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CELL AND CELL

STRUCTURES

Prepared By:
Kristina Sevilla, RN
Cells
• The smallest unit of life that can
perform all life processes.
• It is often called the “building blocks of
life”.
• The word cell comes from the Latin
“cellula”, meaning, a small room
Major Components of Cell
• Water
• Proteins
• Nucleic acids
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids (Fats and Oils)
•Molecule transport
The cell must be able to obtain nutrients and other
molecules to survive.

•Reproduction
•Energy
conversion
Cell Theory

• All living things are composed of one or more


cells.

• Cells are the basic units of structure and function


in living things.

• New cells are produced from existing cells.


THE LEVELS OF
CELL ORGANIZATION
• Is the smallest structural unit of
an organism that is capable of
independent function.

• Example - White Blood Cell


Tissue
A group of cells that all do the same work
A group of tissue that works together
for perform a function
ORGAN SYSTEM
A group of organs that do a certain job.
Cells in an organism may differ in
appearance and function,
but they all work together to keep
the organism alive
Two Major Kinds of
Cell
Prokaryotic Cell

Cells that DO NOT have a


cell membrane around
their nucleus. (not real)
It comes from Greek word
“prenucleus,” meaning
“before nucleus.”

Example - Bacteria
Eukaryotic Cell

•Cells that have a


membrane around their
nucleus.
•It means “true nucleus.”
•Are often found in
multicellular organisms

Example – Human,
Plants and Animal Cells
TYPES OF CELL
TYPE OF Tissue
Cell
• Connective tissue
• Muscle tissue
• Nervous tissue
• Epithelial tissue
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CELL

Connective tissue is the name for


the supporting tissues of the body
– the bones, cartilage, tendons
and fibrous tissue that support the
body organs.
Connective tissue cancers are
called sarcomas
Two main types –
•bone sarcomas
•soft tissue sarcomas
Muscle Tissue
– active contractile tissue of the body
• FUNCTION:
– to produce force and cause motion
– locomotion or movement within internal
organs.
• Three Distinct Categories
– Smooth muscle
– Skeletal muscle
– Cardiac muscle
Nervous/Neural Tissue
EPITHELIAL TISSUE CELL
Blood and lymph tissues
Organelles: Cell’s “Little Organ”

• Are groups of complex molecules that help


a cell survive.
• It describe the different parts of the cell.
• Organelles in a cell are analogous to the
organs in a body.
The Cell Membrane : A cell's defining boundary

•Is the protective layer that covers the cell’s


surface
•Double layer of phospholipids with proteins
•Selectively permeable

Functions:
•Support
•Protection
•Controls movement of materials in/out of
cell
•Barrier between cell and its environment
•Maintains homeostasis
Nucleus: The “Brain” of a cell

An organelle inside of the cell that directs the


activity in the cell.

It holds the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

The nucleus is roughly spherical and is


surrounded by two membranes.

.
The Nuclear Envelop:
Nuclear Membrane

• It holds the nucleus together.

• It has tiny holes. Pieces of protein


and RNA pass through these
holes.
Nucleolus

•A small dark area inside the


nucleus.
•Found inside the cell's
nucleus
•May have more than one
•Disappear during cell
division
•Function: Make Ribosome
The Endoplasmic Reticulum : ER

•A folded membrane that moves


material in the cell
•Is part of the internal delivery
system and uses tubes for
passageways.
•ER is additionally responsible for
moving proteins and other
carbohydrates to the Golgi Body.
DESCRIPTION:

Network of tubes or membranes


Smooth ER (SER) w/o ribosome
Rough ER (RER) with embedded
ribosome
Connects to nuclear envelope & cell
membrane

Functions: Carries materials through cell


Aids in making proteins
Ribosome : Protein Builders of the Cell

•Organelle that makes protein for the cell.

•Small bodies that are free or attached to ER

•Made of rRNA & protein


How Ribosome Makes Protein?
It consist of flat, disk-shaped
sacs, tubules, and vesicles

Functions:
•Modify proteins made by the
cells
•Package & export proteins
around the cell
•Lysosome is an organelle that eats
worn out cell parts. It contains digestive
enzymes.
• Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the
cell of toxic peroxides

Functions:
Breaks down larger food molecules into
smaller molecules
Digests old cell parts
Mitochondria: The Powerhouse of the Cell

•The organelle that releases energy in the cell

•Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules and


other nutrients into adenosine triphosphate
(ATP ) to release energy.

•Site of aerobic cellular respiration.


Cytoplasm
•The gel-like material (Cystosol) inside of the cell
membrane.
•Keeps organelles in place
•Supports and protects cell organelles

Cilia
Function: Movement

Centrioles
Function:Separate chromosome pairs
during mitosis.
•The cytoskeleton is an intricate network of
proteins that criss-cross the cytoplasm of a
cell.

•Made of microtubules – microfilaments

The cytoskeleton serves several key


functions:
•Provides structure to cells and a place to
anchor organelles
•Cell motility
•Control of cell division during mitosis
Genetic Materials

• deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

• ribonucleic acid (RNA)


Parts of Cell
Cellular
Communication
2 Types: Cellular Communication

• Intracellular Communication

• Extracellular Communication
I. Cell Signaling

A. Signal transduction

1. Signaling cell – sends a signal to a target


cell via a signal molecule.
a.) Signal molecule – carries a message to
the target cell.
b) Environmental Factors
2. Target cell – detects the signal
molecule (receives the message).

a.) Receptor proteins


1.) Found on the target cell/receiver
2.) Recognize and respond specifically
to the signal molecule
4 Types of Signaling
Endocrine signals
• Long distance signaling

• Endocrine cells

• Hormones released into the blood stream and


bind to receptors to the sites.

• Ex. Pancreas producing insulin and which


regulates glucose uptake in cells all over the body
Juxtacrine signals

• Occurs between two cells that are next to each other

• Cells communicate with each other via direct contact.

• Contact-dependent communication
Paracrine signals

• A certain type of cell will release the


signal to different type of cell that will
respond to the signal.

• Ex: Epithelial communicates with a


smooth muscle cell
PARACRINE SIGNALS
Autocrine signals

• A certain type of cell will release the


signal on the same type of cell that
will respond to the signal.

Ex: epithelial cell communicates with an


epithelial cell.
AUTOCRINE SIGNALS
Types of Cell Receptors
• ion channel receptors

• G-protein linked receptors

• Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK)


3 stages in the process of cell
signaling or communication

• 1. Reception
• 2. Transduction
• 3. Response.
Signals Can DRIVE a CELL to….
Cell Cycle
CELL CYCLE
• is the series of events that take place
in a cell leading to its division and
duplication.
• Cell cycle is broken into two major
phases:
– Interphase
– Mitotic Phase
• .
INTERPHASE
• the cell is growing and preparing for
mitosis (M phase)
• Interphase is divided into:
– G0
– G1
– S
– G2
MITOTIC PHASE
• Cell growth stops at this stage and
cellular energy is focused on the
orderly division into two daughter
cells. (Cell Division)
• M Phase is divided into two:
– Mitosis
– Cytokinesis
CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS

• are control mechanisms that


ensure the fidelity of cell division
in eukaryotic cells.
3 Main Checkpoints

• G1

• G2

• Metaphase Checkpoints
CELL CYCLE
CELL CYCLE
Goal of the Cell Cycle

To produce two genetically identical cells


from one precursor cell.
CELL DIVISION
(1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase.
(2) Centromere – the point where the two chromatids touch, and where the
microtubules attach.
(3) Short arm.
(4) Long arm
INTERPHASE

•This is when the cell is not


dividing, but is carrying out its
normal cellular functions.
chromatin not visible

•DNA, histones and centrioles


all replicated
.
PROPHASE

•chromosomes condense and become


visible
•Due to DNA replication during
interphase, each chromosome consists
of two identical sister chromatids
connected at the centromere
•centrioles move to opposite poles of cell
nucleolus disappears
phase ends with the breakdown of the
nuclear membrane
METAPHASE

•spindle fibres (microtubules)


connect centrioles to chromosomes

•chromosomes align along equator


of cell and attaches to a spindle
fibre by its centromer
ANAPHASE

•centromeres split, allowing


chromatids to separate

•Numerous mitochondria around


the spindle provide energy for
movement
TELOPHASE

•spindle fibres disperse


nuclear membranes from
around each set of chromatids

•nucleoli form
CYTOKINESIS

a ring of actin filaments forms round


the equator of the cell, and then
tightens to form a cleavage furrow,
which splits the cell in two.

membranes, cytoskeleton,
organelles, and soluble proteins—are
distributed to the two daughter cells.
The Characteristics of Normal
Cells

•Reproduce themselves exactly


•Stop reproducing at the right time
•Stick together in the right place
. Normal cells show stickiness or adhesiveness.

•Self destruct if they are damaged


•Become specialized or 'mature‘
•Practice Contact Inhibition
Normal cells in a culture stop growing when their plasma membranes come into contact with
one another.
When two normal cells come into contact, one or both will stop moving and then begin to
move in another direction.

•Communicate Effectively
THANK
Y O U !’!’!