E_English Grammar Course

Unit 7 The Simple Sentence

Issues
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Clause Patterns Sentence Elements and their Meanings Concord Negation Questions, Commands, Exclamations

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Clause types

Clause Types
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause types

Clause Types
Clause Elements

S, V, O, C, A Obligatory vs. Optional They appointed him head of office last week. S V O C A
Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause types

Clause Types
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

Clause types Obligatory clause patterns are those which are required for the complementation of the verb. Clause types transformed

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Clause types

Clause Types
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

I put the book on the table (SVOA) vs. I put the book. Clause types He resembled his father (SVO) vs. He resembled. (Sometimes) she sings (beautifully). Clause types transformed He is eating (the cake).

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Clause Types
SVA Mary is in the house. SVC Mary is kind. SVO Somebody Clause Elements caught the ball. SVOA I put the vase on the table. SVOC She has proved it wrong. SVOO Obligatory vs. Optional a new bike. Mom buys me SV The lady smiled.
7 Clause types

Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause Types
Clause types
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

Passive transformation SV, SVC, SVA equivalents

7 Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause Types
Clause types
Passive transformation
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

Many critics disliked the play (SVOd) The play was disliked by many critics. (S + Vpass + [A])

7 Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause Types
Clause types
Passive transformation
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

Mom considered him a genius. (SVOO) He was considered a genius (by Mom). (SVC [A])

7 Clause types

Clause types transformed

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Clause Types
Clause types
SV, SVC, SVA equivalents
Clause Elements

Obligatory vs. Optional

1. SV

7 Clause types SVC The baby is sleeping The baby is asleep 2. SV SVA Clause types transformed Two loaves will suffice Two loaves will be sufficient 3. SVC SVA He is jobless He is without a job.

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Clause Types

Which clause type does each of the following sentences belong to? 1. He’s getting angry. 2. He got through the window. 3. He’ll get a surprise. 4. He got his shoes and socks wet. 5. He got himself into trouble. 6. He got her a splendid present.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Clause Types
SVC He’s getting angry. SVA He got through the window. SVO He’ll get a surprise. SVOC He got his shoes and socks wet. SVOA He got himself into trouble. SVOO He got her a splendid present.
One verb can belong to a number of different classes.

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Sentence elements syntactically defined Subject Object See Quirk, pp170 Complement Adverbial

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected recipient locative temporal eventive Empty It

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected recipient locative She opened the door. temporal eventive IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected recipient locative The key opens the door. temporal eventive IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected recipient locative temporal eventive The door opens. IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected recipient locative temporal eventive She has a new shirt. IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject

agentive This room accommodates 20 people. instrumental affected recipient

locative temporal eventive IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive Tomorrow is my birthday. instrumental affected recipient locative temporal eventive IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental locative temporal eventive IT

The meeting ended successfully. affected recipient

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive instrumental affected It’s wonderful to meet you. recipient locative temporal eventive Empty IT

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Object Od affected effected locative Oi We opened the door. He invented the telephone. We passed the building.

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Object Od We paid him a visit. We gave him some money. Oi affected recipient

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Object Cs Current attribute Resulting attribute He is tired. He becomes tired. Co

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Sentence elements and their meanings
Semantic Roles of the Complement Cs We found the room empty. They left the room empty. Co Current attribute Resulting attribute

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CONCORDS

Concords
Grammatical concord

Notional Concord

Concord by Proximity Concord with coordinated subject

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Grammatical Concord

Concords
Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun

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Grammatical Concord

Concords
Subject - Verb

Subject SUBJECT sing/plur  VERB sing/plur - Complement This dish is dirty/ These dishes are dirty. SUBJECT (clause)  VERB sing What they are doing now is my concern. Pronoun Subject - Object

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Grammatical Concord

Concords
Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object The child was an angel. The children are angels. Pronoun

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Grammatical Concord

Concords
Subject - Verb Subject - Complement

He injured himself.

Subject - Object Pronoun

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Grammatical Concord

Concords
Subject - Verb Subject - Complement The boy likes his toys Subject - Object Pronoun

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Notional Concord

Concords
Nominal clause Collective noun

The verb agrees with the idea of plural rather than the actual singular form of the noun

None

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Notional Concord

Concords
Nominal clause

Collective noun What he says isn’t true. (= The thing he says isn’t true) What they like best are None coffee. tea and ( The things they like…)

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Notional Concord

Concords
Nominal clause Collective noun The cabinet are having None a rest. (All members of the cabinet…) The cabinet has reached an agreement. (The cabinet as a whole)

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Notional Concord

Concords
Nominal clause Collective noun None None of the students like Grammar. None of the cheese is fresh.

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Concord by Proximity

Concords
Set phrases Existential sentence with ‘there’ The verb tends to agree with whatever noun or pronoun closely precedes it, instead of the head word of the subject Either… or

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Concord by Proximity

Concords
Set phrases Existential sentence with ‘there’ One in ten take drugs. Either… or

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Concord by Proximity

Concords
Set phrases Existential sentence with ‘there’ Either… or There are two chairs and a desk there. There is a chair and two desks there.

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Concord by Proximity

Concords
Set phrases Existential sentence with ‘there’ Either… or Either my brother or I am to blame for the error. Either the teacher or the students need to do this.

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Concord with coordinated subject

Concords
Coordinated subject representing a single entity

normally takes a plural verb

When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person

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Concord with coordinated subject

Concords
Coordinated subject representing a single entity

The hammer and the sickle wasWhen the NPsof the to the same flying on top refer building. thing/ person

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Concord with coordinated subject

Concords
Coordinated subject representing a single entity

When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person His lawyer and former college friend, Max Weber, was with him at his death.

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Negation
The negation of a sentence is accomplished by inserting not between the operator and the predication.
E.g.

The attempt has succeeded. The attempt has not succeeded. We may win the match.  We may not win the match.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Negation
Assertives vs. Non-assertives Negative intensification Alternative Negative elements Scope of negation Focus of negation Relationship between scope and focus of negation Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation

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Negation
Assertives
Some Someone Somewhere Somehow To some extent Already A great deal Too A long way Too A long time

Non-assertive forms = items that do not naturally occur outside negative, interrogative, and conditional sentences. E.g. I saw him somewhere. I didn’t see him anywhere. (Quirk p.184)

Non-assertives
Any Anyone Anywhere In any way At all Yet Much Either Far Very Long

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Negation
Negative Intensification = ways to give emotive intensification to a negative.

I found nothing at all the matter with him. I have no excuse whatever. I'll never, never go there again. I've never in all my life seen such a crowd. She has never spoken to me even a single word.

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Negation
Alternative Negative Elements (Instead of the verb, another element may be negated)

An honest man would not lie -> No honest man would lie. I didn't see any birds -> I saw no birds.

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Scope of Negation

Negation
Normally extends from the negative word itself to the end of the clause. E.g. I definitely didn’t speak to him. (It’s definite that I did not.) I didn’t definitely speak to him. (It’s not definite that I did.)

= The stretch of language over which the negative meaning operates

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Focus of Negation

Negation
1.‘JOHN doesn’t love Mary. Somebody loves Mary but it’s not John. 2. John doesn’t ‘LOVE Mary. John likes Mary but it’s not love. 3. John doesn’t love ‘MARY. John loves somebody else but it’s not Mary.

The contrastive nuclear stress falling on a particular part of a clause indicates that the contrast of meaning implicit in the negation is located at that spot and the rest of the clause can be understood in a positive sense.

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Scope & Focus of Negation The scope must include the focus, and by the position of the focus we can realize the extent of the scope

Negation
I didn’t LISTEN all the time. (I listened none of the time.) I didn’t listen ALL the time. (I listened some of the time.)

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Scope & Focus of Negation The scope must include the focus, and by the position of the focus we can realize the extent of the scope.

Negation
In each of the following case, does John love Mary or not? John doesn’t LOVE Mary because she is a teacher. John doesn’t love Mary because she is a TEACHER.

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation The scope of negation Main Verb Negation includes the meaning of the auxiliary itself

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation 1. can’t (in all sense) Main Verb Negation You can’t be serious. (It is not possible that…) You can’t go swimming. (You are not allowed…) She can’t ride a bicycle. (She is not able to…)

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation 2. Needn’t You needn’t pay that fine. (You are not obliged to…) It needn’t be my fault. (it is not necessary that…)

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation 3. May not ( = Verb Negation Main permission) You may not go swimming. (You are not allowed to…)

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation

1. May not (=possibility) They may notAuxiliary Negation wet. bother to come if it’s (It is possible that they will not bother to come.)

Main Verb Negation

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t Main Verb Negation

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Main Verb Negation

Shall not/ I won’t Don’t worry.shan’t interfere (I’m willing not to interfere.) Must not/ mustn’t it (He insists on not doing it.) He won’t do Ought not/ oughtn’t They won’t have arrived yet (I predict that they’ve not arrived yet.

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t you shan’t lose your reward. Don’t worry, (I’m willing to see that you don’t lose your reward. Ought not/ oughtn’t Main Verb Negation

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Main Verb Negation

Must not/ mustn’t I shan’t know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…) Ought not/ oughtn’t

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Main Verb Negation

You mustn’t keep us all waiting (You’ll oblige me for not keeping…) Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t

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Negation
Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Will not/ won’t Main Verb Negation

You oughtn’t shan’t us waiting (obligation) Shall not/ to keep HeMust not/to be long (necessity) oughtn’t mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Commands Exclamations

Types of simple sentences

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements

Types of simple sentences

Sentences in which the subjectQuestions is always present and generally precedes the verb. Commands Exclamations

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Commands Alternative Questions Exclamations

Types of simple sentences

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions

Alternative Questions

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Yes – No Alternative Questions General Questionsquestions Has the boat left? Yes-no questions with positive orientation: Has the boat left already? Yes-no questions with positive orientation: Hasn’t the boat left yet?

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Tag questions • Rising tone = neutral assumption • Falling tone: Positive assumption + positive expectation Negative assumption + negative expectation

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh -Declarative Questions Questions Alternative Questions You’ve got the explosive? He didn’t finished it?

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh -Exclamatory Questions Questions Alternative Questions Negative Y-N Hasn’t he grown! Wasn’t it good! Positive Y – N Am I hungry! Do I look annoyed!

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions

Alternative Questions

Wh- word pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose • Who went there with her? (Wh-word = S) • Who(m) did he talk to? (Wh-word = Od) • Which book have you lent him? (Wh-word = premodifier) • Whose beautiful antiques are they? (Wh-word = determiner) • Who did you lent to book to? (Wh-word = Oi)

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions

Alternative Questions

Wh- word adverbs: when, where, how, why, how + adj/adv • When will you come back? (A time) • Where should I put these? (A place) • Why aren’t they coming? (A reason) • How did they mend it? (A manner) •…

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Questions

Yes – No Questions

Wh - Questions

Alternative Questions

Would you like tea, coffee, or milk? Which ice cream would you like. Chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry?

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Commands sentences that make use of the imperative mood in the main, or sometimes of questions with Exclamations the initial modal - particularly with invitations or requests.

Types of simple sentences

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject Positive: Be reasonable Negative: Don’t make noise With ‘let’

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject ‘You’ as subject With ‘let’ pronoun S Infinite

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject ‘You’ as subject With ‘let’ -You there be quiet! -You come here, Jack, and you come over there, Mary. - Will you come in and sit down?

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ Indefinite Pronoun S Positive: Somebody open the door! Everybody shut their eyes! Negative: Don’t anyone say anything!

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ Positive: Let’s go out./ Let each man decide for himself. Negative: Let’s open the door/ Don’t let him lose heart.

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Full exclamation Short exclamation Commands Exclamations

Types of simple sentences

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Full exclamation What an enormous crowd came! Commands How delightful her manners are! Exclamations Short exclamation

Types of simple sentences

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Questions, Commands & Exclamation
Statements Questions Short exclamation What a book! Commands How wonderful! Exclamations Full exclamation

Types of simple sentences

That’s the end of unit 7.

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