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5-S and Value Stream Mapping

Douglas M. Stewart, Ph.D. Anderson Schools of Management University of New Mexico

5-S
 Creates a clean, ordered and disciplined work

environment.  The 5 S are:
Seiri  Seiton  Seiso  Seiketsu  Shitsuke

 …But for those of us who don’t speak

Japanese…

…Seriously, the 5 S are
 Sort  Separate and remove clutter and items unneeded in the workspace.  Extraneous items impede the flow of work.  Set in Order  Organize what is left to minimize movement and make things clear.  Shine (and inspect)  Clean area, storage, equipment, etc. and inspect for warning signs of breakdowns.  Standardize  Set up an area with 5-S supplies (cleaning supplies, labels, colored tape, other organizational items) and schedule time and responsibility for restoring work area to its proper condition regularly.  Sustain  Audit area regularly, expand 5-S to other areas.

Before and After 5-S

Why 5-S
 It is a foundation for Lean

Reduces waste
      

Less searching Decreased walking and motion Reduced downtime Fewer accidents Fewer mistakes Improved flow Better use of space Visual inventory replenishment Standardized work Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM) Setup reduction Mistake-proofing

Precursor to other tools
    

…the problem…
 Many companies don’t understand it, or only

do the first 3.

Value Stream Mapping
 A means of understanding where you are

adding value and how to do so more effectively.  A paper and pencil tool to help you visualize and understand the flow of material and information as a product or customer makes its way through your system.
To learn more see: Learning to See by Rother and Shook, The Lean Enterprise Institute, 2003.

Why Value Stream Mapping?
 Visualize the whole process  See the sources of waste  Provides a common language for

improvement  Makes decisions about flow apparent  Ties together lean techniques  Forms the basis of an improvement plan  Shows linkage between information and material flows

How to begin…
 Start with a single product family.

Customers only care about their specific product.  Having all product flows on a single map is too complicated.  Be specific – how many finished part numbers in family, how much is demanded, and how often.

Selecting a Product Family
 If mix is complicated you can crease a matrix:

Assembly Steps and Equipment P R O D U C T S 1 A B C D E F G X X X X X 2 X X X X X 3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 4 5 X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X X 7 8

Select a Value Stream Manager
 Nobody is usually responsible for the entire

value stream.  Crossing organizational boundaries  Need someone who reports to top manager at your site for power necessary for change

Don’t…
 Split the task up among area managers and

hope to put it all together at the end.  Map your organization, map the flow of products or customers.  Start too big or too small, begin at the door to door level.  Ignore the flow of information

Draw the Current State Map
 Always collect information while walking the

actual process.  Begin with a quick door-to-door walk.  Begin with shipping and work upstream.  Bring your stopwatch and do not rely on information that you do not personally obtain.  Map the whole value stream yourself  Always draw by hand and in pencil (no computers)

Value Stream Mapping Symbols

VSM Exercise – Acme Stamping

Guidelines for the Lean Value Stream
 Produce to your takt time  Develop continuous flow wherever possible  Use Supermarkets to control production where    

continuous flow does not extend upstream Try to send the customer schedule to only one production process Level the production mix Level the production volume Develop the ability to make every part every day (or faster) upstream of the pacemaker process.

Produce to your takt time

To synchronize production at the pacemaker process with sales.

available working time per day takt time = customer demand rate per day

Develop continuous flow wherever possible
This merges all processes lead times and downtimes  May want to start with some pull/FIFO then become more continuous as reliability improves  May not be possible due to

  

Batching (e.g. stamping) Shipping from suppliers Process is too unreliable

Use supermarkets (kanbans)
 to control production where continuous flow

does not extend upstream.

Try to send the customer schedule to only one production process
 The pacemaker process

The most downstream continuous flow process.  No supermarkets downstream of pacemaker.

Pacemaker Process

Level the production volume
 Create an initial pull by releasing and

withdrawing small consistent elements of work at the pacemaker process.
Called: Pitch = Takt time * pack size  Example: If takt time = 30 seconds, and pack size = 20 pieces, then pitch = 10 minutes  Every 10 minutes

Give the pacemaker instructions to produce one pack quantity Take away one finished quantity

Example of Paced Withdrawal

Level the production mix
 Distribute the production of different products

evenly over time at the pacemaker process.

Load leveling box

“Every part every day”
 Develop the ability to make every part every day

(or faster) upstream of the pacemaker process.

uptime% available time per day − run time = time left for changeovers time left for changeovers number of changeovers = changeover time

( daily requirement ) * ( cycle time) run time =

Drawing the Future State
 What is the takt time?  Will you build to a finished goods supermarket or      

directly to shipping? Where can you use continuous flow processing? Where will you need to use supermarket pull systems? At what single point in the production chain (the pacemaker process) will you schedule production? How will you level the production mix? What increment of work will you consistently release? What process improvements will be necessary to make this work?

Draw the future state of Acme