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Presented by: Pallavi Shukla Khushbu Rathore

Basics of Kidney:

Location: Mid-abdominal portion at the Lumbar Vertebral Level in the backside. Size: 9-13 cm.

Appearance: Bean shaped

Weight: about 160 gm


Remove Waste products Acid Base Homeostasis BP control

RBC production
Hormone Secretion

Kidney Failure:

Occurs due to damage in the filtering segment - glomerulus or the collection system - tubules. If damage is abrupt - acute kidney failure

if it occurs over a period of time chronic kidney disease.

Kidney Failure - Causes & Symptoms:

Causes Diabetes Hypertension Symptoms Breathlessness & fatigue Dizziness.


High Blood Pressure Side effects of medications and radiations

Passage of blood in urine.

Nausea and vomiting. Swelling of face and legs.


Dr.Willem Kolff constructed the first working dialyzer in 1943. Dialysis means dissolution. Used quickly to remove poisons or toxic substances. Works on principle of diffusion of solutes & ultra filtration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane.


Blood filtered using dialyzer & dialysis machine.

Peritoneal Dialysis
Blood filtered inside body after abdomen is filled with special cleaning solution.


Advantages & Disadvantages:

Advantages No major surgery needed. No waiting lists it prevents people dying. Disadvantages Diet needs to be controlled carefully. Takes about 8 hours, several times a week. Dialysis cannot replace all the functions of a kidney


Steps in Dialysis:

Machine consists of a computer, CRT, a pump, and facility for disposable tubing and filters. Filters are cylindrical, clear plastic outside with the filter material inside.

Before the procedure patient is carefully weighed & Standing and sitting blood pressures are taken.
Outflow of blood from the patient at any given time is visible. This facilitates troubleshooting & detection of clotting. Access is set up , for patients with a fistula , this means inserting two large gauge needles into the fistula.


The pump and a timer are started. Blood pressure is taken periodically. Patients are on moderate to severe fluid restrictive diet since kidney failure usually includes an inability to properly regulate fluid levels in the body.


Patient is disconnected from the plumbing - blood lines. Needle wounds are bandaged with gauze, held for up to 1 hour with direct pressure to stop bleeding, and then taped in place. Temperature, standing and sitting blood pressure, and weight are all measured again.

Thank You