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111302

Aero Engineering
Thermodynamics
by
Mr.Suresh Chandra Khandai
Unit - I
Thermodynamic Systems, States and
Processes
Objectives are to:
define thermodynamics systems and states of systems
explain how processes affect such systems
apply the above thermodynamic terms and ideas to the laws of
thermodynamics
Classical means Equipartition Principle applies: each
molecule has average energy kT per in thermal equilibrium.
Internal Energy of a Classical ideal gas
At room temperature,
for most gases:
monatomic gas (He, Ne, Ar, )
3 translational modes (x, y, z)
kT E K
2
3
=
diatomic molecules (N
2
, O
2
, CO, )
3 translational modes (x, y, z)
+ 2 rotational modes (wx, wy)
kT E K
2
5
=
pV kT N U
2
3
2
3
= =

Internal Energy of a Gas
pV kT N U
2
3
2
3
= =
A pressurized gas bottle (V = 0.05 m
3
), contains
helium gas (an ideal monatomic gas) at a pressure p =
110
7
Pa and temperature T = 300 K. What is the
internal thermal energy of this gas?
( ) ( ) J 10 5 . 7 05 . 0 10 5 . 1
5 3 7
= = m Pa
Changing the Internal Energy
U is a state function --- depends uniquely on the state of the
system in terms of p, V, T etc.
(e.g. For a classical ideal gas, U =NkT )
WORK done by the system
on the environment
Thermal reservoir
HEAT is the transfer of thermal energy
into the system from the surroundings
There are two ways to change the internal energy of a system:
Work and Heat are process energies, not state functions.
W
by
= -W
on

Q
Work Done by An Expanding Gas
The expands slowly enough to
maintain thermodynamic equilibrium.
PAdy Fdy dW = =
Increase in volume, dV
PdV dW =
+dV Positive Work (Work is
done by the gas)
-dV Negative Work (Work is
done on the gas)
A Historical Convention
Energy leaves the system
and goes to the environment.
Energy enters the system
from the environment.
+dV Positive Work (Work is
done by the gas)
-dV Negative Work (Work is
done on the gas)
Total Work Done
PdV dW =
}
=
f
i
V
V
PdV W
To evaluate the integral, we must know
how the pressure depends (functionally)
on the volume.
Pressure as a Function of Volume
}
=
f
i
V
V
PdV W
Work is the area under
the curve of a PV-diagram.
Work depends on the path
taken in PV space.
The precise path serves to
describe the kind of
process that took place.
Different Thermodynamic Paths
The work done depends on the initial and final
states and the path taken between these states.
Work done by a Gas
Note that the amount of work needed to take the system from one
state to another is not unique! It depends on the path taken.
We generally assume quasi-static processes (slow
enough that p and T are well defined at all times):
This is just the area under the p-V curve
}
=
f
i
V
V
by
dV p W
V
p
p
V
p
V
dW
by
= F dx = pA dx = p (A dx)= p dV
Consider a piston with cross-sectional area A
filled with gas. For a small displacement dx,
the work done by the gas is:
dx
When a gas expands, it does work on its environment
What is Heat?
Q is not a state function --- the heat depends on the
process, not just on the initial and final states of the system
Sign of Q : Q > 0 system gains thermal energy
Q < 0 system loses thermal energy
Up to mid-1800s heat was considered a substance -- a
caloric fluid that could be stored in an object and
transferred between objects. After 1850, kinetic
theory.

A more recent and still common misconception is that
heat is the quantity of thermal energy in an object.

The term Heat (Q) is properly used to describe energy
in transit, thermal energy transferred into or out of a
system from a thermal reservoir

(like cash transfers into and out of your bank account)
Q U
An Extraordinary Fact
The work done depends on the initial and final
states and the path taken between these states.
BUT, the quantity Q - W does not depend
on the path taken; it depends only on the initial
and final states.
Only Q - W has this property. Q, W, Q + W,
Q - 2W, etc. do not.
So we give Q - W a name: the internal energy.
-- Heat and work are forms of energy transfer
and energy is conserved.
The First Law of Thermodynamics
(FLT)

AU = Q + W
on

work done
on the system
change in
total internal energy
heat added
to system
or
AU = Q - W
by

State Function Process Functions
1st Law of Thermodynamics
statement of energy conservation for a thermodynamic
system
internal energy U is a state variable
W, Q process dependent
system done work : positive
system added heat : positive
by
to
W
Q
W Q U = A
The First Law of Thermodynamics
by
dW dQ dE =
int
What this means: The internal energy of a system
tends to increase if energy is added via heat (Q)
and decrease via work (W) done by the system.
on
dW dQ dE + =
int
. . . and increase via work (W) done on the system.
on by
dW dW =
Isoprocesses
apply 1st law of thermodynamics to closed
system of an ideal gas
isoprocess is one in which one of the
thermodynamic (state) variables are kept
constant
use pV diagram to visualise process
Isobaric Process
process in which pressure is kept
constant
Isochoric Process
process in which volume is kept
constant
Isothermal Process
process in which temperature is held
constant
Isochoric (constant volume)
Thermodynamic processes of an ideal gas
( FLT: AU = Q - W
by
)
V
p
1
2
p V T Nk U A o = A o = A
0 pdV W
by }
= =
FLT:
U Q A =
Q
Temperature
changes
Isobaric (constant pressure)
V
p
1 2
V p T Nk U A o = A o = A
FLT:
( ) V p W U Q
by
A o A 1 + = + =
V p pdV W
by
A = =
}
Q
p
Temperature and
volume change
Isothermal (constant temperature)
}
= =
2
1
V
V
1
2
by
V
V
n NkT dV p W
0 = AU
FLT:
by
W Q =
p
V
1
2
( FLT: AU = Q - W
by
)
V
1
p
Q
Thermal Reservoir
T
Volume and
pressure change
The First Law Of Thermodynamics
2-1.The central point of first law
2-2. Internal energy and total energy
2-3.The equation of the first law
2-4.The first law for closed system
2-5.The first law for open system
2-6.Application of the energy equation
2-1.The central point of first law

1.Expression
In a cyclic process, the algebraic sum of the
work transfers is proportional to the algebraic
sum of the heat transfers.
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed;
it can only change forms.
The first law of thermodynamics is simply a
statement of energy principle.

2-1.The central point of first
law

2.Central point
The energy conservation law is used to
conservation between work and heat.
Perpetual motion machines of the first
kind.(PMM1)
Heat: see chapter 1;
Work: see chapter 1;

2-2.Internal Energy

1.Definition:
Internal energy is all kinds of micro-energy in system.
2. Internal energy is property
It include:
a) Kinetic energy of molecule (translational kinetic,
vibration, rotational energy)
b) Potential energy
c) Chemical energy
d) Nuclear energy

2-2.Internal Energy

3.The symbol
u: specific internal energy, unit J/kg, kJ/kg ;
U: total internal energy, unit J, kJ;
4.Total energy of system
E=E
k
+E
p
+U
E
k
=mc
f
2
/2
E
p
=mgz
E=E
k
+E
p
+U
per unit mass:
e=e
k
+e
p
+u
e=e
k
+e
p
+u


2-3. The equation of the first law

1. The equation
( inlet energy of system) (outlet energy of
system) = (the change of the total energy of the
system)
E
in
-E
out
=E
system


2-4.The first law in closed system
1. The equation
E
in
-E
out
=E
system


W
Q
2-4.The first law in closed system
Q-W=E
system
=U
Q=U+W
Per unit mass:
q= u+w
dq=du+dw
If the process is reversible, then:
dq=du+pdv
This is the first equation of the first law.
Here q, w, u is algebraic.

2-4.The first law in closed system
The only way of the heat change to mechanical
energy is expansion of working fluid.

2-5. The first law in open system
1. Stead flow
For stead flow, the following conditions are
fulfilled:
The matter of system is flowing steadily, so that
the flow rate across any section of the flow has
the same value;
The state of the matter at any point remains
constant;
Q, W flow remains constant;
2-5. The first law in open system
2. Flow work
W
flow
=pfs=pV
w
flow
=pv
p
V
2-5. The first law in open system
3.
W
t
are expansion work and the
change of flow work for open system.
4.
W
s
is W
t
and the change of kinetic
and potential energy of fluid for open
system.
2-5. The first law in open system
5. Enthalpy
for flow fluid energy:

+mc
f
2
/2+mgz U+pV
H =U+pV unit: J, kJ
For Per unit mass:
h=u+pv unit: J/kg, kJ/kg
2-5. The first law in open system
6. Energy equation for steady flow open system


U
1
+p
1
V
1
H
1
, mc
f1
2
/2, mgz
1
U
2
+p
2
V
2
H
2
, mc
f2
2
/2, mgz
2
Q
W
2-5. The first law in open system
1
2
1 1 1
2
1
mgz c m H Q E
f in
+ + + =
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
mgz c m H W E
f s out
+ + + =
0 = A
system
E
0 )
2
1
( )
2
1
(
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1 1
= + + + + + + mgz mc H W mgz c m H Q
f s f
2-5. The first law in open system
s f
W z mg c m H Q + A + A + A =
2
2
1
0 )
2
1
( )
2
1
(
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
= + + + + + + gz c h w gz c h q
f s f
Per unit mass:
s f
w z g c h q + A + A + A =
2
2
1
2-5. The first law in open system
vdp h q A =
If neglect kinetic energy and potential energy , then:
t
w h q + A =
If the process is reversible, then:
This is the second equation of the first law.
W
2-5. The first law in open system
7. Energy equation for the open system


Inlet flows Out flows
Q
1
2

i
Open system
1
2

j
2-5. The first law in open system
Energy equation for the open system



. . .
2
. . .
2
. . .
)
2
1
( )
2
1
(
system
j j
fj j
n
i
i
i fi
n
i
i s
E m z g c h m z g c h W Q A = + + + + +

2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
1. Engine
a). Turbines energy equation:
E
in
-E
out
=E
system
=0
W
i
=H
2
-H
1
w
i
=h
2
-h
1
U
1
+p
1
V
1
H
1
, mc
f1
2
/2, mgz
1
U
2
+p
2
V
2
H
2
mc
f2
2
/2, mgz
2
Q
W
i
Q0
=0
=0
2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
1. Engine
b). Cylinder engine energy equation:
W
t
=H
2
-H
1
+Q=(U+pV)
2
-(U+pV)
1
+Q
Q
W
t
H
1
H
2
E
k1
, E
p1
0
E
k1
, E
p1
0
2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
2. Compressors
Energy equation:
W
c
=- W
t
=H
2
-H
1
W
c
H
1
H
2
E
k1
, E
p1
0
E
k1
, E
p1
0
Q0
2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
3. Mixing chambers
Energy equation:
m
1
h
1
+ m
2
h
2
-m
3
h
3
=0
Cold water: m
1
h
1
hot water: m
2
h
2
Mixing water:
m
3
h
3
2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
4. Heat exchangers
Energy equation:

m
1
h
1
m

h

m
3
h
3
m
4
h
4
m
5
h
5
m
6
h
6
(m
1
h
1
+ m
2
h
2
+ m
3
h
3
)-(m
4
h
4
+ m
5
h
5
+ m
6
h
6
)= 0
2-6. Application of The Energy Equation
5. Throttling valves
Energy equation:
h
1
-h
2
=0
h
1
h
2
Unit - II
Air Cycles
OTTO CYCLE
OTTO CYCLE
Efficiency is given by


Efficiency increases with increase in
compression ratio and specific heat
ratio () and is independent of load,
amount of heat added and initial
conditions.

1
1
1

=

q
r


r
q
1 0
2 0.242
3 0.356
4 0.426
5 0.475
6 0.512
7 0.541
8 0.565
9 0.585
10 0.602
16 0.67
20 0.698
50 0.791
CR from 2 to 4, efficiency is 76%
CR from 4 to 8 efficiency is 32.6
CR from 8 to 16 efficiency 18.6

OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
It is that constant pressure which, if exerted
on the piston for the whole outward stroke,
would yield work equal to the work of the
cycle. It is given by

2 1
3 2
2 1
V V
Q
V V
W
mep

q
OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
We have:



Eq. of state:

To give:

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
V
V
V
V V V
1
1
1
1
1
2
1 2 1
1
1 0
1
p
T
m
R
M V =
r
T MR
m p
Q
mep
1
1
1 0
1
3 2

=

q
OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
The quantity Q
2-3
/M is heat added/unit
mass equal to Q, so

r
T R
m p
Q
mep
1
1
1 0
1

'
=q
OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
Non-dimensionalizing mep with p
1
we get




Since:

(

'
(
(
(

=
1 0 1
1
1
1
T R
m Q
r
p
mep
q
( ) 1
0
=
v
c
m
R
OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
We get



Mep/p
1
is a function of heat added, initial
temperature, compression ratio and
properties of air, namely, c
v
and

| | 1
1
1
1
1 1

(


'
=

q
r
T c
Q
p
mep
v
Choice of Q
We have


For an actual engine:


F=fuel-air ratio, M
f
/M
a

M
a
=Mass of air,
Q
c
=fuel calorific value
M
Q
Q
3 2
=
'
cycle kJ in Q FM
Q M Q
c a
c f
/
3 2
=
=

Choice of Q
We now get:





Thus:


M
Q FM
Q
c a
=
'
r V
V V
And
V
V V
M
M
Now
a
1
1
1
2 1
1
2 1
=

~
|
.
|

\
|
=
'
r
FQ Q
c
1
1
Choice of Q
For isooctane, FQ
c
at stoichiometric
conditions is equal to 2975 kJ/kg, thus
Q = 2975(r 1)/r
At an ambient temperature, T
1
of 300K and
c
v
for air is assumed to be 0.718 kJ/kgK,
we get a value of Q/c
v
T
1
= 13.8(r 1)/r.
Under fuel rich conditions, = 1.2, Q/ c
v
T
1
=
16.6(r 1)/r.
Under fuel lean conditions, = 0.8, Q/ c
v
T
1

= 11.1(r 1)/r
OTTO CYCLE
Mean Effective Pressure
Another parameter, which is of importance,
is the quantity mep/p
3
. This can be
obtained from the following expression:
1
1 1
1
1
1 3
+
'
=

r T c
Q
r p
mep
p
mep
v
Diesel Cycle
Thermal Efficiency of cycle is given by



r
c
is the cut-ff ratio, V
3
/V
2

We can write r
c
in terms of Q:

( )
(

=

1
1 1
1
1
c
c
r
r
r
q

1
1
1
+
'
=

r T c
Q
r
p
c
We can write the mep formula for the
diesel cycle like that for the Otto cycle in
terms of the , Q, , c
v
and T
1
:
| | 1
1
1
1
1 1

(


'
=

q
r
T c
Q
p
mep
v
Diesel Cycle
We can write the mep in terms of , r and
r
c
:



The expression for mep/p
3
is:

( ) ( )
( )( ) 1 1
1 1
1


=


r
r r r r
p
mep
c c
|
.
|

\
|
=

r p
mep
p
mep 1
1 3



DUAL CYCLE
Dual Cycle
The Efficiency is given by



We can use the same expression as
before to obtain the mep.
To obtain the mep in terms of the cut-off
and pressure ratios we have the
following expression

( ) ( )
(
(

+

=

1 1
1
1
1
1
c p p
c p
r r r
r r
r
q

Dual Cycle



For the dual cycle, the expression for mep/p
3

is as follows:

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) 1 1
1 1 1
1

+
=


r
r r r r r r r r
p
mep
c p p c p
Dual Cycle



For the dual cycle, the expression for mep/p
3

is as follows:

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) 1 1
1 1 1
1

+
=


r
r r r r r r r r
p
mep
c p p c p
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
1
1 3
p
p
p
mep
p
mep
Dual Cycle
We can write an expression for r
p
the
pressure ratio in terms of the peak
pressure which is a known quantity:



We can obtain an expression for r
c
in terms
of Q and r
p
and other known quantities as
follows:
|
.
|

\
|
=

r p
p
r
p
1
1
3
Dual Cycle



We can also obtain an expression for r
p
in
terms of Q and r
c
and other known
quantities as follows:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(

)
`

'
=

1
1 1
1
1


p v
c
r r T c
Q
r

+
(

+
'
=

c
v
p
r
r T c
Q
r
1
1
1
1
Unit IV & V
Refrigeration &

Air Conditioning

Objectives
Basic operation of refrigeration and AC
systems
Principle components of refrigeration and
AC systems
Thermodynamic principles of refrigeration
cycle
Safety considerations
Uses of Systems
Cooling of food stores and cargo
Cooling of electronic spaces and
equipment
CIC (computers and consoles)
Radio (communications gear)
Radars
ESGN/RLGN
Sonar
Cooling of magazines
Air conditioning for crew comfort
Definition Review
Specific heat (c
p
): Amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of 1 lb
of substance 1F (BTU/lb) how much
for water?
Sensible heat vs Latent heat
LHV/LHF
Second Law of Thermodynamics: must
expend energy to get process to work
Refrigeration Cycle
Refrigeration - Cooling of an object and
maintenance of its temp below that of
surroundings
Working substance must alternate b/t
colder and hotter regions
Most common: vapor compression
Reverse of power cycle
Heat absorbed in low temp region and
released in high temp region
Generic Refrigeration Cycle
Thermodynamic Cycle
Typical
Refrigeration
Cycle
Components
Refrigerant
Evaporator/Chille
r
Compressor
Condenser
Receiver
Thermostatic
expansion valve
(TXV)
Refrigerant
Desirable properties:
High latent heat of vaporization - max cooling
Non-toxicity (no health hazard)
Desirable saturation temp (for operating
pressure)
Chemical stability (non-flammable/non-
explosive)
Ease of leak detection
Low cost
Readily available
Commonly use FREON (R-12, R-114,
etc.)
Evaporator/Chiller
Located in space to be refrigerated
Cooling coil acts as an indirect heat
exchanger
Absorbs heat from surroundings and
vaporizes
Latent Heat of Vaporization
Sensible Heat of surroundings
Slightly superheated (10F) -
ensures no liquid carryover into
compressor

Compressor
Superheated Vapor:
Enters as low press, low temp vapor
Exits as high press, high temp vapor
Temp: creates differential (AT)
promotes heat transfer
Press: T
sat
allows for
condensation at warmer temps
Increase in energy provides the driving
force to circulate refrigerant through the
system
Condenser
Refrigerant rejects latent heat to cooling
medium
Latent heat of condensation (LHC)
Indirect heat exchanger: seawater absorbs
the heat and discharges it overboard
Receiver
Temporary storage space & surge
volume for the sub-cooled refrigerant
Serves as a vapor seal to prevent vapor
from entering the expansion valve
Expansion Device
Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV)
Liquid Freon enters the expansion valve
at high pressure and leaves as a low
pressure wet vapor (vapor forms as
refrigerant enters saturation region)
Controls:
Pressure reduction
Amount of refrigerant entering evaporator
controls capacity
Air Conditioning
Purpose: maintain the atmosphere of an
enclosed space at a required temp,
humidity and purity
Refrigeration system is at heart of AC
system
Heaters in ventilation system
Types Used:
Self-contained
Refrigerant circulating
Chill water circulating
AC System Types
Self-Contained System
Add-on to ships that originally did not have
AC plants
Not located in ventilation system (window
unit)
Refrigerant circulating system
Hot air passed over refrigerant cooling coils
directly
Chilled water circulating system
Refrigerant cools chill water
Hot air passes over chill water cooling coils
Basic AC System
Safety Precautions
Phosgene gas hazard
Lethal
Created when refrigerant is exposed to high
temperatures
Handling procedures
Wear goggles and gloves to avoid eye irritation and
frostbite
Asphyxiation hazard in non-ventilated spaces
(bilges since heavier than air)
Handling of compressed gas bottles
THANK U