1

Venezuela – May 2009
             
OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENTS
5 - DEEP WATERS
2

Venezuela – May 2009
             
5 – DEEP WATERS
 Limits of fixed platforms : the Bullwinkle example
 Sedimentary basins in deep waters
 Progression of industry capabilities
 Deep water development systems : 500 m to 1500 m approx.
 TLPs and mini TLPs
 Spars
 Semi-submersible floating platforms
 FPSOs (Floating production stage and offloading vessels)
 Turret anchored
 Conventionally moored
 Subsea development and subsea tie-backs
 Comparison of the deep water technologies
Contents
3

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep offshore jackets
4

Venezuela – May 2009
             
BULLWINKLE or the limit of the jacket concept
Preparation
of Bullwinkle
barge
5

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The Bullwinkle transportation barge!
6

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The largest transportation barge in the world
Barge H851
260m x 63 m x 15 m
Max load : 130 514 T
Launching capacity : 60 000 T
7

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Bullwinkle jacket skidding
8

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Bullwinkle jacket loaded
Rocker arms
9

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Bullwinkle jacket leaves fab yard
53,000 tons jacket
10

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The launch of the Bullwinkle jacket
Barge?
11

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The dynamic dilemma for the support

 Dynamics: Short presentation of the phenomena

 Support natural sway period relative to sea state
energy ….




T
O

OWN PERIOD OF A
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
T

PERIOD COMING FROM
OUTSIDE ELEMENTS
... IF T AND T
O
ARE CLOSE :

PROBLEM !
AMPLIFICATION
FACTOR
Kr
T
o
T
=
-








1
1
2


GOVERNING FACTORS
T
O
OWN PERIOD OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
LENGTH:
DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO "L" EXP.
MASS:
DEPENDING ON THE REPARTITION
CONCENTRATED
LINEAR
ENDS CONDITIONS: PIN
EMBEDDED
INERTIA:
I.E. SECTION


T PERIOD DUE TO THE OUTSIDE ELEMENTS
NATURAL
• CURRENTS (VORTEX-INDUCED OSCILLATIONS)
• WAVES
• WIND
• TIDAL
• SEISMIC
• ROTATING EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY
... WALKING TROOP
ARTIFICIAL
MACHINERY
SEISMIC
OSCILLATIONS
EXCITATIONS
RANGE OF FREQUENCIES
FREQUENCY: Hz
PERIOD: s
VORTEX INDUCED
OSCILLATION
(INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS)
WAVE
GROUP
WAVE OSCILLATION
WIND
GUSTING
TIDAL
OSCILLATIONS
AND SURGES
10
-5
10
-3
10
-4
10
-2
10
-1
10
2
10
1
10
3
10
4
10 100
10
1
100
1
1000
1
10000
1
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Venezuela – May 2009
             
STEEL – JACKET
• BRAE: 2"
• FROY: 2.3" (120 m - 5500
t
)
• HEIMDAL: 2.5" (120 m - 25000
t
)
• ALWYN NAA: 2.7" (140 m - 21000
t
)
• ALWYN NAB: 2.94" (140 m - 18000
t
)
• BONGKOT: 2.72" à 3"
• SCOTT: 3.2" (142 m - 14000
t
)
• VESLEFRIK: 3.72" (174 m - 5800
t
)
• DUNBAR: 3.83" (145 m - 13000
t
)
• BRUCE PUQ: 4.27" (121 m - 27000
t
)
16

Venezuela – May 2009
             
CONCRETE STRUCTURES GBS
• N’ KOSSA (165 m - 6000
t
) 4.3"
• DRAUGEN (170 m - ) 4.3"
17

Venezuela – May 2009
             
PLATFORM NATURAL SWAY PERIOD RELATIVE TO SEA STATE ENERGY
NATURAL SWAY PERIOD (SEC)
WAVE PERIOD (SEC)
1200
1000
800
600
200
400
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 20 40 30 50 60 70 80 90
3000
2000
1000
W
A
T
E
R

D
E
P
T
H
,

(
F
T
.
)

F
T
2
/
H
z

Hz = 40 FT.
Hz = 33 FT.
Hz = 26 FT.
Hz = 20 FT.
WAVE
ENERGY
SPECTRA
FIXED
JACKETS
TLP
GUY
TOWER
TLP
18

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deepwater oil exploration areas (>500 mWD)
West Africa
Gulf of Mexico
Brazil
North Sea
Pakistan
Black Sea
Barbados
Caspian Sea
19

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep water West Africa discoveries – Total operator
1999 - Akpo 1500 m
Nigeria
1995 - Moho 812 m
1998 - Bilondo 546 m
Congo
1996 - Girassol 1 365 m
1997 - Dalia 1 372 m
1998 - Rosa 1 405 m
Lirio 1 380 m
1999 - Orquidea 1 197 m
Tulipa 1 006 m
Cravo 1 357 m
2000 - Jasmin 1 392 m
Perpetua 796 m
Angola
20

Venezuela – May 2009
             
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
2005 2010(e) 2012-2015(e)
Deep offshore : new wave of development in West Africa
Maintain leadership in West Africa

Base
New projects
kboe/d
 New poles under study
 4
th
Pole Block 17 (CLOV)
 Block 32
 Maximizing value on Total’s
acreage
 « Triangular Bulge » in Nigeria
 Deep-offshore Congo
 Block 17 (Pazflor)
 OML 130 / Akpo
 Maintain mature areas
 Gabon, Cameroon, Congo
+9% per year
on average
1,200
800
400
2005 2010(e) 2012(e)
Bonga
Akpo
Usan
Moho Bilondo
BBLT
Girassol
Block 32
4
th
Pole
Dalia
Pazflor
Rosa
40% - operator
Satellite, 150 kb/d
dev. 65%*
2Q 2007(e)
Moho Bilondo
53.5% - operator
FPU, 90 kb/d
dev. 45%*
1H 2008(e)
Akpo
24% - operator
FPSO, 225 kboe/d
dev. 32%*
2H 2008(e)
Dalia
40% - operator
FPSO, 240 kb/d
dev. 96%*
4Q 2006(e)
Pazflor
40% - operator
FPSO, 200 kb/d
preparation EPC
2010(e)
Usan
20% - operator
FPSO, 150 kb/d
preparation EPC
2010(e)
Block 32
30% - operator
Project under
study
>2010(e)
4
th
Pole (CLOV)
40% - operator
Project under
study
>2010(e)
21

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep water fields in the US GoM
EW
200 m
100
50
0
0 statute miles
kilometers
Louisiana
Mississippi
Ala.
Florida
Atlantis
441
Raft
Mt Pelee
Thoth Ladybug
Magellan
Dendara
Mummy
Genesis
Canopus
Canopus N
Chinnok
Helena
Ra
Flathead Spinx
Sobek
Houdini
Erwin
Trust
Me
Lexus
Klondike
McKinley
Wyoming
Alexander
Lander
Park
Yogi
Columbus
Lamb
Shackleton
Machete
Terrasini
Cirrus
Hole
Rina
Oakley
Berlin
Strasbourg
Machete S
Hole E
Holiday
Nela
Rocky
Rover
Souffle
Gotcha
Hudson
Lewis
La Salle
Denali
Haydn
Amadeus
Krakow
McClellan
Bach
DeBussey
A47
200
207
A571
A365
A376
167
Pepper
Salt
317 / 318
320
68
234
108
182 / 183 / 184
275
348
84
356
947
485
265
305 / 306
VK
Ben Nevis
Anubis
Callisto
Pabst
Morgus
Nag
Santa
Rosa
Cotopaxi
Osiris
Phar Lap
Daily
Planet
Lochnagar
Busch
Robalo
White
Ash
Seahawk
Ray
Middlebury
Lehigh
Altiplano
Ida
Mammoth
Camden
Hills
Titania
Cypress
Cedar
Stromboli
Virgo
30
121
145
863
907 / 908
1002/ 1003
959 / 960
991
Matterhorn
Aconcagua
Virgo
22

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Progression of capabilities for deep offshore
23

Venezuela – May 2009
             
0 m
1,000 m
2,000 m
3,000 m
1970 1980 1990 2000
Egypt
Brazil
UK
France
Worldwide records
2,777 m
USA
USA
France
Spain
Thailand
Congo
Gabon
Total Operator
Congo
Angola
Gabon
Moho
Girassol
Dalia
Congo
Moho
Bilondo
Rosa
USA
Aconcagua
Lirio
2,150 m
Deep water drilling records >500 mWD
Brazil
Akpo
Nigeria
US
A
Brazil
Congo
24

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep water production records (>500 mWD)
1,000 m
2,000 m
3,000 m
0 m
1970 1980 1990 2000
Total operator
Worlwide records
Mensa
USA
Marimba
Brazil
J olliet
USA
Cognac
USA
Marlim-Sul
1,700 m
Marlim
Brazil
Moho
Dalia
Bilondo
Rosa
Girassol
Roncador
1,853 m
Aconcagua
2,150 m
25

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep waters system types
Fixed platforms TLP Semi sub Spar FPSO
Dry tree
Wet tree
26

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Dry tree versus wet tree
 DRY TREE
 The wellhead X-tree is on a deck, above sea level (dry environment)
 WET TREE
 The wellhead X-tree is on the sea level

 Advantages of DRY TREE
 Conventional drilling technology (threaded pipes)
 Direct access for maintenance
 Direct access for connections of pipes and commands (no robot)

 Drawbacks of DRY TREES (Ultra deep offshore) = RISERS
 Difficulties in tensioning (weight and added elongation)
 Fatigue
 Difficulties to tie back

27

Venezuela – May 2009
             
TLP’s
Fixed platforms TLP Semi sub Spar FPSO
Dry tree
Wet tree
28

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The TLP concept : pulled down Unit
Vertical tension
Lateral
excursion
Buoyancy
29

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Evolution of TLPs (Tension legs platforms)
30

Venezuela – May 2009
             
TLP tendons or tethers
Problems :
Anchoring of base in UDW
Vibration/fatigue of tendons

31

Venezuela – May 2009
             
SeaStar TLP Tendons

Tubular steel high-yield materials.
Multiple, mechanically coupled sections.
200 percent inspection with zero tolerance for material flaws.
Design fatigue life typically exceeds 1000 years, well beyond the
API-required 200 years.
Tendon pairs have redundancy.
Tendons are neutrally buoyant to improve hull efficiency.
Fairings are installed on the tendons to prevent vortex-induced
vibrations.
32

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Comparison Gulf of Mexico – North sea
33

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Heidrun concrete TLP
315 m water depth – 1995
280,000 t of concrete
Drilling template
Tendons anchors
34

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Heidrun Concrete TLP, Norway
35

Venezuela – May 2009
             
TLP floater concept
36

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Construction of a TLP in dry dock
37

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Ram Powell TLP hull transported over the Atlantic
MT Giant
38

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Ram-Powell TLP Hull
39

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Ram Powell deck installed onto hull at Houston
40

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Towing of Ram Powell TLP
41

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Ram Powell TLP installed
The Ram Powell
tension leg platform
(TLP) is located in
3,214ft of water at
Viosca Knoll, block
956, in the Gulf of
Mexico
42

Venezuela – May 2009
             
KIZOMBA TLP on Migthy servant fast carrier
43

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Tethers connections at deck level (sol. 1)
44

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Locking tethers together : an example
45

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Tensionning the tethers
46

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Tensionning the tethers
47

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Morpeth small TLP hull goes to sea
48

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Morpeth TLP
49

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Mars TLP before and after Katrina
Mississippi Canyon block 807
Water depth : 896 m
220,000 barrels of oil and 220
million cubic feet of gas a day.
50

Venezuela – May 2009
             
SPARs
Fixed platforms TLP Semi sub Spar FPSO
Dry tree
Wet tree
51

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The Spar concept : Anchored Floater
Floater




Stabilization
and
Anchoring
Deck
support
52

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Spar Designs
53

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Neptune Spar
55

Venezuela – May 2009
             
SPARs recent history in GOM
56

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The Genesis SPAR topsides
57

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Fabrication of a Spar
58

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Neptune hull transportation in two parts
59

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Genesis transportation
From Finland
From Corpus Christi
60

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Genesis hull upending and in place
61

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Genesis topsides installed
62

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Floating production facilities (semi subs)
Fixed platforms TLP Semi sub Spar FPSO
Dry tree
Wet tree
63

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Floating production systems
64

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Semi submersible platforms recent history
! Catenary anchors !
65

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Transworld 58
66

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The Troll development: semi sub + subsea
67

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Troll B concrete platform
68

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Troll B concrete semi submersible
Risers
69

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Floating production and subsea tie back
70

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Åsgard semi submersible production
Floatel
Åsgard B
71

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Åsgard
72

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Marlim (Brazil) 1998 : 5,000 bbl/d and 50,000 m3/d gas
6 composite catenary
anchor legs
73

Venezuela – May 2009
             
The Roncador platform sinking
In March 2001, the P-36
sank after three
explosions and left 11
workers dead. At the
time, the world's
biggest
semisubmersible had
been producing
84,000b/d and 1.3
million m³/d of gas.

There had been a gas
leak, which escaped
into the column where
the blasts took place.
74

Venezuela – May 2009
             
FPSO’s
Fixed platforms TLP Semi sub Spar FPSO
Dry tree
Wet tree
75

Venezuela – May 2009
             
FPSO : Principle
Processing
Oil storage
Large process/utilities/accommodation area
Oil storage
No lifting barge required – simple construction at yards
Conventional mooring (assisted or not by thrusters)

Associated with sub sea
development
76

Venezuela – May 2009
             
F.P.S.O. recent history
77

Venezuela – May 2009
             
FPSO on turret
Anchors Risers
turret
78

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Girassol anchored FPSO
79

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Field development using a FPSO

Tower risers
80

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Components of subsea development
Subsea trees
Subsea production
manifolds
Subsea
umbilical
manifolds
Flowlines
Production
lines
81

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Wellhead vertical and horizontal subsea trees
82

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Subsea manifolds and umbilicals
Horizontal connections
83

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Subsea pumping (experimental)
84

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Subsea satellites
85

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Sub sea tie back – Otter (UK)
86

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Subsea full development: Snøhvit
87

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Subsea tiebacks
88

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Possible Floating Supports with Dry trees
TPG 3300 Multi-function Barge
Dry Wellheads Developments
Subsea Developments
tie-backs
TLP SPAR FPSO
1200 m
1400 m 1850 m
89

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Field output and water depth
90

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Concept selection f(water depth)
91

Venezuela – May 2009
             
Deep water technologies
92

Venezuela – May 2009
             
5 - DEEP WATERS
to Ultra Deep
Offshore