPICH _ Pow  CPICH _ RSCP  InterferenceUL  X _ EcNo HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.......Principles of Open Loop Power Control Principles of setting initial transmit power CPICH _ RSCP  CPICH _ Pow  PLDL ........... LTD..........

UE The UE measures the received power of the CPICH and calculates the initial uplink transmit power.. LTD.Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH BCH: Transmit power of CPICH UL interference level RACH NodeB The open loop power control is intended to roughly estimate the initial transmit power. It estimates the path loss and interference level according to measurement results. and thus calculates the initial transmit power. Huawei Confidential Page 69 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD. the UE transmits a PRACH message.Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH One access slot AICH access slots RX at UE Acq.. Huawei Confidential Page 70 . the BS responds with an AI over the downlink AICH. After a BS successfully captures the preamble signal. If the UE receives the AI signal. The UE will continue such an action over and over until it receives the AI signals. If the UE fails to receive the AI signal at the time point τpa. the UE will increase the power and transmit next preamble signal after a certain time τp-p. Ind. p-a PRACH access slots TX at UE Preamble Preamble Message part p-p p-m Access process of the PRACH: A UE transmits a PRACH preamble signal over the PRACH. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

In addition.CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant Value Note: The PCPICH DL TX power. the network can receive the preamble signals sent by the UE in time. the parameter Power Ramp Step can also be set to a larger value to increase the network probability of capturing preamble signals. LTD. In the early stage of network construction. the coverage is limited. UL Interference..Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH Method for setting the transmit power of the first preamble signal over the uplink PRACH: Preamble_Initial_Power = PCPICH DL TX power . The CPICH_RSCP is measured by the UE. Default settings: Constant Value: -20 dB PowerRampStep: 2 dB PreambleRetransMax: 20 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 71 . In this way. and Constant Value are delivered in system messages. so the Constant Value can be set to a larger value (-16 dB or -15dB).

CPICH_RSCP Note: The CPICH_RSCP is measured by a UE.Open Loop Power Control over the Uplink DPCCH Method for setting the initial power of the uplink DPCCH: DPCCH_Initial_power = DPCCH_Power_offset . The RNC allocates it to a UE at the beginning of an RRC connection setup. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 72 . The DPCCH_Power_offset is the offset of the initial transmit power of the DPCCH. The UL interference is the uplink interference. The Default Constant Value is the default constant value of the initial transmit power of the DPCCH.. the Primary CPICH DL TX power is the downlink transmit power of the P-CPICH. Understanding HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. The formula for computing it is as follows: DPCCH_Power_offset = Primary CPICH DL TX power + UL Interference + Default Constant Value In the formula.

The CPICH_Ec/Io is the Ec/Io of the CPICH measured by the UE. The PCPICH is the transmit power of the CPICH. Understanding HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 73 . and it is reported to the UTRAN through the RACH.CPICH_Ec/Io + PCPICH Note: The (Ec/Io) Req is the required Ec/Io for a UE to correctly receive the dedicated channel. LTD.Open Loop Power Control over the Downlink DPCCH Method for setting the initial power of the downlink DPCCH: P = (Ec/Io) Req .

UE Each UE has its own control loop.Uplink Inner Loop Power Control Measure SIRs of received signals and compare them 1500 Hz Inner loop Send TPC bits Set SIRtar NodeB The inner loop power control is intended to ensure equal bit energy for each UE signal received at the NodeB. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 74 . LTD.

Uplink Inner Loop Power Control Measure the BLER over the transport channel Obtain the service data with a stable BLER Measure BLERs of received data and compare them Measure SIRs of received signals and compare them Outer loop Set SIRtar Set SIRtar 10-100Hz RNC NodeB Inner loop Send TPC bits UE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 75 . LTD..

LTD.Downlink Inner Loop Power Control Measure BLERs and compare them Layer 3 of the UE Outer loop 1500 Hz 10-100 Hz Set SIRtar Send TPC Inner loop NodeB Measure SIRs and compare them Physical layer of the UE Downlink inner loop and outer loop power control HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 76 .

Power Control Application in the WCDMA System Physical Channel PRACH DPCCH DPDCH PCPICH PCCPCH SCCPCH AICH PICH Open Loop Power Control √ √ Inner Closed Loop Outer Closed Loop No Power Control √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 77 .. LTD.

MML  Commands Related to  Power Control  MML commands related to open loop power control:  ADD PRACHBASIC  SET FRC  MML commands related to inner loop power control:  SET FRC  ADD CELLSETUP  MML commands related to outer loop power control:  ADD TYPRABOLPC  SET OLPC  MML commands related to power balance:  SET DPB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 78 .. LTD.

Classification of WCDMA Handover  Soft handover:  Soft handover  Softer handover  Hard handover:  Intra-frequency hard handover  Inter-frequency hard handover  Inter-system handover HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 79 .. LTD.

LTD.Soft  Handover Data received/ sent by the UE Source BS Target BS The UE moves Time Data received/ sent by the UE No “GAP” of communication Source BS Target BS The UE moves Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 80 ..

Hard Handover Data received/ sent by the UE Source BS Target BS The UE moves Data received/ sent by the UE Source BS Time “GAP” of communication Target BS The UE moves Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 81 .. LTD.

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management

Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Technical Specifications of WCDMA FDD
BS synchronous mode: supports asynchronous and synchronous BS operation Signal bandwidth: 5 MHz; chip rate: 3.84 Mcps Transmit diversity mode: TSTD, STTD, and FBTD Channel coding: convolutional code and Turbo code Modulation mode: QPSK for both the uplink and the downlink Power control: uplink and downlink closed and open loop power control Demodulation mode: coherence demodulation assisted by pilots

Speech coding: AMR

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Speech Evolution of the WCDMA System
 Adopts AMR speech coding and supports the voice quality of 4.75

kbit/s to 12.2 kbit/s
 Adopts soft handover and transmit diversity to improve the capacity  Provides high-fidelity voice modes  Supports fast power control

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Data Evolution of the WCDMA System
 Supports up to 14.4 Mbit/s data services (HSDPA)  Supports packet switching  Evolves from the ATM platform to All-IP gradually  Provides QoS control  Better supports Internet packet services (HSDPA) through the CPCH

and DSCH.
 Provides mobile IP services (dynamic assignment of IP addresses)
 Determines dynamic data rates provided by the TFCI domain.  Provides high quality support for symmetric uplink and downlink data

services, including the voice, videophone, and video conference.

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. LTD. you can have a general understanding of the 3G system.  The course contents include the basic key technologies of mobile communication systems.Summary  This course introduces the WCDMA system briefly. basic principles of the CDMA system. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.  After studying this course. and the FDD mode of the WCDMA system. thus make a good foundation for further study. Huawei Confidential Page 86 .

Thank you! www.huawei.com .

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