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E_English Grammar Course

Unit 1 Lecture 1. Morphemes - Words

Issues
1. Introduction to Grammar 2. Morphemes and Words 3. Ways of word formation 4. Parts of speech 5. Parts of a sentence 6. Types of phrases, clauses, sentences

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar

In global sense

In narrow sense

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar

In global sense
• equals competence, a body of knowledge that a native speaker has about his/her language which enables him/her to senseand understand it. In narrow speak • includes word and sentence structure rules, pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences, and discourse organization rules.

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar
• refers only to the information of the word and sentence structures. •In global morphology, the study of words and word consists of sense formation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses, and sentences.

In narrow sense

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discourse

Morphemes and Words

sentence phrase word morpheme

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discourse

Morphemes and Words
I found myself useless. hated enjoying tired, job, myself

sentence
I actually felt tired of sitting doing nothing. And I hated enjoying the unemployment benefit. I found myself useless. Then I decided to look or a job.

phrase

word

use, -less,

morpheme

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Lexical item – meaning
= A basic unit of meaning … • A single word (E.g.: man, boy) • Less than a word (E.g.: terr in terror) • More than one word (E.g.: to rain dogs and cats)

LEXICAL ITEM

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Lexical item – meaning

LEXICAL ITEM & MEANING Lexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship.

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MORPHEME

Morpheme - Word
= A minimal meaningful unit E.g.: re/try boy/s

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WORD

Morpheme - Word
= An independent meaningful unit. E.g.: try boy turn return

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Occurrence Types Grammatical

Types of morphemes
Free (words) Function words: prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions.... Content words: Nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives Bound (affixes) inflectional (suffixes)

Lexical

derivational (prefixes, suffixes)

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes
Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes

modify the meaning of an item can change meaning of the but not change its parts of stem and typically, they change speech. the part of speech.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes
Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes

are changes in words to express indicate semantic relationships their semantic and syntactic within words. relationships to other words in the sentence. E.g.: the morpheme ‘ful’ in E.g.: ‘s’ in ‘Bush says’ indicates ‘beautiful’ has no connection the present tense and the with other morphemes beyond subject is third person and the word. singular.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes
Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes do not occur across whole classes.

are regularly distributed. They occur with all or most members of a word class.

E.g.: not all verbs take the E.g.: ‘s’ (3rd person singular derivational suffix ‘al’ as refuse, present) occurs with most verbs. propose.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes
Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes occur close to the root, before inflectional morphemes.

typically occur away from the root. E.g.: the plural morpheme ‘s’ occurs at the end of a word, after all other morphemes.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes
Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes There are a large number of derivational morphemes, which can be prefixes or suffixes.

-s: 3rd person sig present -ed: past tense -ing: present participle -en: past participle -s: Plural -s: possessive -er:comparative -est: superlative

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Morphological processes of word formation
Prefixation:

adding a prefix to the base E.g.: Non-stop Predict

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Morphological processes of word formation
Suffixation:

adding a suffix to the base E.g.: Economist Grammatical

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Morphological processes of word formation
Conversion:

a change of word-classes without affix. E.g.: Import (n), (v) Abstract (n), (adj)

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Morphological processes of word formation
word formation from two or more bases. E.g. Greenhouse effect Desktop computer

Compounding:

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Morphological processes of word formation
Clipping:

shortening a word E.g.: Phone from telephone Graph from photograph Flu from influenza

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Morphological processes of word formation
word formation from two or more either identical or slightly different elements. E.g.: Goody-goody Tick-tock Seesaw Wishy-washy Tip-top

Reduplication:

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Morphological processes of word formation
Blending:

word formation from two separate forms. E.g.: Motel from motor and hotel Smog from smoke and fog.

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Morphological processes of word formation
Acronym:

word formation from initial letters of a series of words. E.g.: TV from television FAQ from frequently asked question.

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Others

Morphological processes of word formation
Coinage Borrowing Backformation Sound + stress interchange Sound imitation E.g.: aspirin E.g.: robot E.g.: opt (option) E.g.: aspirin E.g.: aspirin

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Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

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Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class • comprises functional words such as
articles, demonstratives, pronouns prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections

Open class

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Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class Features: • unextendable number of members
• reciprocally exclusive • reciprocally defining • unstressed in spoken language

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Closed system • comprises notional/ lexical words
such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

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Closed Features: system
• extendable number of members • combinability • having certain syntactic functions • stressed words in spoken language

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of a sentence Predicate Operator

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of a sentence Predicate Operator
What is being discussed – theme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle everyday.

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech Predicate Operator

What is being said about the subject – rheme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle everyday.

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Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech

Predicate Subject What helps to change a sentence into:
- interrogative E.g.: Do her parents visit her everyday? - negative E.g.: Her parents do not visit her everyday. - emphatic E.g.: Her parents do visit her everyday.

Operator

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech Predicate
Lexical verbs

Operator

• include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am a student and I have a part time job. • include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am cooking. • include will, shall, should, can, might, etc. E.g.: I can cook. Primary

Auxiliaries Modal

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence
+ Cs (1) Intensive + A (obli) (2) intransitive (3) transitive
mono-transitive (4) di-transitive (5) complex-transitive (6,7)

Extensive

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence
He is lovely. He is out of the office. SVCs (1) SVA (obli) (2) SV (3) SVO (4) SVOO (5) SVOCo (6) intensive

He is crying. He broke the vase. He sent me an e-mail. He found the play boring.

intransitive transitive

extensive

He put the vase on the SVOA (obli) table. (7)

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

Stative

Not progressive form

E.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good. Dynamic
Progressive form

E.g.: She is tasting the food he’s cooked.

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

direct (Od) indirect (Oi)
E.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od).

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

E.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs) considers me his best friend (Co).

Subject Complement (Cs) Object Complement (Co)

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt) His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli)

optional obligatory

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause Sentence

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase
Noun phrase Verb phrase Adjective phrase Adverb phrase Prepositional phrase

Clause

Sentence

E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: John has been looking for Jane. E.g.: Tom is a very interesting man. E.g.: He ran quite fast. E.g.: He’s lecturing on the new technology.

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause
In terms John is at home • SVA: of functions of • SVCs: the clausea doctor. John is • SVO:

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns

John has cured many serious patients. • SVOO: He gives his patients the same prescription. • SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file. • SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish. • SV: He’s going out

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns

• Finite clause E.g.: He took her out of the blue. • Non-finite clause E.g.: Coming to the town, he visited his parents. • Verbless clause E.g.: If possible, come to see us.

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns • Subordinate • Superodianate

E.g.: She said that you hit her first. subordinate superordinate

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences
Syntax Phrase Clause Sentence
Simple Compound Complex Complex compound

E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: He was watching T.V and she was cooking. E.g.: He didn’t want to talk to whoever he met in the London workshop. E.g.: Having seldom talked anyone before, the child simply wide opened his beautiful eyes and looked at the stranger.