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What do they have in common?

Answer: they were all politicians who were assassinated... Watch the video found here:

Read the article found here: ed/the-assassination-of-thomas-darcy-mcgee

And then answer the questions that follow

The Assassination of DArcy McGee

DArcy McGee was assassinated after Confederation had been won in 1867. What effect do you think the news of his assassination had on people in the new country of Canada? McGee was popular with both Irish and non-Irish Canadians. Citizens at that time might react with anger and demand government reprisals against the Fenians. The fact that the country was newly formed might make some insecure, especially since McGee was a strong supporter of Confederation.

The Assassination of DArcy McGee

What does the murder of DArcy McGee suggest about the atmosphere in Canada around the time of Confederation? Political assassination is a last-resort form of protest. Just as there were differences that existed among the colonies, there was a division among the citizens of the colonies over uniting.

The Assassination of DArcy McGee

Thomas DArcy McGee is the only Canadian victim of a political assassination at the federal level to date And the execution of Patrick James Whalen was the countrys last public hanging

The Charlottetown Conference

Date and Location: 1 September 1864 Charlottetown, PEI Purpose: Maritime provinces were talking about a Maritime union The Canadians had asked to attend as they wanted to put forth their plan of all British North American provinces uniting... Confederation

The Charlottetown Conference

The Canadian delegation, including John A. Macdonald, George-Etienne Cartier, George Brown, Alexander Galt and DArcy McGee arrived and were asked to speak first. They spoke of the advantages of uniting:
Free trade between the colonies... businesses would grow and jobs would be plentiful An inter-colonial railway could be built to connect all provinces A central government would be set up for matters affecting all provinces but each province would still have its own government to look after its own affairs

They agreed to meet and discuss the idea of Confederation at the Qubec Conference.

The Qubec Conference

Date and Location: 28 October 1864 Qubec City, Qubec. Purpose: to finalize a union of the provinces Included seven delegates from NB, seven from PEI, five from NS, two from NFLD and twelve from Canada East and Canada West They worked out a plan known as the Seventy-Two Resolutions.

The Seventy-Two Resolutions

There would be a strong central government to look after affairs affecting the whole country such as defence, trade, and foreign affairs. Each province would have its own government to look after local matters. The system of government would follow the British Constitution and the head of the government would be the King or Queen of England. The federal government would be made up of an elected House of Commons and an appointed Legislative Council (Senate). Members of the House of Commons would be elected according to the principle of representation by population. NFLD and NWT and BC would be allowed into the union as terms could be worked out.

Province of Canada
Who? For Confederation Why? The Great Coalition: End political deadlock, Macdonald, Brown, Cartier, strengthen defence, Galt & McGee improve trade, build transcontinental railway Most members of Canada West (English speaking) Conservatives (le Parti Bleu) led by Cartier (mainly French-speaking) Chance to expand to the West, union with other English-speaking colonies Separate provincial government for Qubec would be a way of protecting FrenchCanadian way of life.

Province of Canada
Who? Against Confederation English-speaking minority in Canada East Why? Fear of being at a disadvantage in a province with a French-Canadian majority

French-speaking Liberals Fear that a central (Le Parti Rouge) in Canada government dominated by East led by Dorion English Canadians would threaten French Canadian way of life

Canada West

They would become a powerful nation It would provide a barrier-free market Canada would become the third largest seagoing nation in the world after Britain and the USA It would encourage people to immigrate to Canada In case of war, they would stand together

Canada East
Cartier explained that French and English would be equal partners. He promised that they would not lose their way of life. He said that if they did not join that they could be swallowed by the USA. Dorion wanted a referendum, which means that all the people of Canada East would be given a chance to vote on the question and not just members of the Assembly.

New Brunswick
Premier Tilly was in favour of Confederation and called an election on the question The anti-confederates believed that NB would lose control over their own affairs Opponents complained that Tilly sold New Brunswickers out for .80 cents each at the Qubec Conference Tilly and his party was defeated, but the province still joined the union... more on that later

Nova Scotia
Leading Anti-Confederate was Joseph Howe, the best known politician in Atlantic Canada. He influenced many people with his Botheration Letters.

Comparing Confederation to a piece of cloth, it is weak and poorly planned piece of material. Is it a good idea to put new wine (NS) in an old bottle (Province of Canada) or to attach new cloth to an old item of clothing? Is union strong when a wise man, doing a steady business, is tricked into joining a gambler? Was Samson stronger when combined with Delilah, who tied him with ropes and cut off his hair?

The premier of NS was Charles Tupper, who decided to wait as he did not want the same result as New Brunswick... more on this later

Prince Edward Island

Advantages were unclear as the promise of a railway linking the Atlantic Colonies to the rest of Canada did Prince Edward Island little good PEI was a small colony and would only have a small amount of representatives in a Canadian government. There was widespread opposition and the topic was dropped... for now.

They felt few ties with Canada and Confederation had little appeal. They had longstanding bonds with Britain. CF Bennett, a wealthy merchant, spoke out against Confederation. He warned that the government would tax their boats, fish etc. and that goods in Canada would be so cheap that NFLD products would not sell. On the night Confederation was defeated in NFLD, there was a parade in St. Johns.

Anti-Confederation song from NFLD

Hurrah for our own native isle, NFLD! Not a stranger shall hold one inch of its strand! Her face turns to Britain, her back to the Gulf, Come near at your peril, Canadian Wolf! Ye Brave NewFoundlanders who plough the salt sea With hearts like the eagle so bold and so free, The time is at hand when youll all have to say If Confederation will carry the day. Cheap tea and molasses they say they will give, All taxes take off that the poor man may live; Cheap nails and cheap lumber our coffins to make, And homespun to men our old clothes when they break.

Anti-Confederation song from NFLD

If they take off the taxes how then will they meet The heavy expense of the countrys upkeep? Just give them the chance to get us in the scrape And theyll chain us like slaves with pen, ink, and red tape. Would you barter the rights that your fathers have won, Your freedom transmitted from father to son? For a few thousand dollars of Canadian gold, Dont let it be said that your birthright was sold. Then hurrah for our own native isle, Newfoundland! Not a stranger shall hold one inch of its strand! Her face turns to Britain, her back to the Gulf, Come near at your peril, Canadian Wolf!

Anti-Confederation song from NFLD

1. What objections does this song suggest Newfoundlanders had to Confederation?

The song suggests Newfoundlanders had the objections to Confederation because the rest of Canada would exploit the colonys rich reserves of natural resources and giving nothing in return. The song also implies that joining Confederation would be disloyal to Britain.

2. Why is a folk song an effective way to express feelings about key issues?

The lyrics are usually written in catchy phrases and in a language used by common people.

Outcome in Atlantic Colonies

Britain supported the idea of Confederation as it would mean only one colonial government to deal with They would also not have to send soldiers and the country expanding west would create more business opportunities This led them to being actively involved in making sure New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined the union...

Outcome in Atlantic Colonies

In New Brunswick, Britain instructed the lieutenant-governor to arrange for a proConfederation decision Former Premier Samuel Leonard Tilly received money from railway promoters, shipping and timber interests and the Canadian government to help the cause The US had ended free trade and Tilly played up the Fenian raids... this combination of factors was enough to convince NB to join

Outcome in Atlantic Colonies

In Nova Scotia, a new, pro-Confederation, lieutenant-governor, Sir Fenwick Williams, was appointed Williams was a hero in the British navy and was beloved by many He threw his support behind Tupper which helped to turn the tide and convince Nova Scotians to join Confederation

The London Conference

Date and Location: 4 December 1866 London, England Purpose: united Canada East and West, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Revised the 72 Resolutions so they would be passed as an act and made law in British Parliament. The British North America Act, which is now known as the Constitution Act of 1867, was passed and went into effect on 1 July 1867 It created the Dominion of Canada... a land stretching from sea to sea.

Term Charlottetown Conference

Definition A meeting organized by the Maritime colonies to discuss a union among them. Politicians from other colonies came to the conference to discuss their plans for a wider union A plan worked at the Qubec Conference to ensure that there would be a string union with a powerful central government A meeting of delegates from all the colonies who gathered to sit down and work out the details of a plan for a union

Historical Significance

The Maritime delegates were impressed by the advantages cited by the delegates from Canada East & West and agreed to meet at the Qubec Conference to discuss union These resolutions are the foundation of the British North America Act of 1867, which created the Dominion of Canada. This conference initiated formal plans for constructing a system of government that was unique to Canada

Seventy-Two Resolutions

Qubec Conference

Term Anti-Confederation

Definition Those opposed to Confederation. They were numerous and powerful in NB, PEI and NFLD

Historical Significance The Fathers of Confederation worked hard in all their regions to have the 72 Resolutions pass in their Assemblies. PEI and NFLD rejected Confederation in 1867. Opponents of Confederation in NB used the subsidy to attack the plan and accused the delegates of selling New Brunswickers to the Canadians for 80 cents each. Although Cartier refused Dorions request for a referendum, there have been referendums in Qubec in 1980 and 1995


A sum of money that each colony would receive from the central government each year, based upon the population of the colony.


A vote of all citizens on a question