You are on page 1of 83

General Procedure of Shipbuilding

For the benefit of business and people

SUMMARY
1 2 3 FROM CONTRACT TO DELIVERY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY LARGE CONTAINER VESSEL

1
> From Contract to
Delivery

From Contract to Delivery

CONCEPT

Owner Project

Shipyard

CONTRACT

Contract/ Business Dept. Ship Sales Engineering Dept.

DESIGN

Basic/ Production Purchasing of Material Owner/ Class Approval Hull Hull Outfitting Machinery Outfitting Electric Outfitting Painting Quality Assurance Production Control

Purchasing Dept.

PRODUCTION

DELIVERY

A/S
4

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

From Contract to Delivery

CONCEPT

SHIPBUILDING PROCESS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

Owner Project Planning

Broker
* Owner * Shipyard

Shipyard

Contract/ Business Dept. Ship Sales Engineering Dept.

Purpose Route Economic

OFFER BRIEF SPEC

Negotiation Technical Meeting

Full Spec/ Class Cost Balance

Letter of Intent

Total Quantity Option Delivery Date

CONTRACT

Contract Specification Contract G/A, Midship, Piping Diagram Accommodation Plan


GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 6

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

ROLES in SHIPBUILDING

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

75K MIDSHIP

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

75K MIDSHIP

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

10

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM OUTFIT

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

11

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM OUTFIT

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

12

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM OUTFIT

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

13

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM-MACHINERY

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

14

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM-MACHINERY

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

15

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

DIAGRAM-MACHINERY

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

16

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

ACCOMMODATION PLAN

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

17

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

ACCOMMODATION PLAN

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

18

From Contract to Delivery

INITIAL STAGE

ACCOMMODATION PLAN

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

19

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

20

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE

SPIRAL DESIGN

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

21

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE

SPIRAL DESIGN

Definition of Requirements

Length Breadth Depth Draught

Definition of Requirements

Choice Ship Life

Economic Analysis Strength


Longitudinal Strength

Empirical Calculations

Constraints (Design)

Form

Form Selection

Seakeeping
Preliminary Manouvrability Control

Constraints (Design Process) Calculationsr Machinery Selection

COnstraints (Design Environment)

Power
Ship Type Type Ship Area/ Weight

Weather Deck Arrangement

Range

Area
Next Design Step

General Arrangement

Weight

Displacement

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

22

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE

SPIRAL DESIGN
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 23

From Contract to Delivery


Key Design or Key Plan Production Design

DESIGN STAGE

DESIGN STAGE

Basic Design

Lines, Propeller General Arrangement Trim & Stability Loading, etc. Hull Key Plan : Midship Section Construction Profile & Deck Plan Shell Expansion : Cargo Hold Engine Room/ Fore Body/ Aft Body Stern Frame/ Accommodation

Structure Drawing

Production Drawing : Shop Drawing/ Cutting Plan Hull Design Structural Analysis : Static Analysis Coarse Mesh/ Fine Mesh Fatigue Analysis Sloshing Analysis Bow Impact & Slamming Analysis Vibration Analysis

Painting Purchasing Order

: Steel Plate, Angle etc, Paint


GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 24

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE
Key Design : Piping Diagram, Ventilation Mooring, Anchoring, Steering Life Saving, Fire Fighting Traffic Arrangement : Pipe Piece, Traffic Piece, etc Small Equipment

Hull Outfitting Design

Production Design

Accommodation Design : Interior, Piping, Outfitting Purchasing Order : Pipe, Valve, Equipment

Key Design

: E/R Piping Diagram, Machinery Arrangement, M/E, Generator, Boiler, Compressor : Pipe Piece, Vent Piece, etc. Small Equipment : Equipment, Valve, etc.

Machinery Outfitting

Production Design

Purchasing Order

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

25

From Contract to Delivery

DESIGN STAGE
Key Design : Automation Electrical System Navigation Equipment : Cable Piece Light Equipment : Switch Board Equipment, Cable, Sensor

Electric Outfitting

Production Design

Purchasing Order

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

26

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE
Production Control Production Hull, Hull Outfitting, Machinery Outfitting, Paint Quality Assurance

CONDITION

Yard Facility Production Control Material Control

HULL PRODUCTION

Cutting

Sub-Assembly

Assembly

Each Block

P.E

Block Painting

Inspection Owner/ Class

Pre-Outfitting

Grand P.E

Dock Erection

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

27

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

OUTFITTING PRODUCTION

Pre-Outfitting In Block

Outfitting In Dock

Outfitting In Quay

PAINTING

Block Painting

Dock Painting

Cosmetic Painting

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

28

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

29

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

30

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

31

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

32

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

33

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

34

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

35

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

36

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

37

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

38

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

39

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

40

From Contract to Delivery

PRODUCTION STAGE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

41

From Contract to Delivery

DELIVERY & A/S

READY TO SEA TRIAL Shipyard Ship owner

Official Sea Trial


Shipyard, Owner, Class

Speed Endurance Tank Test Anchoring/ Mooring Rudder, Steering Vibration, Noise Equipment Operation Navigation

Correction If Any

Delivery Sign

Departure

A/S (1 YEAR)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

42

From Contract to Delivery

DELIVERY & A/S

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

43

From Contract to Delivery

DELIVERY & A/S

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

44

2
> Classification

45

Classification

MAJOR WORK

SHIPS SAFETY DURING LIFE TIME

DRAWING APPROVAL

Yard Design Maker Design

INSPECTION DURING BUILDING

CERTIFICATION
Intermediate

INSPECTION AFTER DELIVERY


Periodical

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

46

CLASS PROCESS SHIP NEW CONSTRUCTION :

Commercial

Design review

Follow-up in service

T0 Contract

T0 + C Delivery to Owner

RFC Signed
RFC : Request For Certificate

Ad 523 signed by LPO

LPO : Local Plan Approval


47

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

CLASS PROCESS

Design review : basically 4 BV actors


BV Non surveyors Field surveyor

LPO

Marine Center DTM support


DTM : Dept. of Technical Marine
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 48

CLASS PROCESS

Design review

T0
Contract

LPO core activity : Design review Design review can start before RFC signed ( TAKE CARE - CONTRACT DEFINITION ) Completed when Ad 523 + annexes are examined and signed ( technical green light given to Condition Monitoring CM for Class certificate )

T0 + C

Delivery to Owner

RFC Signed

Ad 523 signed by LPO

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

49

CLASS PROCESS

Design review
LPO core business : Design review against Referential
T0
Contract

Referential : BV Rules / IMO Reg. LPO Interpretations : - allowed with BV Rules ( within general conditions) - not allowed for IMO Reg. Rules : technical interpretations / protect interest of Owner ( final CLIENT )

T0 + C

Delivery to Owner

RFC Signed

High technical knowledge frequently requested as Clients may be less educated / powerfull than BV
Great risk of uncontrolled move from design review activity to Consultancy activity

Ad 523 signed by LPO

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

50

CLASS PROCESS

Follow-up in service
T0 + C

LPO activity : Design review at any time in case of conversion Rules : technical interpretations / protect interest of Owner Technical support of CMs / Station surveys Several LPOs may be concerned Technical documentation processing ( drawings + calculation sheets )

Scrap

Delivery to Owner

or

Ad 523 signed by LPO

Change of Class

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

51

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Different from Class design review : BV acts as designer in scope of Consultancy

Technical expertise and knowledge is ( must be ) sold to Client


Highly profitable HIGH RISK OF : - transfer of Yard know-how - confusion on status of conclusions - pressure from management
ALWAYS BE CLEAR ABOUT THE CAP YOU WEAR / THE FORMAT OF COMMENTS YOU ARE ALLOWED TO GIVE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

52

2
MEMBER

Classification

IACS MEMBERS

ABS : American Bureau of Shipping BV : Bureau Veritas CCS : China Classification Society DNV : Det Norske Veritas GL KR LR NK : Germanischer Lloyd : Korean Register of Shipping : Lloyd Register : Nippon Kaiji Kyokai

RINA : Registro Italiano Navale RS : Russian Maritime Register of Shipping


GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 53

Classification

IACS MEMBERS

ASSOCIATES
IRS : Indian Register of Shipping

REQUIREMENTS

- Procedural Requirement

- Unified Requirements - Unified Interpretations - Guide Line & Recommendations, etc.

Web Site

www.iacs.org.uk
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 54

3
> Large Container Vessel

55

SUMMARY

1 2

General : Large Container Vessels Bureau Veritas References in Large Container Vessels - Steps of review process - Torsion analysis - Fatigue analysis - Bow flare analysis

3 BV Hull Expertise

BV Lashing Expertise

5 BV Shaft Alignment Expertise 6 Parametric Roll Calculation

56

GENERAL

LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS

The size range for the largest containerships is expected to increase


significantly in the near future as economies of scale remains the dominant operational factor driving efficient transport.

The Largest containerships currently in service are in the 7000-8000 TEU


range. Many leading shipyard have developed designs for vessels with additional containers rows, tiers and holds. Increase main dimension and capacity up to 9000/10000 TEU.

In the future the carrying capacity of containerships is expected to


increase to 12000 TEU and above

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

57

GENERAL

LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS

Fleet development for container ships


Fleet development in '000 teu

8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0


1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

58

GENERAL

LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS

Order Books for container ships


Order book Feb 2005, number of ships
250 200 150 100 50 0 <1000 10002000 20003000 30004000 40005000 50006000 60007000 70008000 8000+

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

59

GENERAL

LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS

Challenges with the increase of size of containerships

Torsion/Warping stress Fatigue Acceleration forces on lashing Engine power Shaft alignment Parametric roll Slamming/Bow impact

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

60

BV REFERENCES

CONTAINER SHIPS BUILDING

LAST MAIN REFERENCES

HHI
1x5,500 TEU containerships for YANG MING LINE 1x7,800 TEU containership for CMA CGM

10x5,100 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building)


2x5,100 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI) 2x9,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building) 2x9,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI) 2x8,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building) 2x8,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI) 1x8,200 TEU containership for YANG MING LINE (under building)

DSME
1x6,500 TEU containership for CGM CMA

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

61

BV REFERENCES

CONTAINER SHIPS BUILDING

LAST MAIN REFERENCES


HHIC
2x1,600 TEU containerships for DELMAS

4x1,600 TEU containerships for VROON


2x4,300 TEU containerships for CMA CGM 3x6,500 TEU containerships for CMA CGM

SHI
8 x 5,770 TEU containerships for CMA CGM

CSBC
18x2,200 TEU containerships for WAN HAI LINES, DELMAS, CMA CGM, YANG MING LINE

IMABARI
3x5,500 TEU containerships for COSCO
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 62

BV REFERENCES

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

< 9,200 TEU CONTAINERSHIP >


Main Dimensions:

Length btw. PP
Breadth Depth, to upper deck Draught, summer Speed Power

333,44 m
42,8 m 27,3 m 14,5 m 24,25 kn 68656 kW

Key elements: Between half December and the end of March the complete structure has been
reviewed. This was only possible in close cooperation with the Shipyard. Several meetings at the shipyard site, exchanging information and calculation results and discussing the findings, have taken place. Two offices of Bureau Veritas, Korea and Paris, have been working around the clock in order to make the deadlines of the shipyard.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

63

BV HULL EXPERTISE

CRITIAL AREA OF LARGE CONTAINER SHIPS

Hatch coamings / Superstructures connection Longitudinal Hatch Coamings Bow Flare impact

Bottom Slamming Transverse Bulkhead connections Hatch corners


GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

Cross-deck structures
64

BV HULL EXPERTISE

STEP OF REVIEW PROCESS

DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS


General and subdivision arrangement Mid-ship section : Longitudinal strength and local rule scantlings All sections : Longitudinal strength and local rules scantlings Torsion model : Warping stress estimation all along the vessel (to be included in the global stress)

Key drawings: primary members calculation (local + global stress)


Detail drawings / reinforcement : bracket reinforcement under stack... Bow impact and flat forward bottom area Other calculations: Loading manual strength analysis, Lashing...

IN PARALLEL TO DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS


FEM (VeriSTAR) calculations: double check for design review Fatigue Analysis with Mars/VeriSTAR

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

65

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

MARS - TORCIS ANALYSIS

TORCIS calculation

2 calculations:

wave 60 degree
wave 120 degree

Modelisation of all cargo holds

Estimation of shear force in cross deck beams

Estimation of warping stress in side shell , upper-deck all along the vessel N/mm2

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

66

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

MARS - TORCIS ANALYSIS

Buckling due to warping

Fatigue due to warping (L27) 16 years (L28) 17 years (L29) 13 years (L30) 15 years (L31) 17 years

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

67

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Analyses based on complete ship model

VeriSTAR is use for


- Buckling analysis (coarse mesh) - Yielding analysis (fine mesh) - Fatigue analysis (very fine mesh)
Full model of 9200 TEU containership

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

68

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Methodology and steps of a VeriSTAR CSM calculations

X1 =

s1

s1 + w1(Cfvwv1+Cfhwh1 + Cf )

Quartering sea: Maximize static , vertical bending (50%), horizontal bending (100%) and torsion (100%)

50% Vertical Bending moment

Maximum Torsion at fore part

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

69

3D FEM CALCULATIONS VERISTAR

COMPLETE SHIP MODEL

Methodology and steps of a VeriSTAR CSM calculations


Coarse mesh modelling : full ship Definition of ballast areas and container loading points Static calculation with lightship weight: loading conditions
lightship (checking case) ballast (maximum Bending moment) full load (maximum draft) compare data with loading manual (draft,displacement,still water bending moment)

Wave Load calculations: load cases


based on selection of design waves (table 5) Head Sea (longitudinal strength) Beam Sea (transverse strength) Quartering sea (torsion strength)

Fine mesh analyses


based on areas to be analysed (Table 1) Hatch corners, cross deck, connection superstructure,connection girders...
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 70

BV HULL EXPERTISE

COMPLETE SHIP MODEL

Principle Design wave load (see also Table 5)


Maximum Vertical Wave Bending Moment in Hogging condition Maximum Wave Torque at vicinity of 0.25L (aft part) Maximum Wave Torque at mid-ship Maximum Wave Torque at vicinity of 0.75L (fore part) Maximum vertical acceleration in inclined conditions Maximum vertical acceleration in upright conditions Maximum transverse acceleration
Sea keeping calculation Iterative process

Wave design load to be associate with loading conditions


Ballast, full load Load cases

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

71

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Stresses and Deformation


Stress in Hatch coaming Connection superstructure

Stress Cross deck Stress Hatch corners

Stress Girders

Buckling in bottom area

Buckling in bulkhead and bilge area

Head Sea Condition

Quartering sea condition

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

72

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Areas to be analysed through fine Mesh models

Examples: - Hatch Corners - Connection of hatch coaming with superstructure

- Transverse Bulkhead
- Support Bulkhead - Transverse Frame - Bottom Girders

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

73

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS
HATCH CORNERS

Typical stress range in head sea

Typical stress range in oblique sea

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

74

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Support Bulkhead

Maximum pressure in alternate condition one bay empty

Shear stress at maximum draft

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

75

BV HULL EXPERTISE

TORSION ANALYSIS

Connection with superstructure

Stress concentrations
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 76

BV HULL EXPERTISE

FATIGUE ANALYSIS

Steps for Fatigue calculation of side shell longitudinals:


1st step : 2D Fatigue Analysis 2nd Step: 3D Fatigue Analysis

Fatigue calculations for Hatch corners


One Step: 3D Fatigue Analysis

Cracks in side shell longitudinal due to fatigue


GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 77

BV HULL EXPERTISE

FATIGUE ANALYSIS

Side Shell longitudinals


To compare with Mars results
Fatigue Hot spot 1

Damage Fatigue Life calculation to be over 20 years

Fatigue Hot spot 2

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

78

BV HULL EXPERTISE

FATIGUE ANALYSIS

Hatch Corners

In order to increase fatigue life, compromise between: - sufficient reinforcement - smooth grinding

Especially fore part area due to high torsional loads

Hot spot edge of the corner Hatch corner in the midship and fore part
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING 79

BV HULL EXPERTISE

FATIGUE ANALYSIS

Hatch Corners
In order to increase fatigue life, compromise between: - sufficient reinforcement - smooth grinding

Smooth Grinding improves the fatigue life by 2

Hot spot edge of the corner

Hatch corner in the aft part at ER

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

80

BV HULL EXPERTISE

SLAMMING/ BOW IMPACT

Slamming
Maximum impact in forward area: - Buckling in transverse frames - Buckling on side shell plate and stiffeners - Detail connections in forward area

VeriSTAR calculations with maximum vertical acceleration and in sagging condition.

Blow flare analysis

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

81

BV HULL EXPERTISE

SLAMMING/ BOW IMPACT

Buckling in transverse frame at fore part

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF SHIPBUILDING

82

END Thank You for Your Attention !

83