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S. Rajbhandari

Components of Power System

Electrical power system mainly consist of three systems or components:

Generating system Transmission system Distribution system

Generating system consists of generating stations or power houses where stored in various forms (examples: water at height, heat energy in coal or oil or nuclear energy in the atoms of fissionable fuels) are converted into electrical energy.

Components of Power System contd.

Transmission system transmits electrical energy in bulk, generally from generating stations to the primary substations. Distribution system is the system from which electrical energy is distributed to various consumers such as domestic, commercial, industrial, non commercial etc.

NEA Transmission System

Grid (INPS) extends from east to west, ie., Anarmani- Mahendranagar Major hydro stations connected to the grid. GSS Capacity: 1310 MVA 132 kV line length: 2076 cct Km 66 kV line length: 586 cct Km

NEA Transmission System contd.

Principal voltage of grid system is 132 kV. Majority of the lines constructed with double circuit, except for Bardghat-Hetauda section Constructed with conductor BEAR and DUCK except for Bardghat-Hetauda and Bharatpur-Pokhara

Single Line Diagram of INPS

Single Line diagram, INPS

KGA Jhim M/ nagar Htd Dubi Anarmani Lamai Butwal Bhrtpr Chapur Dhalke Lahan Modi MMRS Lamosangu Trishuli





Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS) Map


Why Transmission System Expansion ?

To provide greater reliability and capacity To increase the ability to distribute available power to meet existing and future demands To meet NEAs contractual obligation for transmission with various power producers To increase NEAs ability to import/export power

Transmission Development

Before 1985:
No systematic planning carried out. Transmission expansion mainly by ED, tandem of new HEP. Major transmission Projects (about 800 km)

Trishuli Balaju Hetauda Birgunj Sunkoshi Patan Gandak Bharatpur Hetauda Devighat Chabel Bardghat Butwal - Kohalpur Hetauda Dhalkebar Bharatpur Pokhara Suichatar KL2 - Hetauda

Transmission Development contd.

Period Between 1985 - 1992 Transmission network planning started in 80s. NEA Act implemented for effective monopoly NEA Prepared and updated its corporate plan
Long term demand forecasting



Distr. Plan

Transmission Development, 85-92

NEA LCGEP, TSMP & DEP treated as national plans. NEA responsible for phased implementation Grid interconnection domestic or interdepartmental affair.
Major Transmission Projects during the period (approx.500km) :

Dhalkebar Duhabi Anarmani Kohalpur Mahendranagar Balaju Marshyangdi - Bharatpur

Transmission Development after 1992

Period after 1992: New Electricity Act; Hydropower Development Policy IPPs have access to generation; NEA the grid owner and IPPs the grid user for existing grid. Absence of national Grid code led many issues related to grid planning, expansion, operation, interconnection to remain as grey areas. Grid Interconnection no more interdepartmental issue

Transmission Development after 1992

NEA faced four problems: What level of generation development to be considered/planned for transmission expansion? IPPs have license throughout country. Which expansion to be given priority? What performance standards to be adopted for expansion planning? Source of funding. Where does the money will come from for transmission expansion?

Mismatched Triangle

NEA, IPPs and Government bodies

NEA Roles and Responsibilities as per NEA Act Monopoly operation Forced to single buyer Missing Government bodies MOWR WECS DOED

IPPs Roles / responsibilities As per Electricity Act Single buyer market

Roles Responsibilities Functionalities Structures

Transmission Development after 1992

IPPs are awarded license wherever they apply for and wish to develop power projects where they have license for. IPPs expect NEA to provide evacuation/ interconnection where they want. Their proposals for power evacuation include: either to break the existing trunk lines for interconnection or new transmission line to be constructed by NEA.

Transmission Development after 1992

NEA refuses: interconnection that harm grid security to add transmission capacity due to lack of funds. Rigid stands taken by both NEA & IPPs helped to create bottlenecks or congestion. Ultimately very little transmission expansion realized. Such expansions include (approx. 345 km):

Transmission Development after 1992

Khimti Lamosangu Bhaktapur ( NEA) Lekhnath Kaligandaki Butwal (NEA) Chilime Trisuli (NEA) Pathlaiya Parwanipur (NEA) Bhotekoshi Lamosangu (Private) Indrawati Paanchkhal (Private) Jhimruk Lamahi (Private)

Current Situation

The conflicting interests created transmission bottlenecks. Transmission congestion in many sections of the INPS. NEA transmission plan focuses on meeting its internal demand and limited export. The TSMP envisages a 220 kV backbone for the purpose.

Western Area
KGA Modi Pokh Lekh MRS Jhim M/ nagar Htd Bhrtpr MMRS







Central and East
MRS Trishuli Lamosangu

Dubi Anarmani Htd Chapur Dhalke Lahan





Transmission Line Reinforcement Plan

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Khimti Dhalkebar 220 kV Kohalpur-Lamahi-Shivpur-Butwal and Khimti Dhalkebar second circuit stringing Transmission lines Birgunj Corridor 132 kV Butwal Sunauli 132 kV Thankot-Chapagaon-Bhaktapur 132 kV 2007/08 2007/08 2007/08 2009/10 Under const. Under const. Planned Under const. (HetBharatpur) Proposed year 2006/07 2007/08 Status abandoned abandoned

Hetauda-Bardghat 220 kV

8 9

Bardghat-Butwal 220 kV
Hetauda-Thankot 220 kV Bharatpur-Hetauda 220 kV second circuit stringing

2011/12 2011/12

Planned Planned

Transmission Lines Planned/Proposed for Power Evacuation

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Transmission lines MiddleMarsyangdi-Marsyangdi 132 kV Kul III-Hetauda 132 kV Upper Modi-Modi Khola 132 kV Madi I-Lekhnath 132 kV Chamelia-Ataria 132 kV Mewa -Tamor 132 kV Hewa-Kabeli 132 kV Lower Modi-Modi 132 kV Sanjen-Chilime 132 kV Upper Mars-Middle Mars 132 kV Proposed year 2006/07 2008/09 2009/10 2009/10 2010/11 2010/11 2010/11 2010/11 2010/11 2011/12 Status Completed abandoned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned

Transmission Lines Planned/Proposed for Power Evacuation contd.

S. No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Transmission lines Kabeli-Duhabi 132 kV Proposed year 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2013/14 2013/14 2013/14 2014/15 2017/18 Status Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned Planned

Upper Tamakosi-Khimti 220 kV

Tamor-Kabeli 132 kV Kankai-Duhabi 132 kV Upper Karnali-Kohalpur 132 kV Upper Seti-Bharatpur 220 kV West Seti-Ataria 132 kV Likhu-Khimti 132 kV

20 21 22

Rahughat-Pokhara 132 kV
Dudh Kosi-Dhalkebar 220 kV Andhi khola-Butwal 132 kV Lamosanghu-Singati 132 kV T/L

2018/19 2020/21

Planned Planned Planned

Planning Dilemma

For what capacity to plan the transmission network? Who can expand transmission when nobody knows what is required? For 83000 MW / 42000 MW? Or for 3200 MW for 2025/26?
Planning horizon?

Operational planning of one year. Medium term 1 to 5 years Long term more than 5 years

Where does the money come from if NEA is to satisfy IPPs demand? Over investment: low network utilization

Planning Dilemma contd.

Under investment: limit the use of renewable, increase congestion A transmission system should have ample margin to allow for contingencies and should deal with the uncertainties of long range forecasts. A properly designed transmission system provides a good distribution of power flows by avoiding excessive geographic concentrations of generating sources or transmission paths.

Planning Dilemma contd.

Performance standards provide the basis for determining whether system response to the contingency tests is acceptable. What limits/ values to be adopted for these performance standards: thermal, voltage, relay, stability and short circuit. The maintenance is another issue. An economic network or maintain economy in the life cycle. What contingency levels to be followed? N-1, N-2 or N-3?

Planning Dilemma contd.

Multiple contingency events include the loss of: A tower-line with three or more circuits All transmission lines on a common right-of-way Any transmission station including associated generation All generating units at a power plant A transmission line or transformer when another transmission line or transformer is out of service

Development Options and Issues

Generation and Transmission expansion case of chicken or egg story. For unhindered development of transmission network, Develop networks on the basis of investment, ownership and purpose : INPS owned by Central Transmission Utility (CTU) Commercial or merchant lines of private companies Cross border lines connected to INPS Dedicated cross border lines

Development Options and Issues

Issue is who will, when and how plan expansion, approve, implement and own it and operate transmission systems concerning above models. Investment for speedy growth is another issue.

Government should invest in transmission. Economic feasibility instead of financial feasibility

Development Options and Issues

Shall we have a Central Transmission Utility (CTU)? If we have a CTU then shall we have more than one domestic transmission operators? How shall we attract private investment in transmission? How to fix wheeling charges: MW Miles, capacity booked or postage stamp Shall we issue transmission licenses anywhere, everywhere like generation licenses?

Development Options and Issues

For what capacity shall we develop our network :

Shall we have separate domestic and export networks? Or allow domestic network for sole export plants? What will be interface of domestic and export network, AC Synchronous or HVDC back to back? How shall we export internal surplus through domestic network? NEA as net integrator and nodal agency? Generators themselves? (Use of CTU network) Trading companies (Use of CTU network)

Transmission System for Future

Plan for a long horizon. North South River basin plans:

Kosi Basin Gandak basin Karnali-Mahakali Basin

Southern East West Trunk Line Mid Hill East West Trunk Line Export System

(Courtesy: S.S. Bhat)

Overall INPS Scheme Trishuli

Modi Damauli Kathmandu Khimti


Bharatpur Hetauda Butwal Dhalkebar


(Courtesy: S.S. Bhat)

Basin Transmission Plan

90~120 km Mid hill trunk line

Southern Trunk line

MPP to Trunk Line : 30~40 km SPP to SPP or MPP: 30~60 km Mini PP to Mini PP or SPP or MPP : 20~30 km We are pulling North South lines for each P/S Mini Pooling Point Sub Pooling Point Main Pooling Point

Thank You