Manukumar G C (13MT6SP003)
Sudeep Sagar E (13MT6SP007)

 Introduction

 Optimization Technique

 Classification

 Low Power Design

 Overview

 Comparison

 Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools
were used in order to implement complex
and low power systems.

 The use of low power has been extended
from portable devices to high performance
computing applications .

 As flip-flops are critical timing elements they
have large impact on circuit speed and power

 The use of dual edge triggered flip flop has
gained more attention, as it maintains
constant throughput at only half the clock

 In the modern era rapid increases in clock
frequency contribute directly to power
consumption of microprocessor.

 Reducing the power consumption of a design
translate directly into increased battery life
of portable devices.
 Clock gating can be used as a method of
shutting down portions of SOC or
microprocessor when the functional blocks
are not in use.

 Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be used to
reduce the power consumption by reducing
the operating voltage of the entire design.

 DVS has limited use of applications because
of its scalability issues.
 The best approach to reduce power is to use
dual edge triggered storage elements in place
of single edge triggered storage elements.

 Dual edge clocking can achieve the same
throughput at half the clock frequency and
half the clock related power consumption as
compared to SETFF.

 This technology can be scaled according to
our applications and can be used in
conjunction with the benefits of clock gating.
 Power consumption in synchronous VLSI can
be divided into three major factors:

Power consumption in the clock network

Power consumption in clock buffer

Power consumption in the flip-flops

 The power consumption in digital CMOS
circuit is given by

 α denotes the transition activity factor which
is defined as the average number of power
consuming transitions that is made at one
node in one clock cycle.
 Vdd.CL is the node capacitance. It can be
classified as gate, diffusion and interconnect

 The interconnect capacitance is the function
of placement and routing.

 Energy provided by the supply source is

 R is the resistance path between the Vdd and
the output node.

 Energy can be rewritten as

 During low to high transitions no energy is
supplied by the source. Hence, the average
power consumed is given by
 As energy is independent of clock frequency,
reducing the frequency will not change the
energy required to perform given operation.

 The battery life is determined by energy
consumption where as the heat dissipation is
related to power consumption.

 In SETFF, the output of flip-flop will follow
the input D at the rising edge of the clock.

 In DETFF, the transition is observed on both
rising and falling edge of the clock.

 The output can only change at clock edges,
and if the input changes at other times the
output will be unaffected.

 Dual Edge-Triggered Static Pulsed Flip-Flop

 Static output controlled discharge Flip-Flop

 Proposed Dual Edge Triggered Flip-flop
Static Pulse generation
The four inverters are used to generate the inverted and delayed
clock signals. The two nMOS transistors create a narrow
sampling window at both rising and falling edges of the clock.
Static Latch
 The two nMOS transistors N3 and N4 are turned
on by the pulse in a very short time.

 During this time input data can be captured by
the static latch so the nodes Sb and Rb will be
charged or discharged according to input data.

 The two pMOS transistors P1 and P2 will supply
Vdd to Rb and Sb respectively.

 The N5 and N6 transistors are connected to GND
if P1 and P2 are on.

 Hence P1,P2,N1 and N2 will avoid floating of
nodes Rb and Sb.
Dual Pulse Generation
It involves an explicit pulse generator and a latch that captures the pulse
Latch of SCDFF
It involves two stages
1) The input D is used to drive the precharge transistors so the
node X follows D during sampling period.

2) Qb controlled nMOS discharge path, which prevents
unnecessary discharge at node X as long as the input D
remains high.
 Sudeep Balan, Sanil K Daniel, ”Dual-edge triggered sense
amplifier flip-flop for low power systems”, IEEE
Transaction on VLSI Systems, 2012.

 W. M. Chung, T. Lo, and M. Sachdev, “A comparative
analysis of low-power low-voltage dual-edge triggered
flip-flops”, IEEE Transaction on VLSI Systems, 2011.

 Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Boriveje Nikolic.
Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective, 2002
Edition, Prentice Hall.

 Weste, Neil H. E., and Harris David. CMOS VLSI Design: A
Circuits and Systems Perspective, 2005 Ed., Addison-