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E_English Grammar Course

Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE

Issues
1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

Issues
1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

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Noun

Noun – Noun classes
= a word used TO NAME … • A person (E.g.: Tom, John, Bill Jones) • A thing (E.g.: bed, chair, table, house) • An animal (E.g.: cat, dog, tiger, lion) • An abstract concept (E.g.: peace, war, independence)

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1.2

Noun – Noun classes
Noun classes

Proper nouns

Common nouns

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1.2

Noun – Noun classes
Noun classes

Proper nouns
personal names geographical names calendar items names of institutions/ organizations Bill Clinton the Nile Easter the UNICEF

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Noun – Noun classes
Noun classes Common nouns Count Ns
car cars Singular Plural

Non-count Ns
Singular salt

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Noun – Noun classes
Common nouns Count Ns
Concrete chair activit y

Non-count Ns
Abstract gold beauty

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1.2

Noun – Noun classes
Noun classes

Proper nouns
E.g. Tom, John

Common nouns Count Ns Concrete
cat failure

Non-count Ns Abstract
rice peace

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1.2
Let’s

Noun – Noun classes
check

– To which classes does each of the following nouns belong to?
• Furniture • Garden • Victory • Serenity • Friday

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1.2
 Let’s

Noun – Noun classes
check

• Furniture: Non-count, concrete • Garden: Count, concrete • Serenity: Non-count, abstract • Friday: Proper (calendar item) • Victory: Count, abstract

Issues
1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

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2.1

Reference – The articles

Reference Generic Specific Unique

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2.1

Reference – The articles
Reference proper noun
E.g.: - John loves Mary.

Unique

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2.1

Reference – The articles
Reference Generic

vs.

Specific

C/f. (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals.

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2.1
 Specific

Reference – The articles
or generic?

(1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals. (1) = SPECIFIC (referring to particular specimens of the class ‘tiger’. (2) = GENERIC (referring to the class ‘tiger’ without specific reference to particular tigers)

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2.1

Reference – The articles

Generic Reference & the Articles
1. A German is a good musician. 2. Germans are good musicians. 3. The Germans are good musicians. 4. The German is a good musician (not common).

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2.1

Reference – The articles
Specific Reference & the Articles
DEFINITE
COUNT NONCOUNT

INDEFINITE
COUNT NONCOUNT

SINGULAR PLURAL

the tiger the tigers

the furniture

a tiger (some) tigers

(some) furniture

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

Indefinite

Zero (Ø)

E.g.: - The earth goes around the sun. (definite) - He bought a new bike yesterday. (indefinite) - He has just arrived in Ø London. (zero)

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Definite article ‘the”
Immediate situation Larger situation Anaphoric reference Cataphoric reference Sporadic reference Logical use of THE

With body parts

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Definite article ‘the’

Anaphoric reference
= the uniqueness of reference of some phrase (the X) is supplied by information given earlier in the discourse

Cataphoric reference
The modification of the noun phrase restricts the reference of the noun E.g. The wine that France produces

Sporadic reference
Reference is made to an institution which may be observed recurrently at various places and times. E.g. the theatre, the cinema, the press, etc.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Definite article ‘the’
Anaphoric reference

Direct

= The same head noun has occurred in the text and a relation of coreference exists between two NPs E.g.: Susan bought a TV and a video recorder, but she returned the video recorder because it was defective.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Definite article ‘the’
Anaphoric reference

Indirect

= A reference becomes part of the hearer’s knowledge indirectly E.g.: John bought a new bicycle, but found that one of the wheels was defective.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

Immediate situation

= derived from the extra-linguistic situation.

E.g.: - The roses are beautiful. (said in the garden) - Have you fed the dog? (said in the domestic context)

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

Larger situation

= general knowledge which is shared or

E.g.:

the sun the Republic the cosmos

worldwide the Equator the North Pole the Renaissance

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

Logical use of THE

= the unique reference explained by the logical interpretation of certain words as post-determiners and adjectives

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

Logical use of THE

• Ordinals (E.g.: first, second) • General ordinals (E.g.: next, last, only) • Superlative Adjs (E.g.: best, largest)

E.g.: - When is the first flight to Chicago? - This is the only remaining copy. - Of the three newspapers we have in this city, this is the best.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
The articles

Definite

With body parts

= when the possessor…

• is subject (1) E.g.: - My mother complains of a pain • may be implied rather in the neck. (1) - The doctor diagnosed a fracture than stated (2) of the collarbone. (2) • is relevant or clear (3) - Keep the back straight when serving and your tennis will be better. (3)

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an
The referent: not mentioned before, and assumedly unfamiliar to the speaker or hearer. C/f: (1) A house on the corner is for sale. (2) The house on the corner is for sale.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an
Non-referring uses Substitution uses for ONE

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an

Non-referring uses

= with complement function, and a descriptive role rather than a referring role E.g.: - What a miserable day it is! = sometimes not referring to anything in reality E.g.: - Bob wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an
Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function substitute and generic function

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an
Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function

In expression: a dozen, a hundred…

In quantifiers: a few, a great many…

In measure phrase: ten dollars a day…

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Indefinite articles a/an
Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function = any representative of the class E.g. E.g.: - A woman needs love and support from a man.

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Reference – The articles

Zero (Ø) article
Noun phrases in a copular relation Noun phrases with sporadic reference Parallel structures Fixed phrases

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2.2
Zero (Ø) article
unique role or task

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases in a copular relation E.g.: - John F. Kennedy was (the)

= where the complement means a

President of the United States in 1961.

= When the appositional N.P indicating a unique role or task is placed first = When the complement of turn is used (even when there is no implication of uniqueness)

E.g.: - Chelsea centre-forward Milton Smith

E.g.: - Jenny started out as a music student before she turned linguist.

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2.2
Zero (Ø) article

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Institutions

Times of day and night

Seasons

Means of transport and communication

Meals

Illnesses

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2.2
Zero (Ø) article

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Institutions

= nouns do not refer to actual buildings or places, but to institutions associated with them

E.g.: - “to be in prison” means to be a prisoner

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Zero (Ø) article

Means of transportation

E.g.: travel leave by communicate

bicycle bus radio post

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Zero (Ø) article

Times of day and night

= take a zero article particularly after at, by, after and before

E.g.:

at/ before dawn when day breaks

by day and night after nightfall

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Zero (Ø) article

Meals

= as an institution recurring day by day (for specific meals: THE/ A(N))

E.g.: - She’s having lunch with her client. - That day, the lunch was served on the terrace.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Zero (Ø) article

Seasons

= as seasons generally, or a particular part of a particular year (for a particular season: THE/ A(N))

E.g.: - Winter is coming. - The spring of last year was cold.

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2.2

Reference – The articles
Noun phrases with sporadic reference

Zero (Ø) article

Illnesses

Note: for well-known infectious diseases such as: THE/ A(N)

E.g.:

diabetes (the) flu a fever

influenza (the mumps) a temperature

pneumonia (the) meals a cold

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2.2
Zero (Ø) article

Reference – The articles
Parallel structures

the same noun repeated after a preposition

one noun balanced against another noun of contrasting meaning

E.g.: day by day eye to eye

E.g.: from father to son husband and wife

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2.2
Zero (Ø) article

Reference – The articles
Fixed phrases
Idioms = verbs with nouns and prepositions

Idioms = nouns with prepositions before/after

E.g.: in turn on foot

E.g.: set fire to get word of

Issues
1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

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3

Grammatical categories of Ns
Grammatical Categories Number Case
E.g.: my sister’s car a fall of 10%

Gender
E.g.: she-wolf desk mother-in-law

E.g.: mouse - mice box – boxes fish - fish

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3

Grammatical categories of Ns
Grammatical Categories Number
Invariables = nouns that do not vary

Variables

= nouns that do vary

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3 Grammatical categories of Ns
Invariables Singular only
Non-count Ns N-ending in “s” news scissors water, oil physics pants (abstract) abstract freedom the true the ugly customs cattle (concrete) the poor the blind arms people Substantive Adj Ns with plural meaning

Plural only
Pluralia tantums Collective Ns Substantive Adj

material

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3 Grammatical categories of Ns
Variables Regular plural
(N + s) - /s/ books, stops - /z/ beds, stars - /iz/ boxes, brushes

Irregular plural
- voicing /f/  /vz/ leaf – leaves - “en” ending ox – oxen - change of the root vowel tooth - teeth - foreign plural medium - media

Zero plural
(same form for both plural & singular) sheep, deer, tout

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Grammatical categories of Ns
Case

“s” genitive
= with the nouns of higher gender class E.g.: her mom’s car

“of” genitive
= with the nouns of lower gender class

double genitive
= “of” and “’s” genitives used together

E.g.: the paint of the room E.g.: a friend of her father’s

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Grammatical categories of Ns
Case – Genitive meaning
Examples My father’s hat Her sister’s nephew My father’s permission The arrival of the bus The criminal’s arrest Two days’ visit The town of Vinh Yen Equivalents My father has a hat. Her sister has a nephew. My father permits. The bus arrived. Someone arrested the criminal. A visit lasts 2 days. Vinh Yen is a town.

Genitive meaning Possessive Human relation Subjective (+ original) Objective Descriptive Appositive

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3 Grammatical categories of Ns
Gender
= In English, there is not any further morphological feature that helps distinguish gender (unlike Russian or French) Gender Masculine: man Feminine: woman Common: teacher Neuter: table Sex (semantic concept) (male) (female) (both male and female)

Ø

Issues
1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

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4
Pronouns

Pronouns

Features

Types

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4.1
Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive Number

Pronouns

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Pronouns Features • without determiners • with an objective case • with person distinction (1st – I/ we; 2nd – you; 3rd – he/she/it/they) Main features

Pronouns

• with overt gender contrast (masculine, feminine & nonpersonal) • singular and plural form: not often morphologically related

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4.1
Pronouns Features Main features Person Case Genitive Number

Pronouns

• first person: the speaker (and one or more other) • second person: the interlocutor(s) • third person: one/more other persons other than the interlocutor(s)

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Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive Number

Pronouns

• Most pronouns: two-case system (objective & subjective) • Other 6 pronouns: threecase system (subjective, objective, genitive) (I, we, he, she, they, who) (me, us, him, her, them, whom) (my, our, his, her, their, whose)

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Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive Number

Pronouns

• with a distinction between masculine and feminine in 3rd person singulars: personal, reflexive, and possessive. (he - she; himself - herself; her - his )

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4.1
Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive Number

Pronouns

• The 2nd person: a common form for singular & plural in the personal & possessive series, but a separate form for plural in the reflexive (you – your but yourself - yourselves)

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Pronouns Types
Personal Pronouns Relative Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Universal ProNs & determiners Reciprocal Pronouns

Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns Quantifying Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns Partitive Pronouns

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4.2
Pronouns Types
Personal Pronouns

Pronouns

• Subjective forms: (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) as Subjects and Subject complements E.g.: He is a student at this university. • Objective forms: (me, you, us, them, him, her, it) as Objects and prepositional complements E.g.: I saw him with her yesterday in the park.

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Pronouns Types
Reflexive Pronouns

Pronouns

• Include: myself, yourself(ves), ourselves, themselves, himself, herself, itself • Objective function E.g.: He looked after himself after his wife left. • Emphatic function E.g.: I myself would never love such a girl.

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Pronouns Types
Reciprocal Pronouns

Pronouns

• include: each other, one another E.g.: - Mary likes Mike and Mike likes Mary.  They like each other. - I have 3 friends. They don’t like one another.

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4.2
Pronouns Types
Possessive Pronouns

Pronouns

• Determiner function (my, your, our, their, his, her, its) E.g.: This is my friend. • Nominal function (mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its) E.g.: This friend is mine.

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Pronouns Types
Relative Pronouns

Pronouns

• Personal (who (ever), whom, whose, that) E.g.: Whoever comes here needs an ID card. • Non-personal (which(ever), whose, that, what(ever)) E.g.: Whose is this book?

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4.2
Pronouns Types
Interrogative Pronouns

Pronouns

• Interrogative determiners - personal: whose - personal/non-personal: which, that • Interrogative pronouns - personal: who, whom, whose - non-personal: what - personal/non-personal: which

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Pronouns Types
Demonstrative Pronouns

Pronouns

• Singular (this, that) • Plural (these, those)

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Pronouns Types
Quantifying Pronouns

Pronouns

• Numeral “one” E.g.: One went this way, the other that way. • Replacive “one” E.g.: I’d like a drink, but just a small one. • Indefinite “one” E.g.: One can’t be too careful, can one/you? • Cardinals/ordinals (one, two, three, etc.; first, second, third, etc.) E.g.: He has two wives. The first is so ugly.

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Pronouns Types
Universal ProNs & determiners

Pronouns

• Include: each, all, every, and “every” compounds (everything, everyone, etc.) E.g.: Each of the students should have his own books.

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Pronouns Types
Partitive Pronouns

Pronouns
• Assertive ProNs: someone/body, something, somewhere, some (pronoun or determiner) E.g.: Somebody has turned on the light. • Non-assertive ProNs: anyone, anybody, anything, anywhere, either, any (pronoun or determiner) • E.g.: - Have you got anything to eat now? - Have you got any paper? I need some. • Negative ProNs: no one/body, nowhere, neither, none, no (pronoun or determiner) E.g.: None of them were absent.