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By: Glynis Braganza Faculty Name.: Nigel Mendonca Roll No.: 6 Class: F.Y.B.B.A College: Don Bosco College

I. Product design:
 Functional


first and foremost requirements for production i.e. the product should effectively perform the function it is developed.
 Form


appearance and aesthetic considerations as well as size, weight ,volume and so on.

I.I Importance of product design:
 All

detailed characteristics of each product are established.  Each product characteristic directly affects how the product can be made.  How the product can be made etermines design of the production system (production design) which is the heart of production and operations strategy  Affects product quality, production cost, customer satisfaction, it improves marketibility of the product.

I.2 What does product design do?
 Translates

customer needs and wants into product and service requirements marketing)  Refines existing products (marketing)  Develops new products (marketing, product design and production)  Formulates quality goals (quality assurance, production)  Formulates cost targets (accounting)  Construction and tests prototype (marketing, production)  Documents specifications (product design)

I.3 Reasons for product design
 To

offer new products to remain competitive inn the market.  Business growth and increase profits.

I.4 Objectives of product design
 Profit

generation in the long run.  Achieve desired product quality.  Reduce the development time and cost to the minimum.  Reduce cost of the product.  Ensure productibility or manufacturability.

I.5 Factors influencing product design:
 Customer

requirements  Convenience of the operator or user  Trade off between funtion and form  Types of materials used  Work methods and equipments  Cost/price ratio  Product quality  Process capability  Effect on existing products  packaging

I.6 Characteristics of good product design:
 Function

or performance  Appearance or aesthetics  Reliability  Maintainability  Availability  Productibility  Simplification  Standardisation  Specification  safety

I.7 Approaches to product design:
 
i. ii. iii.

Designing for the customer Designing for manufacture and assembly (DFMA):
Designing for minimum number of parts Developing modular design designing for minimum part variations Designing for the ease of fabrication

i. ii. iii.

Designing for ease of production
Specification Standarisation simplification

 I. II.
  

Designing for quality designing for robustness Designing for production:
Modular design Designing for automation Designing for reliability

Designing for ergonomics

    i.  i. ii.

Designing for environmental protection Designing for recycling Designing for disassembly (DFD) Designing for mass customization Delayed differentiation Other issues CAD value engineering/value analysis in product design

I.8 Legal, ethical and environmental issues in product design
 Any

aspect of the product may cause potential harm to the environment or to the customer must be avoided.  Any damages caused because of the product the manufacturer is held liable.

I.9 Process planning and process design:
 Process


Concerned with the overall sequence of operations required to achieve the design specification of the product.
 Production


concept of designing products from the point of view of producibility.

I.10 What is a process?

Sequence of activities that is intended to achieve some result, typically to create added value for the customers.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Types of processes:
Conversion process Manufacturing process Testing process Forming process Machining processes Assembly process

I.II Process planning:
 Process


concerned with the overall sequences of operations required to achieve the product specifications.  Operations design: concerned with the design of the individual manufacturing operations.

I.I2 Framework for process design:
 Characteristics

of the product or service offered to the customers.  Expected volume of output.  Kinds of equipments and machines available in firm.  Whether equipments and machines should be of special purpose or general purpose.  Cost of equipments and machines needed.

 Kind

of labour skills available, amount of labour available and their wage rates.  Expenditure to be incurred for manufacturing processes.  Whether the process should be capital-intensive or labour-intensive.  Make or buy decision.  Method of handling materials economically.

I.I3 Process selection:

Three primary questions to be addressed before deciding on process selection are:
How much variety o products or services will the system need to handle? What degree of equipment flexibility will be needed? What is the expected volume of output?

i. ii. iii.

I.I4 Process strategy:

It is an organizations approach to process selection for the purpose of transforming resource inputs into goods or services(outputs).

i. ii. iii.

Key aspects in process strategy include:
Make or buy decision Capital intensity Process flexibility

I.I5 Three process strategies:
 Process

focus  Repetitive focus  Product focus

I.I6 Process selected must fit with volume and variety:
Low volume

Repetitive process

High volume

Variety (flexibility)

High variety one or few units per run.
(allows customisation)

Process focus Projects, job shops
(machine, printing, carpentry)

Poor strategy
(fixed cost and change over costs are high)

Modest runs, standardised modules (changes
in module)

Repetitive focus
(automobiles, motor cycles)

Product focus
(steel, glass, bread)

Long runs only, changes in attributes
(grade, quality, size, thickness)

Poor strategy
(variable costs are high)


I.I7 Comparison of the characteristics of three types of strategies:
Process focus (low volume-high variety 1.Small quantity and large variety of products are produced 2.General purpose machines and equipments are used Repetitive focus (modular) Long runs, usually standardized products with options for customers are produced from modules Special equipments used in assembly lines Product focus (high volume-low variety) Large quantity and small variety of products are produced Special purpose machines and equipments are used. Broadly skilled operators

3.Broadly skilled operators Modestly trained operators 4.Many job instructions because of job changes 5.High raw material inventory

Repetitive operations reduce Few job instructions because job instructions and training jobs are standardized. Just in time procurement techniques are used Low raw material inventories relative to value of output

Process focus (low volume-high variety 6.High work in process compared to output 7.Work flow is slow

Repetitive focus (modular)

Product focus (high volume-low variety) Work in process inventory is low compared to output Fast work flow Finished goods are usually made to a forecast and store Simple production scheduling. Concerned with establishing a rate of output sufficient to meet demand forecast

Just in time production techniques are used Work flow is slow

8.Finished goods are Finished goods are made usually made to order and to frequent forecasts not stored 9.Production scheduling isProduction scheduling is complicated, concerned based on building various with trade-off between models from a variety of availability, capacity and modules to forecasts customer service 10.Low fixed costs and high variable costs

Fixed costs are dependent Fixed costs tend to be high on flexibility and the facility and variable costs low.

I.I8 Process management:
   i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Concerned wit selection of raw inputs, operations, work flows and methods that transform inputs into outputs. Starting point-make or buy decision Process decision must be made when: A new or modified product or service is being offered Quality must be improved Competitive priorities have changed Demand for a product or service is changing Cost or availability of materials has changed Competitors are doing better by using a new technology or a new process

I.I9 Major process decisions:

Five common process decisions considered by production/operations managers are:
Process choice: Job shop process Batch process Repetitive process Continuous process Project process

i.     


Types of processes:
Job shop process

Batch process Repetitive (assembly) process Semistandardized goods or services Standardized goods or services

Continuous process Highly standardized goods or services

Project process Highly customized goods or services Building bridges and dams -

Output Customized characteristics goods or goods and services services Examples of productive systems Examples of goods produced Volume

Machine shop, Bakery, tool room classroom Press tools, molding tools Bread, cakes, cookies

Assembly line Steel mill, for automobiles paper mill Automobiles, Steel, paper, television sets, sugar, flour computers High Low Low Routine Low Very high Very low Very low Routine Low


Low to moderate Moderate Moderate Somewhat routine Moderate

Very high Extremely low Low to high Complex Very high

Output variety Very high Equipment flexibility Very high

Cost estimation Difficult Cost per unit High


Job shop process General purpose Low

Batch process Repetitive (assembly) process General purpose Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderately complex High Special purpose High Low Low Routine

Continuous process Special purpose Very high Very low Low Routine

Project process Varied Varied High Low to high Complex, subject to change Varied

Equipment used Fixed costs

Variable costs High Labour skills Scheduling High Complex

Work-inprogress inventory Advantages




Able to handle Flexibility a wide variety of work

Low unit cost, high volume, efficient

Very efficient, very high volume Very rigid, lack of variety, cost to change, very high cost of downtime

Suitable for non-routine time and cost bound work Very difficult to plan and control resources cost and time of completion

Disadvantages Slow, high cost per unit, complex planning and scheduling

Moderate cost Low flexibility per unit, high cost of moderate downtime scheduling complexity

ii. iii. iv. v.

Vertical integration Resource flexibility Customer involvement Capital intensity

I.20 Make or buy decisions:

 i. ii. iii. iv. v.

The very first sep in process planning involves considering whether to make or buy some or all of a product or service. Factors considered: Available capacity Expertise Quality considerations The nature of demand cost

I.2I Make or buy analysis:
 Make

or buy analysis is a decision making process which requires an in depth analysis of the pros and cons in order to determine the strategic benefits to be gained from, retaining a product/service in-house or alternatively sourcing from a supplier or service provider.