You are on page 1of 74

CELL AND CELL STRUCTURES

Prepared By: Kristina Sevilla, RN

Cells
• The smallest unit of life that can perform all life processes. • It is often called the “building blocks of life”. • The word cell comes from the Latin “cellula”, meaning, a small room

Major Components of Cell
• • • • • Water Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Lipids (Fats and Oils)

•Molecule transport
The cell must be able to obtain nutrients and other molecules to survive.

•Reproduction •Energy conversion

Cell Theory
• All living things are composed of one or more cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. • New cells are produced from existing cells.

THE LEVELS OF CELL ORGANIZATION

• Is the smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent function. • Example - White Blood Cell

Tissue
A group of cells that all do the same work

A group of tissue that works together for perform a function

ORGAN SYSTEM
A group of organs that do a certain job.

Cells in an organism may differ in appearance and function, but they all work together to keep the organism alive

Two Major Kinds of Cell

Prokaryotic Cell
Cells that DO NOT have a cell membrane around their nucleus. (not real) It comes from Greek word “prenucleus,” meaning “before nucleus.”

Example - Bacteria

Eukaryotic Cell
•Cells that have a membrane around their nucleus. •It means “true nucleus.” •Are often found in multicellular organisms Example – Human, Plants and Animal Cells

TYPES OF CELL

TYPE OF Tissue Cell
• Connective tissue • Muscle tissue • Nervous tissue • Epithelial tissue

CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELL
Connective tissue is the name for the supporting tissues of the body – the bones, cartilage, tendons and fibrous tissue that support the body organs. Connective tissue cancers are called sarcomas Two main types – •bone sarcomas •soft tissue sarcomas

Muscle Tissue
– active contractile tissue of the body • FUNCTION: – to produce force and cause motion – locomotion or movement within internal organs. • Three Distinct Categories – Smooth muscle – Skeletal muscle – Cardiac muscle

Nervous/Neural Tissue

EPITHELIAL TISSUE CELL

Blood and

lymph

tissues

Organelles: Cell’s “Little Organ”
• Are groups of complex molecules that help a cell survive. • It describe the different parts of the cell. • Organelles in a cell are analogous to the organs in a body.

The Cell Membrane : A cell's defining boundary
•Is the protective layer that covers the cell’s surface •Double layer of phospholipids with proteins •Selectively permeable Functions: •Support •Protection •Controls movement of materials in/out of cell •Barrier between cell and its environment •Maintains homeostasis

Nucleus: The “Brain” of a cell
An organelle inside of the cell that directs the activity in the cell. It holds the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleus is roughly spherical and is surrounded by two membranes.

.

The Nuclear Envelop: Nuclear Membrane
• It holds the nucleus together. • It has tiny holes. Pieces of protein and RNA pass through these holes.

Nucleolus
•A small dark area inside the nucleus. •Found inside the cell's nucleus •May have more than one •Disappear during cell division •Function: Make Ribosome

The Endoplasmic Reticulum : ER

•A folded membrane that moves material in the cell •Is part of the internal delivery system and uses tubes for passageways. •ER is additionally responsible for moving proteins and other carbohydrates to the Golgi Body.

DESCRIPTION: Network of tubes or membranes Smooth ER (SER) w/o ribosome Rough ER (RER) with embedded ribosome Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane

Functions: Carries materials through cell Aids in making proteins

Ribosome : Protein Builders of the Cell
•Organelle that makes protein for the cell. •Small bodies that are free or attached to ER •Made of rRNA & protein

How Ribosome Makes Protein?

It consist of flat, disk-shaped sacs, tubules, and vesicles Functions: •Modify proteins made by the cells •Package & export proteins around the cell

•Lysosome is an organelle that eats worn out cell parts. It contains digestive enzymes. • Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides Functions: Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules Digests old cell parts

Mitochondria: The Powerhouse of the Cell

•The organelle that releases energy in the cell •Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules and other nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP ) to release energy. •Site of aerobic cellular respiration.

Cytoplasm
•The gel-like material (Cystosol) inside of the cell membrane. •Keeps organelles in place •Supports and protects cell organelles

Cilia
Function: Movement

Centrioles
Function:Separate chromosome pairs during mitosis.

•The cytoskeleton is an intricate network of proteins that criss-cross the cytoplasm of a cell. •Made of microtubules – microfilaments The cytoskeleton serves several key functions:
•Provides structure to cells and a place to anchor organelles •Cell motility •Control of cell division during mitosis

Genetic Materials
• deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Parts of Cell

Cellular Communication

2 Types: Cellular Communication

• Intracellular Communication • Extracellular Communication

I. Cell Signaling
A. Signal transduction 1. Signaling cell – sends a signal to a target cell via a signal molecule. a.) Signal molecule – carries a message to the target cell. b) Environmental Factors

2. Target cell – detects the signal molecule (receives the message). a.) Receptor proteins 1.) Found on the target cell/receiver 2.) Recognize and respond specifically to the signal molecule

4 Types of Signaling

Endocrine signals
• Long distance signaling • Endocrine cells
• Hormones released into the blood stream and bind to receptors to the sites. • Ex. Pancreas producing insulin and which regulates glucose uptake in cells all over the body

Juxtacrine signals
• Occurs between two cells that are next to each other • Cells communicate with each other via direct contact. • Contact-dependent communication

Paracrine signals
• A certain type of cell will release the signal to different type of cell that will respond to the signal. • Ex: Epithelial communicates with a smooth muscle cell

PARACRINE SIGNALS

Autocrine signals
• A certain type of cell will release the signal on the same type of cell that will respond to the signal. Ex: epithelial cell communicates with an epithelial cell.

AUTOCRINE SIGNALS

Types of Cell Receptors
• ion channel receptors • G-protein linked receptors • Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK)

3 stages in the process of cell signaling or communication
• 1. Reception

• 2. Transduction • 3. Response.

Signals Can DRIVE a CELL to….

Cell Cycle

CELL CYCLE
• is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. • Cell cycle is broken into two major phases:
– Interphase – Mitotic Phase

• .

INTERPHASE
• the cell is growing and preparing for mitosis (M phase) • Interphase is divided into:
– G0 – G1 – S – G2

MITOTIC PHASE
• Cell growth stops at this stage and cellular energy is focused on the orderly division into two daughter cells. (Cell Division) • M Phase is divided into two:
– Mitosis – Cytokinesis

CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS
• are control mechanisms that ensure the fidelity of cell division in eukaryotic cells.

3 Main Checkpoints
• G1 • G2 • Metaphase Checkpoints

CELL CYCLE

CELL CYCLE

Goal of the Cell Cycle To produce two genetically identical cells from one precursor cell.

CELL DIVISION

(1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere – the point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm. (4) Long arm

INTERPHASE •This is when the cell is not dividing, but is carrying out its normal cellular functions. chromatin not visible •DNA, histones and centrioles all replicated
.

PROPHASE
•chromosomes condense and become visible •Due to DNA replication during interphase, each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids connected at the centromere •centrioles move to opposite poles of cell nucleolus disappears phase ends with the breakdown of the nuclear membrane

METAPHASE
•spindle fibres (microtubules) connect centrioles to chromosomes •chromosomes align along equator of cell and attaches to a spindle fibre by its centromer

ANAPHASE •centromeres split, allowing chromatids to separate

•Numerous mitochondria around the spindle provide energy for movement

TELOPHASE

•spindle fibres disperse nuclear membranes from around each set of chromatids •nucleoli form

CYTOKINESIS
a ring of actin filaments forms round the equator of the cell, and then tightens to form a cleavage furrow, which splits the cell in two. membranes, cytoskeleton, organelles, and soluble proteins—are distributed to the two daughter cells.

The Characteristics of Normal Cells
•Reproduce themselves exactly •Stop reproducing at the right time •Stick together in the right place
. Normal cells show stickiness or adhesiveness.

•Self destruct if they are damaged •Become specialized or 'mature‘ •Practice Contact Inhibition
Normal cells in a culture stop growing when their plasma membranes come into contact with one another. When two normal cells come into contact, one or both will stop moving and then begin to move in another direction.

•Communicate Effectively

THANK Y O U !’!’!