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Prepared by:

Mariane S. Montemayor
BREAST CANCER
• A cancer that starts in the
cells of the breast in
women and men
BREAST CANCER
Risk factors you cannot Risk Factor you can change
change lifestyle choices

• Gender- • Nullipara
• Age • Use of birth control
• Genetic risk factors pills
• Race • Postmenopausal
hormone therapy (PHT)
• Personal history of
breast cancer • Use of alcohol
• Menstrual periods • Being overweight or
obese
• Treatment with DES
BREAST CANCER
Cause: Study
• Lesions to DNA
• Exact causes such as genetic
of Cancer is mutations
UNKNOWN • Abnormal growth
factor- signaling
• Inherited defects
in DNA repair
genes
Paget's disease
• named after Sir James
Paget
• include redness and
mild scaling and flaking
of the nipple skin and
resembles eczema, and
can be itchy
Male Breast Cancer
• Men with breast cancer
usually have lumps that
can be felt
• men have breast tissue
and that they can
develop breast cancer.
BREAST CANCER
SYMPTOMS
• a “lump” in the surrounding breast tissue.
• changes in breast size or shape, skin dimpling,
nipple inversion, or spontaneous single-nipple
discharge
• “Mastodynia” – breast pain
• peau d'orange- pain, swelling, warmth and
redness throughout the breast, as well as an
orange-peel texture to the skin- inflammatory
breast cancer (IBC)
• Paget's disease of the breast
BREAST CANCER
Diagnostic Test
 common methods
screening are:
self and clinical breast
exams
Incision and biopsy)
mammography
Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (MRI)
Genetic testing may also
used
BREAST CANCER
Treatment
 surgery when the tumor is
localized
 adjuvant hormonal
therapy (with tamoxifen
or an aromatase inhibitor)
 Adjuvant therapy
Hormone Therapy
Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy
Interstitial laser
thermotherapy (ILT)
Cancer of the Reproductive
System
Female
Reproductive System
Ovary
Uterus
Endometrial
Uterus – Cervical
Vagina/Vulva
Ovarian Cancer
• is a cancerous growth arising
from different parts of the
ovary
• most cases, there are no
known causes
• called a “silent killer”
• Ovarian cancer can develop
at any age
Ovarian Cancer
• Risk factors
• Genetic risk factors
• Increasing age- menopausal women
• Nullipara
• Early menstrual cycles- start before 12
years old and late menopausal
• Use of estrogens or hormone replacement
therapy
• Use of Talc, High fat diet
Ovarian Cancer
Symptoms
• pelvic pressure or • pain or swelling in the
frequent urination abdomen
• pain during intercourse
• unexplained changes in • vaginal bleeding in post-
bowel habits menopausal women
Ovarian Cancer
Diagnostic Exams
• PE
• pelvic examination
• CA-125 assay
• one or more various imaging procedures
(MRI, CT’s scan, UTZ)
• a lower GI series, or barium enema
• diagnostic laparoscopy
Treatment Ovarian Cancer
Treatment
• Surgery- oophorectomy, bilateral
oophorectomy,TAHBSO
• Chemotherapy- via the lymphatic
system or the blood stream
• Radiation
UTERINE CANCER
• Cancer of uterine cavity
• Divided into two primary forms
Endometrial Cancer
Cervical Cancer
Endometrial Cancer
• develops when the cells that make up the
endometrium become abnormal and grow
uncontrollably
• exact cause of endometrial cancer is
unknown
Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer
• Risk Factor
• CAUSES Age- age of 50 and above
Obesity
• high levels of
Estrogen replacement
estrogen
therapy
Diabetes Hypertension
Early first menstruation or
late menopause
Tamoxifen
Genetic factors
Nullipara women
Symptoms of Endometrial
cancer
• Vaginal bleeding • Anemia
menorrhagia
metrorrhagia • Lower abdominal
in premenopausal women pain or pelvic
in women older than 40: cramping
extremely long, heavy, • Thin white or
or frequent episodes of clear vaginal
bleeding (may indicate
premalignant changes) discharge in
postmenopausal
women.
Diagnostic Exams for
Endometrial cancer
• Pap smear
• Endometrial curettage
• Hysteroscopy
• Endometrial biopsy or aspiration
• Transvaginal ultrasound
• TruTest- uses the small flexible Tao
Brush to brush the entire lining of the
uterus
Treatment for Endometrial
cancer
• Surgical treatment – TAHBSO
Abdominal hysterectomy more prefer than
vaginal hysterectomy

• Radiation therapy
• Chemotherapy
• Hormone therapy
CERVICAL TUMOR/CANCER

• a disease in which the cells
of the cervix become
abnormal and start to grow
uncontrollably, forming
tumors.
• third most common cancer
of the female reproductive
tract
CERVICAL TUMOR/CANCER
• RISK FACTOR:

 Multiple Sex Partner


 Smoking
 some hormonal contraception,
diethylstilbestrol (DES)
 a family history of cervical cancer.
 Lack of regular Pap tests
Symptoms of Cervical
Cancer
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding
– Bleeding that occurs between
regular menstrual periods
– after sexual intercourse,
douching, or a pelvic exam
– Menstrual periods that last
longer and are heavier than
before
– Bleeding after menopause
• Increased vaginal discharge
• Pelvic pain
• Pain during sexual intercourse
CERVICAL TUMOR/ CANCER
• PREVENTION • DIAGNOSTIC EXAM

– Awareness – Pap smear


(human – Biopsy-
papillomavirus) Endocervical
– Screening (Pap curettage
smear) – cystoscopy
– Vaccination of – Colposcopy
HPV
– CT scan, MRI
– Use of condoms
CERVICAL TUMOR/ CANCER
• TREATMENT
 SURGERY
• Hysterectomy or radical
hysterectomy
 Radiation therapy
 Chemotherapy
 Alternative and Complementary
Therapies
Vaginal Cancer

• a disease in which malignant


(cancer) cells form in the vagina
• When found in early stages, it can
often be cured
Vaginal Cancer
• CAUSES
The cause of vaginal cancer is
not known.
Age and exposure to the drug
DES (diethylstilbestrol) before
birth affect a woman’s risk of
developing vaginal cancer.
Vaginal Cancer
• Risk Factor
 aged 60 or older
 exposed to DES while in the
mother's womb
 Having (HPV) infection
 history of abnormal cells in the
cervix or cervical cancer
 very poor hygiene
Vaginal Cancer
• SYMPTOMS
o Abnormal vaginal bleeding or
discharge not related to
menstrual periods.
o Pain during sexual intercourse.
o Pain in the pelvic area.
o A lump in the vagina.
Vaginal Cancer
• DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS
Physical exam and history
Pelvic exam- exam of the vagina, cervix,
uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum.
Speculum is also use to visualize
Pap smear
Biopsy
Colposcopy- lighted, magnifying instrument
to check the vagina and cervix
Vaginal Cancer
• Surgery- vaginectomy- removal
of vagina
Hysterectomy
• Radiation therapy
• Chemotherapy
Reproductive Disorder
in

Male
• TESTICULAR
CANCER
• PENILE CANCER
TESTICULAR CANCER
• cancer that develops
in the testicles
• Rare but usually
occur between ages
15-35
• No known
etiology/cause
TESTICULAR CANCER
Risk Factor
• major risk factor for the
development of testis cancer is
cryptorchidism
• inguinal hernia
• mumps orchitis
• sedentary lifestyle
• hormones
TESTICULAR CANCER
SYMPTOMS

• a lump • Lumbago lower back pain

• loss of sexual • severely enlarged


activity or interest testicle (tumor) as much as

• A burning sensation
3 times the original size.

specially following physical activity. • other testicle may


• hydrocele build-up of fluid in the scrotum
be shrunken in size
or tunica vaginalis, known as

• a dull ache in the • blood in semen


lower abdomen or • general weak and
groin sometimes described as a "heavy" sensation
tired feeling
TESTICULAR CANCER
Diagnostic Exams Treatment
 ORCHIECTOMY
• Scrotum examination-  Surgical removal of one or both
palpation testes
 Followed by
• scrotal ultrasound
• CT scans  Adjuvant Treatment
 Chemotherapy
• tumor markers- AFP
 Radiotherapy
alpha1 feto protein,  CT scans
Beta-HCG, and LDH  blood tests
• Biopsy- inguinal
orchiectomy
Penile Cancer
• growth found on the skin • ETIOLOGY
or in the tissues of the • exact cause of penile
penis cancer is unknown
• cancers may be
related to chronic
exposure to
carcinogens
• associated with
human papillomavirus
(HPV) infection
Penile Cancer
Risk Factor Symptoms
• Person (HPV) infection • Redness
• Smoking • rashes
• phimosis • a lump on the penis
• treatment of psoriasis • Penile lesions
w/ UV light
• ulcerations from
• Age irritation
• AIDS
• allergic reactions
• poor hygiene
• Severe- penile
papule
Penile Cancer
Diagnostic Exams Treatment
• SURGERY
• Penile
Examination) Amputation (penectomy) - a
partial or total removal of
• CT scan
the penis, and possibly the
• Biopsy associated lymph nodes
• RADIATION THERAPY
• CHEMOTHERAPY
• BIOLOGICAL THERAPY
Thank you…