You are on page 1of 106

Specific Types of Cancer

Kristina Sevilla, RN

THYROID TUMORS

11/05/09

2

Thyroid Gland

11/05/09

3

Thyroid Cancer
• Cancer that forms in the thyroid gland. • Estimated new cases and deaths from thyroid cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 37,200 – Deaths: 1,630
4

11/05/09

Risk Factors
• Family History • Age • Gender (Female) • Iodine • Radiation

11/05/09

5

Symptoms
• A lump in the front of the neck • Hoarseness or voice changes • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck • Trouble swallowing or breathing • Pain in the throat or neck that does not go away
6

11/05/09

Diagnosis
• • • • • • • • Physical Exam Blood Test Ultrasound Thyroid Scan Biopsy CXR CT Scan MRI

11/05/09

7

Treatment
• Surgery • Thyroid Hormone Treatment • Radioactive Iodine Therapy • External Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy

11/05/09

8

BRAIN TUMORS

11/05/09

9

The Brain

11/05/09

10

3 Major Parts of the Brain

11/05/09

11

Brain Tumor
• The growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. • Estimated new cases and deaths from brain and other nervous system cancers in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 22,070 – Deaths: 12,920

11/05/09

12

Types of Primary Brain Tumors

11/05/09

13

Brain Tumors
• Primary brain tumors are named according to the type of cells or the part of the brain in which they begin

11/05/09

14

Astrocytoma
• The tumor arises from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes. It can be any grade. In adults, an astrocytoma most often arises in the cerebrum.
– .

11/05/09

15

• Meningioma:
– The tumor arises in the meninges.

• Oligodendroglioma:
– The tumor arises from cells that make the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. – It usually occurs in the cerebrum. It's most common in middle-aged adults

11/05/09

16

• Medulloblastoma:
– The tumor usually arises in the cerebellum

• Ependymoma:
– The tumor arises from cells that line the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord.

• Brain stem glioma:
– The tumor occurs in the lowest part of the brain
11/05/09 17

Risk Factors
• Ionizing radiation • Family History

11/05/09

18

Symptoms
• Headaches • Nausea and vomiting • Changes in speech, vision, or hearing • Problems balancing or walking • Changes in mood, personality, or ability to concentrate • Problems with memory • Muscle jerking or twitching • Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs

11/05/09

19

Diagnosis
• • • • Neurologic Exam MRI Spinal Tap Biopsy

11/05/09

20

Treatment
• Surgery
– Craniotomy

• Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy

11/05/09

21

Supportive Care
• Swelling of the brain: Steroids • Seizures: Anti- Seizure Drugs • Fluid buildup in the skull: the surgeon may place a shunt to drain the fluid. • Sadness and other feelings: it helpful to talk about their feelings • Nutrition: High Calorie Diet
11/05/09 22

Lung Cancer

11/05/09

23

Lungs

11/05/09

24

Lung Cancer
• Is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis. • Most lung cancers begin in epithelial cells lining the bronchi. • The leading cause of cancer related death in men and women.

11/05/09

25

2 Main Types
• Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
11/05/09 26

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
• also called "oat cell carcinoma” • It tends to arise in the larger airways and grows rapidly, becoming quite large. • It usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation

11/05/09

27

Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
• is any type of lung cancer other than small cell carcinoma (SCLC). • are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, compared to small cell carcinoma.

11/05/09

28

SCLC vs. NSCLC
• Small-cell lung cancer grows rapidly. • Small-cell lung cancer spreads quickly. • Small-cell lung cancer responds well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy ( • Small-cell lung cancer is frequently associated with distinct paraneoplastic syndromes (collection
of symptoms that result from substances produced by the tumor, occurring far away from the tumor).

11/05/09

29

Risk Factors
• Family History of Lung Cancer • •Smoking • •Radon • •Asbestos • •Chronic Lung Diseases

11/05/09

30

Symptoms
• Persistent cough • Sputum streaked with blood • Chest pain • Voice change • Recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis

11/05/09

31

Diagnosis
• Chest x-ray • Chest CT scan • Bronchoscopy • Sputum cytology

11/05/09

32

Treatment
• Surgery • Chemotherapy • Radiation Therapy

11/05/09

33

Cancer of the DIGESTIVE TRACT

11/05/09

34

ESOPHAGEA L CANCER

The Esophagus

11/05/09

36

Esophageal Cancer
• Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus • Estimated new cases and deaths from esophageal cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 16,470 – Deaths: 14,530

11/05/09

37

Risk Factors
• • • • • • • Age 65 or older Being Male Smoking Heavy Drinking Diet Obesity Acid Reflux

11/05/09

38

Symptoms
• Food gets stuck in the esophagus, and food may come back up • Pain when swallowing • Pain in the chest or back • Weight loss • Heartburn • A hoarse voice or cough that doesn't go away within 2 weeks
11/05/09 39

Diagnosis
• Barium Swallow • Endoscopy • Biopsy

11/05/09

40

Staging
• • • • • • Endoscopic UTZ MRI CT Scan PET Scan Bone Scan Laparoscopy

11/05/09

41

Treatment
• Surgery • Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy

11/05/09

42

Supportive Care
• Cancer Blocks the Esophagus • Pain • Sadness and Other Feelings • Nutrition

11/05/09

43

Gastric Cancer

11/05/09

44

The Stomach

11/05/09

45

Gastric Cancer
• Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Estimated new cases and deaths from stomach cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 21,130 – Deaths: 10,620

11/05/09

46

Risk Factors
• Age • Sex • Race • Family History • Diet • H. Pylori • Smoking • Certain Health Problem
11/05/09 47

Symptoms
• Discomfort in the stomach area • Feeling full or bloated after a small meal • Nausea and vomiting • Weight loss

11/05/09

48

Diagnosis
• Physical Exam • Endoscopy • Upper GI Series • Biopsy

11/05/09

49

Treatment
• Local therapy: Surgery and radiation. • Systemic therapy: Chemotherapy is systemic therapy. The drug enters the bloodstream and destroys or controls cancer throughout the body.

11/05/09

50

LOCAL THERAPY

11/05/09

51

SYSTEMIC THERAPY

11/05/09

52

Surgery
• Partial (subtotal) gastrectomy: The surgeon removes the part of the stomach with cancer. • Total gastrectomy: The doctor removes the entire stomach, nearby lymph nodes, parts of the esophagus and small intestine, and other tissues near the tumor.
53

11/05/09

Supportive Care
• Nutrition • Follow- up Care

11/05/09

54

Colo-Rectal Cancer

11/05/09

55

Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and women and the second highest cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. Yet, when found early, it is highly curable

11/05/09

56

The Colon and Rectum

11/05/09

57

Colon- Rectal Cancer
• Colon Cancer is a cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon. • Rectal Cancer is a cancer that forms in the tissues of the rectum. • Estimated new cases and deaths from colon and rectal cancer in the United States in 2009: – New cases: 106,100 (colon); 40,870 (rectal) – Deaths: 49,920 (colon and rectal combined)

11/05/09

58

Risk Factors
Uncontrollable: • Age – most patients are older than 50 • Polyps or inflammatory bowel disease • Family history of colorectal cancer • History of ovarian or breast cancer
11/05/09 59

Risk Factors
Controllable: • Diet high in red, processed, or heavily cooked meats • Being overweight (excess fat around the waist) • Exercising too little • Smoking or drinking alcohol

11/05/09

60

Symptoms
•diarrhea or constipation •bowel does not empty completely •blood (either bright red or very dark) in stool •Stools are narrower than usual

11/05/09

61

• Gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated • Losing weight with no known reason • Feeling very tired all the time • nausea or vomiting

11/05/09

62

Diagnosis
• • • • FOBT Colonoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Double- Contrast Barium Enema • Digital rectal exam • Biopsy

11/05/09

63

Colonoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy

11/05/09

64

COLONOSCOPY

COLON CANCER

11/05/09

65

Colon Cancer

11/05/09

66

Treatment
• Surgery • Radiation therapy • Chemotherapy • Biological therapy

11/05/09

67

Surgery
• Colonoscopy • Laparoscopy • Open Surgery

11/05/09

68

Supportive Care
• Nutrition • Physical Activity • Rehabilitation • Follow- up Care

11/05/09

69

Liver Cancer

11/05/09

70

The Liver

11/05/09

71

Liver Cancer
• Primary liver cancer is cancer that forms in the tissues of the liver. • Estimated new cases and deaths from liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 22,620 – Deaths: 18,160

11/05/09

72

Risk Factor
• Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) • Heavy alcohol use • Aflatoxin • Iron storage Disease • Cirrhosis • Obesity and Diabetes

11/05/09

73

Symptoms
• Pain in the upper abdomen on the right side • A lump or a feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen • Swollen abdomen (bloating) • Loss of appetite and feelings of fullness • Weight loss

11/05/09

74

• Weakness or feeling very tired • Nausea and vomiting • Yellow skin and eyes, pale stools, and dark urine from jaundice • Fever

11/05/09

75

Diagnosis
• Physical Exam • Blood Test • CT Scan • MRI • Biopsy

11/05/09

76

CT SCAN

11/05/09

77

MRI

11/05/09

78

PET Scan

11/05/09

79

11/05/09

80

Treatment
• Surgery (including a liver transplant, Hepatectomy) • Ablation • Embolization • Targeted therapy • Radiation therapy • Chemotherapy

11/05/09

81

Supportive Care
• Pain Control • Sadness and Other Feelings • Nutrition • Follow- up Care

11/05/09

82

Pancreatic Cancer

11/05/09

83

The Pancreas

11/05/09

84

In 2008, the American Cancer Society estimated that 37,680 people in the U.S. were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer

11/05/09

85

Pancreatic Cancer
• A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Also called exocrine cancer. • Estimated new cases and deaths from pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 42,470 – Deaths: 35,240

11/05/09

86

Risk Factor
• Age • Diabetes • Being Male • African – American • Family History • Chronic Pancreatitis
11/05/09 87

Symptoms
• Pain in the upper abdomen or upper back • Yellow skin and eyes, and dark urine from jaundice • Weakness • Loss of appetite • Nausea and vomiting • Weight loss
11/05/09 88

Diagnosis
• Physical Exam • Lab Test • CT Scan • UTZ • ERCP • PTC • Biopsy
11/05/09 89

Treatment
• Surgery • Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy • Biological Therapy

11/05/09

90

SURGERY
• Whipple procedure
• Distal pancreatectomy

• Total pancreatectomy

11/05/09

91

Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) uses highpowered radiation to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. INTERNAL RT EXTERNAL RT

11/05/09

92

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be given by mouth or by injection into a muscle or vein.

11/05/09

93

Supportive Care
• Pain • Nutrition • Follow- up Care

11/05/09

94

Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder Cancer
• Cancer that forms in tissues of the gallbladder. • It begins in the innermost layer of tissue and spreads through the outer layers as it grows. • Estimated new cases and deaths from gallbladder (and other biliary) cancer in the United States in 2009:
– New cases: 9,760 – Deaths: 3,370
11/05/09 96

Risk Factor
• Age • Gender • Ethnicity • Industrial and environmental chemicals • Gallbladder Polyps • Diet and Obesity

11/05/09

97

Risk Factors
• Gallstones and inflammation of the gallbladder • Porcelain gallbladder • Typhoid • Choledochal cysts • Cigarette smoke

11/05/09

98

Signs & Symptoms
• Abdominal pain • Nausea and Vomiting • Jaundice • Gallbladder Enlargement

11/05/09

99

Diagnosis
• • • • • • • • • History and PE CT- Scan MRI Angiography Cholangiography ERCP Laparoscopy Lab Test UTZ

Biopsy

11/05/09

100

Treatments

11/05/09

101

SURGERY
• Potentially curative surgery is used when imaging studies indicate a high likelihood that the surgeon will be able to remove all of the cancer known to be present. • Palliative surgery may be performed to relieve pain or prevent complications.
11/05/09 102

• Cholecystectomy : If the entire gallbladder (but only the gallbladder) is removed.
• Open Cholecystectomy • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

11/05/09

103

CHOLECYSTECTOMY
OPEN LAPAROSCOPIC

11/05/09

104

Treatments
• Radiation Therapy • Chemotherapy • Palliative Therapy
– – – – Biliary bypass Biliary stent or biliary catheter Palliative radiation Pain Medications

11/05/09

105

THANK YOU

11/05/09

106