Prepared by: Mariane S.


• A cancer that starts in the cells of the breast in women and men

Risk factors you cannot change
Risk Factor you can change lifestyle choices

GenderAge Genetic risk factors Race Personal history of breast cancer • Menstrual periods • Treatment with DES • • • • •

• Nullipara • Use of birth control pills • Postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT) • Use of alcohol • Being overweight or obese


• Exact causes of Cancer is UNKNOWN

• Lesions to DNA such as genetic mutations • Abnormal growth factor- signaling • Inherited defects in DNA repair genes


Paget's disease
• named after Sir James Paget • include redness and mild scaling and flaking of the nipple skin and resembles eczema, and can be itchy

Male Breast Cancer
• Men with breast cancer usually have lumps that can be felt • men have breast tissue and that they can develop breast cancer.


• a “lump” in the surrounding breast tissue. • changes in breast size or shape, skin dimpling, nipple inversion, or spontaneous single-nipple discharge • “Mastodynia” – breast pain • peau d'orange- pain, swelling, warmth and redness throughout the breast, as well as an orange-peel texture to the skin- inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) • Paget's disease of the breast

Diagnostic Test


 common methods screening are: self and clinical breast exams Incision and biopsy) mammography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Genetic testing may also used

 surgery when the tumor is localized  adjuvant hormonal therapy (with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor)  Adjuvant therapy Hormone Therapy Chemotherapy Radiotherapy Interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT)


Cancer of the Reproductive System Female

Reproductive System

Ovary Uterus Endometrial Uterus – Cervical Vagina/Vulva

Ovarian Cancer
• is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary • most cases, there are no known causes • called a “silent killer” • Ovarian cancer can develop at any age

Ovarian Cancer
• Risk factors
Genetic risk factors Increasing age- menopausal women Nullipara Early menstrual cycles- start before 12 years old and late menopausal • Use of estrogens or hormone replacement therapy • Use of Talc, High fat diet • • • •

Ovarian Cancer
• pelvic pressure or frequent urination • unexplained changes in bowel habits • pain or swelling in the abdomen • pain during intercourse • vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women

Ovarian Cancer
Diagnostic Exams PE pelvic examination CA-125 assay one or more various imaging procedures (MRI, CT’s scan, UTZ) • a lower GI series, or barium enema • • • • • diagnostic laparoscopy

Treatment Ovarian Cancer
Treatment • Surgery- oophorectomy, bilateral oophorectomy,TAHBSO • Chemotherapy- via the lymphatic system or the blood stream • Radiation

• Cancer of uterine cavity • Divided into two primary forms Endometrial Cancer Cervical Cancer

Endometrial Cancer
• develops when the cells that make up the endometrium become abnormal and grow uncontrollably • exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer
• CAUSES • high levels of estrogen

• Risk Factor Age- age of 50 and above Obesity Estrogen replacement therapy Diabetes Hypertension Early first menstruation or late menopause Tamoxifen Genetic factors Nullipara women

• Vaginal bleeding

Symptoms of Endometrial cancer

• Anemia menorrhagia • Lower abdominal metrorrhagia pain or pelvic in premenopausal women cramping in women older than 40: extremely long, heavy, • Thin white or or frequent episodes of clear vaginal bleeding (may indicate discharge in premalignant changes) postmenopausal women.

Diagnostic Exams for Endometrial cancer
• • • • • • Pap smear Endometrial curettage Hysteroscopy Endometrial biopsy or aspiration Transvaginal ultrasound TruTest- uses the small flexible Tao Brush to brush the entire lining of the uterus

Treatment for Endometrial cancer
• Surgical treatment – TAHBSO
Abdominal hysterectomy more prefer than vaginal hysterectomy

• Radiation therapy • Chemotherapy • Hormone therapy

• • a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors. • third most common cancer of the female reproductive tract


 Multiple Sex Partner  Smoking  some hormonal contraception, diethylstilbestrol (DES)  a family history of cervical cancer.  Lack of regular Pap tests

• Abnormal vaginal bleeding – Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods – after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam – Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before – Bleeding after menopause • Increased vaginal discharge • Pelvic pain • Pain during sexual intercourse

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

• PREVENTION – Awareness (human papillomavirus) – Screening (Pap smear) – Vaccination of HPV – Use of condoms

– Pap smear – BiopsyEndocervical curettage – cystoscopy – Colposcopy – CT scan, MRI

• TREATMENT  SURGERY • Hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy  Radiation therapy  Chemotherapy  Alternative and Complementary Therapies

Vaginal Cancer
• a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina • When found in early stages, it can often be cured

Vaginal Cancer
• CAUSES The cause of vaginal cancer is not known. Age and exposure to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a woman’s risk of developing vaginal cancer.

Vaginal Cancer
• Risk Factor  aged 60 or older  exposed to DES while in the mother's womb  Having (HPV) infection  history of abnormal cells in the cervix or cervical cancer  very poor hygiene

Vaginal Cancer
• SYMPTOMS o Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge not related to menstrual periods. o Pain during sexual intercourse. o Pain in the pelvic area. o A lump in the vagina.

Vaginal Cancer

Physical exam and history Pelvic exam- exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. Speculum is also use to visualize Pap smear Biopsy Colposcopy- lighted, magnifying instrument to check the vagina and cervix

Vaginal Cancer
• Surgery- vaginectomy- removal of vagina Hysterectomy • Radiation therapy • Chemotherapy

Reproductive Disorder


• cancer that develops in the testicles • Rare but usually occur between ages 15-35 • No known etiology/cause

Risk Factor

• major risk factor for the development of testis cancer is cryptorchidism • inguinal hernia • mumps orchitis • sedentary lifestyle • hormones

SYMPTOMS • a lump • loss of sexual activity or interest • A burning sensation • hydrocele
specially following physical activity. build-up of fluid in the scrotum

• Lumbago • severely enlarged testicle (tumor)
lower back pain 3 times the original size.

as much as

• a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin

or tunica vaginalis, known as

sometimes described as a "heavy" sensation

• other testicle may be shrunken in size • blood in semen • general weak and tired feeling

Diagnostic Exams Treatment  ORCHIECTOMY • Scrotum examination-  Surgical removal of one or both testes palpation  Followed by • scrotal ultrasound  Adjuvant Treatment • CT scans  Chemotherapy • tumor markers- AFP  Radiotherapy alpha1 feto protein,  CT scans Beta-HCG, and LDH  blood tests • Biopsy- inguinal orchiectomy

Penile Cancer
• growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis • ETIOLOGY • exact cause of penile cancer is unknown • cancers may be related to chronic exposure to carcinogens • associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Penile Cancer
Symptoms Risk Factor • Person (HPV) infection • Redness • Smoking • rashes
• phimosis • treatment of psoriasis w/ UV light • Age • AIDS • poor hygiene

• a lump on the penis • Penile lesions • ulcerations from irritation • allergic reactions • Severe- penile papule

Penile Cancer
Diagnostic Exams • Penile Examination) • CT scan • Biopsy

• SURGERY Amputation (penectomy) - a partial or total removal of the penis, and possibly the associated lymph nodes • RADIATION THERAPY • CHEMOTHERAPY • BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

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