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E_English Grammar Course

Unit 3 NOUN PHRASE (cont.)

Issues
 NOUN

PHRASE
– Complex NP
• Modification
– Premodification – Postmodification – Multiple modification

– Basic NP
• Determiners
– Predeterminers – Central determiners – Postdeterminers

Noun phrases
Noun Phrase
= typically constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head & other constituents as modifiers Eg. A nice girl leaning against the wall

Basic NP Complex NP

Noun phrases
Noun Phrase
Basic NP Complex NP

Basic Noun phrases
Basic NP

(Determiners)
E.g.: All these 10

+

Head noun
pupils

Determiners
Determiners = words of close-system used before a N to “determine” the precise meaning of the N Pre-determiners Central determiners Post-determiners

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
• mutually exclusive E.g.: all girls, both girls BUT NOT: all both girls all, both, half multipliers fractions such, what

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
+ before: all, both, half articles (a, an, the, zero article) E.g.: all the time possessive determiners (my, his, her, etc.) E.g.: both his sisters demonstrative determiners (this, that, etc.) E.g.: half those days quantitative determiners (no, each, any, some, enough, (n)either, every)

+ not before:

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
+ take partitive “of-phrases” all, both, half optional with nouns E.g.: all (of) the time obligatory with pronouns E.g.: all of them, both of us, half of it + “all, both”: occur after the head, either immediately or after the operator E.g.: They (all) were (all) accepted.

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
+ used to denote the quantity of the nouns E.g.: twice her age, double their salaries + occur with the determiners “a, every, each and per” to indicate frequency E.g.: once a week, twice every day, three times each year multipliers Once, twice, three times, double, etc.

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
fraction (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.)

+ the fractions have the alternative of- construction.
E.g.: He took only two-thirds of the books. + the indefinite article can replace ‘one’. E.g.: He did it in one-third / a third (of) the time it took me.

Determiners
Determiners Pre-determiners
+ occur before the head noun + “such”: combined with “all, quantifiers, cardinal numbers” E.g.: What/ Such a surprise! no/many/41 such incidents Such/ what

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count)

(1) the, possessive wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no

(2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough

(3) a(n) every each Either neither

(4)

(5)

(6)

this that

these those

much

Central Determiners
Central Determiners in respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classes COUNT SINGULAR PLURAL
bottle furniture bottles

NON-COUNT

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners
  (1) the, possessive wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no E.g.: - Do you want me to turn off the light? - I love my family. - What colour do you like? - I have some friends in London. - I won’t give this pen to any student. - She has no idea at all. 

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners

(2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough

E.g.: - Love is not everything. - I did not have enough time to do this. - I want some beer, please. - Have we got any wine for tonight?

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners
 (3) a(n) every each Either neither

E.g.: - My friend gave me a flower / an apple. - I want to ask each/every person individually. - You can put it on either table. - Neither party accepted such a proposal.

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners

(4)

this that

E.g.:

This chair is mine and that table is yours. I can’t stand this silence.

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners

(5) 

these those

E.g.: - Did you read these stories yesterday? - Have you seen those girls?

Central Determiners
Determiners
Central determiners

(6)

much

E.g.: He wants much sugar in his coffee.

Central Determiners
Determiners
Post determiners
Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

Central Determiners
Determiners
Post determiners
Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

• include: one, two, three, etc. E.g.: my three son his two books

Central Determiners
Determiners
Post determiners
Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

• ordinal numerals: first,second, third, etc. • general ordinals: next, last, past, (an)other, additional, further E.g.: the first time another candidate

Central Determiners
Determiners
Post determiners
Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

• before count Ns: many, (a) few, several • before non-count Ns: much, (a) little E.g.: a few words much stress

Central Determiners
Determiners
Post determiners
• include:Cardinal a great deal of, lots of, a good number of, etc. a lot of, numerals • verbs has number concord with the second nouns, not the quantity nouns (lot, deal, lots, plenty, etc.)ordinals Ordinal numerals/general E.g.: Lots of food was on the table. There was a lot of food on the table. Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

Noun phrases
Noun Phrase
Basic NP Complex NP

Complex noun phrase
Complex NP

Pre+ modification
E.g.: All the 11

PostHead noun + modification
pupils playing football

Modification
Modification

function
Restrictive Permanent

status

Non-restrictive

Temporary

Modification
Modification
• helps identify the head & indicate a function
Restrictive

status limitation on the possible reference of the head
Permanent

• tends to come after the head
Non-restrictive

• tends to be given more prosodic emphasis Temporary
Temporary

than the head E.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice.

Modification
Modification
• gives additional information to the head function
Restrictive

Non-restrictive

but is not essential for identifying the status head • the reference: unique or as member of a Permanent class that has been independently identified • tends to come before the head Temporary • tends to be unstressed in pre-head position E.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday, is quite readable. (member of a class) She is his poor, old mother. (unique)

Modification
Modification

function • Have reference to characteristic features Non-restrictive • Mainly the items which are placed in premodification position E.g.: an ugly man Restrictive the easy-going lady
Permanent

status

Temporary

Modification
Modification

function
Non-restrictive • Have reference only to a specific time • Mainly those adjectives which have to be Permanent

status

predicate Restrictive E.g.: A man who is timid = A timid man A man who is afraid # An afraid man

Temporary

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbials noun adjectives multiple premodification

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples

E.g.: Mary's brother is very sentencenaughty.

adverbial noun adjective multiple premodification

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence E.g.: He has rented a crumbling cottage. adverbial noun

The wanted man was last seen in Paris.

Note: the participles denote the permanent. She is an interesting girl vs. She interests me.

E.g. adjective

multiple premodification The man who is married = the married man

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence

E.g.:

adverbial I got angry with his I-don't-care attitude.

She waved the boy away with a you-stink kind of noun look on her face.
adjective multiple premodification

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence visited his far-away hometown. E.g.: I adverbial noun adjective multiple premodification

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence

E.g.: adverbial He has fixed the cupboard
noun

door.

adjective multiple prmodification

Premodification
Premodification
‘s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial

E.g.: She is a lovely noun girl.
adjective multiple premodification

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses

E.g.: The girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter .
non-finite clause appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

prepositional phrase

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase

E.g.: She love the monitor in your class.
appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

non-finite clause

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause

E.g.: The girl playing in the ground is my daughter.
Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

appositive clause

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause

E.g.: The fact that he is rich is not the reason she loves him.
adverb adjective multiple postmodification

Clause of time, place, manner, reason

Postmodification
Postmodification E.g.: I work in the university where I studied English. prepositional phrase 12th Sep, 1983 is the date when he was born. non-finite clause That’s the reason why he spoke ill of me. She shows me the way how I can cook beef.
appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification relative clauses

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause

E.g.:

Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

The girl over there is my sister. appositive clause The road back is dense with traffic.

Postmodification
Postmodification
relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason

E.g.: Something strange happened last night.
adverb adjective multiple postmodification

Multiple modification
Multiple modification

Multiple premodification

Multiple postmodification

Multiple modification
Multiple modification • with single head: Multiple premodification E.g.: his last brilliant book • with multiple head: E.g.: the new chair and table the new but ugly table and chair

Multiple postmodification

Multiple modification
Multiple modification

Multiple premodification • Sequence of premodifiers: Determiner general age color participle provenance noun de-nominal head Multiple E.g.: a crumbling church postmodification towel the extravagant London social life some intricate old inter-locking Chinese

Multiple modification
Multiple modification • with single head: E.g.: the girl in the corner talking to John Multiple premodification head: • with multiple E.g.: the boy and the girl in the corner talking to John Multiple postmodification

Related Readings
 Quirk,

R. & Greenbaum, S. A University

Grammar of English, NXB GTVT, 2002: Chapter 4 & Chapter 13