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E_English Grammar Course

Unit 8 The Complex Sentence

Issues
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Subordination Classifications of subordinate clauses Subordinators Nominal clauses Adverbial clauses Comparative and Comment clauses

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1 Subordination
Subordination
- Non-symmetrical relation held between two clauses: one clause is a constituent/ part of the other

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1 Subordination
Subordination
i.e. one clause is - Non-symmetrical relation held -between two clauses: one clause is Non-symmetrical relation, a constituent/ part of the other a constituent/ part of the other

1 2 21 [I like John [because John likes me] ] 1 1 [superordinate/ independent/ main clause ] 2 2 [subordinate/ dependent clause]

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1 Subordination
Subordination
Hierarchy of clauses

XYZ( I think [ that you can do it { if you try} ] ) S V O A X = subordinate to Y Y = subordinate to X Y & Z = dependent clause X = independent clause

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Classifications of subordinate clauses

By structural type

By functional type

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause

- contains a subject and a predicate - verb phrase having tense, person & number concord, & mood Verbless clause

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ing participle -ed participle

By structural type

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to -ing participle

By structural type

Without S: With S:

Infinitive without to -ed participle The best thing would be to tell everybody. The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Without S: With S: -ing participle

By structural type

Infinitive the room, he tripped over the mat. -ed participle Leaving without to Her aunt having left the room, I declared my passionate love for Celia..

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Infinitive without to Without S: With S: -ing participle -ed participle

By structural type

All I did was hit him on the head. Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to give the job to Mary.

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Infinitive without to
Without S: With S:

By structural type

-ing participle -ed participle

Covered in snow, he looked like a snowman. We left the room and went home, the job finished.

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause

1. Ellipsis of the verb ‘be’ - Dozens of people died in the accident, many of them children. - Whether right or wrong, he always dominates the arguments.

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause

2. Reduction of non-finite clauses - Too nervous to reply, he stared at the book in front of him and dared not look up.

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Classifications of subordinate clauses
By function Nominal clause Adverbial clause Comparative clause Comment clause

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Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinators
Simple subordinators Compound subordinators

Correlative subordinators

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Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinators
Simple subordinators after, though, although, as, Compound subordinators because, before, if, once since, that, until, when where, subordinators Correlative while, etc.

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Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinators
Simple subordinators Compound subordinators - ending with ‘that’: in that, so that, such that … - ending with optional ‘that’:Correlative subordinators now (that), provided (that), supposing (that), seeing (that)… - ending with ‘as’: so far as, as long as, so as (to do sth)… - ending with ‘than’: sooner than, rather than… - others: as if, as though, in case

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Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinators
Simple subordinators Compound subordinators

Correlative subordinators if… then, although… yet, as… as, so… as, so… that no sooner… than, more/ less… than, the… the, whether… or

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Other indicators of subordination

Subordinators
Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker

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Other indicators of subordination

Subordinators
Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion I don’t know who knocked at the door last night. No marker

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Other indicators of subordination

Subordinators
Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker Had it not been for your help, I would have died.

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Other indicators of subordination

Subordinators
Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker

1. nominal clause e.g. I suppose (that) you’re right. 2. comment clause e.g. You’re right, I suppose.

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Finite
that clause

Nominal clauses
Nominal Clauses Non-finite
to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive

wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause

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that clause

Nominal clauses
Finite Nominal Clauses

- S: That you were wrong is undeniable. - Od: I knew that I was wrong. wh-interrogative clause - Cs: The problem is that he refuses to speak in court. Yes - No interrogative clause - Appositive: The fact that he hates English makes it hard for him to study it. - Cadj: I’m sure that things will improve. Nominal relative clause

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that clause

Nominal clauses
Finite Nominal Clauses

wh-interrogative clause
Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause

- Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cadj, & Cprep (They haven’t decided on who wins the cup.) - Leave a gap of unknown information

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that clause

Nominal clauses
Finite Nominal Clauses

wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause

- Is formed with if/ whether e.g. Do you know if/ whether the teacher has come yet?

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that clause

Nominal clauses
Finite Nominal Clauses

- S: What he is pursuing is fame. - Od: I want to see whoever in charge of this department. - Oi: She gave whoever came into the store wh-interrogative clause a handful of sweets. - Cs: University is where you train for your Yes - No interrogative clause future career. - Co: You can call me whatever you like. - Ap: Tell me your nickname, that is, the Nominal relative clause way your friends often call you. - Cprep: Vote for whichever candidate you like.

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Nominal clauses

Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause - S: To become an MC has always nominal –ing clause bare infinitive
been my dream. - Od: John wanted her to open the door. - Cs: My wish is to stay here one more week. - Ap: His ambition to be a famous writer was fulfilled. - Cadj: I’m glad to help you.

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Nominal clauses

Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause - Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cprep, nominal –ing clause bare infinitive
& Cadj - Genitive case in formal style e.g. I’m surprised at his making that mistake. - Objective or common case: e.g. I’m surprised at him making that mistake.

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Nominal clauses

Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause - ‘to’ is optional in case of ‘do’ proform.
E.g. All I did was (to) turn off the gas.

nominal –ing clause bare infinitive
- bare infinitive is obligatory when the infinitive clause is initial E.g. Turn off the gas was all I did.

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result Manner & Comparison Proportion & Preference

Condition & concession Reason or cause Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result

- after, before, until, since, when + finite clause Condition & concession when(ever), while + V-ing Comparison Manner & - after, before, since, until, - once, until, when(ever), while + V-ed Reason or cause Proportion & - as soon as, once, when(ever), while + Verbless clause Preference Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result

Condition & concession Manner & Comparison - Introduced by ‘where’/ ‘wherever’ E.g.Reason or Icause I will travel wherever I like. When retire, Proportion & Preference Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but rubble. Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result Manner & Comparison

Condition & concession

Reason or cause Proportion & Preference - Conditional clauses state the dependence of one circumstance on another. Circumstance - Introduced by if, unless, provided that, providing that… E.g. If you’re kind to her, she will do anything for you.

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result Manner & Comparison

Condition & concession

Reason or cause Proportion & Preference - Concessive clauses imply a contrast between two circumstances. - Introduced by though, although, while, whereas, even if Circumstance E.g. Although he isn’t good-looking, people are still attracted to him.

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Adverbial clauses

Clauses of condition or concession Alternative conditional-concessive clauses

Universal conditional-concessive clauses

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Adverbial clauses
Alternative conditional-concessive clauses Combine conditional meaning with subjunctive meaning E.g. Whether they beat us or we beat them, we’ll celebrate tonight.

Clauses of condition or concession

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Adverbial clauses
Universal conditional-concessive clauses Indicate a free choice from among any number of conditions E.g. No matter how hard he tried, he could never summon enough courage to tell her the truth.

Clauses of condition or concession

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Adverbial clauses

- introduced by because, since, as Time Purpose - I didn’t lend him the book because I needed it for my assignment. (adjunct) Result Place - They’ve lit a fire, because I can see smoke rising. (disjunct of reason) Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Circumstance Proportion & Preference

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Adverbial clauses

Time Purpose - express a fulfilled condition/ a relation between a premise Place (in the subordinate clause) and the conclusion (in theResultclause) main - introduced by because, since, as, & seeing that Condition & concession Manner & Comparison E.g. Seeing that the weather has improved, we shall enjoy our game. = The weather having improved, we shall enjoy our game. Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

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Time

Adverbial clauses
Purpose

Place Result - are adjuncts Condition & concession - introduced by (in order) (for N) to, so as to,Manner & Comparison so that E.g. I tiptoed into the room so as not to wake the baby up. Reasontried to improve his English so that he could & Preference Proportion study abroad. He or cause - has ‘putative’ meaning (modal auxiliaries are used) Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result

Condition factual than putative  may contain an ordinary verb form Manner & Comparison - are more & concession without a modal auxiliary Reason or cause Proportion & Preference - introduced by so that/so (informal) E.g. We planted many shrubs, so (that) the garden looked beautiful. Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result Manner & Comparison

Condition & concession

Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Clauses of manner – (exactly) as, (just) as (Just) as a moth is attracted by a light, (so) he was fascinated by her. Circumstance

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Time Place

Adverbial clauses
Purpose Result Manner & Comparison

Condition & concession

Reason or cause Clauses of comparison – as if, as though Proportion & Preference He looks as if he is going to faint. Circumstance He treated me as though I were a child (unreal)

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Adverbial clauses

Clauses of proportion express a ‘proportionality’ orPurpose equivalence Time of tendency between two circumstances Place Result E.g. As he grew older, (so) his enthusiasm for the cause decreased. Condition & concession into the forest, theManner & Comparison The more he went deeper more scared he felt. Reason or cause Circumstance Proportion & Preference

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Adverbial clauses

Time Purpose Clauses of preference are introduced by rather than/ sooner than E.g. Rather than go there by air, I’d take the train. Place Result Rather than sitting here complaining, we should act. Rather than a new shirt, he bought a dictionary. Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Circumstance Proportion & Preference

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Comparative & comment clauses
S: More people eat at KFC than any other fastfood restaurant. Cs: I’m healthier than most people of my age. Od: She eats much more than me. Oi: Santa has brought more children joy than anybody else. A: She works harder than my brother.

Comp-element

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Comparative & comment clauses
Ellipsis in Comparative Clause

1. Optional ellipsis James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed the cake. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed it. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan did. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan. 2. Obligatory ellipsis (of object) - James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed. + James know more about the theatre than Susan knows.

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Comparative & comment clauses
through ellipsis He loves the dog more than his wife. with ‘too’ & ‘enough’ He’s too ill to move.

Ambiguity

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms

Comment Clauses

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features

Comment Clauses

Forms - can be either disjuncts or conjuncts - may occur initially, finally, or medially - have a separate tone unit E.g. The Smiths, as you probably know, have been our neighbor for twenty years.

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms

Comment Clauses

(1) Like a main clause At that time, I believe, he didn’t understand a thing.

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms (2) Like an adverbial clause (with as) I’m a perfectionist, as you may know.

Comment Clauses

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms (3) Like a nominal relative clause as conjunct What is more, we lost all our hope and courage.

Comment Clauses

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms

Comment Clauses

(4) To-infinitive clause as style disjunct To be honest with you, I didn’t understand a thing he said.

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms

Comment Clauses

(5) –ing clause as style disjunct I’m concerned, speaking as a linguist, about the language of the young people today.

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Comparative & comment clauses
Features Forms

Comment Clauses

(6) –ed clause as style disjunct Stated bluntly, he had no chance of winning.

That’s the end of unit 8.