WARP AND WEFT KNITTING

BASIC KNITTING
WEAVING-WARPING PROCESS

•Warping- A process of transfer the warp yarn from the single yarn
packages to an even sheet of yarn representing hundreds of ends
and then wound onto a warp beam.

WEAVING-SIZING PROCESS
•Sizing/slashing- A process to give the strength to the yarn make it
smoother and lubricate it (no effect on subsequent process or
resulting fabric), also reduce the abrasion by give it through the
section of the slasher.

WEAVING-DRAW IN PROCESS

Draw-in- A process of draw every warp yarns through its
dropper, headle eyes and reed dent. [3]

WEAVING-TIE IN PROCESS

•Tie-in- A process of tying each of a new beam to its
corresponding end of the old beam when mass producing the
same fabric.
What is Knitting?
Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be
turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitted fabric
consists of consecutive loops, called stitches. As each
row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing
loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until
another loop can be passed through them. This process
eventually results in a final product, often a garment.
No of threads required for knitting?
KNITTING
KNIT VS WOVEN
KNIT FABRIC WOVEN FABRIC
INTERLOOPING YARNS TO CREATE
FABRIC
INTERLACING YARNS TO CREATE
FABRIC
CHEAPER TO PRODUCE EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE
REQUIRE HIGHER QUALITY YARNS CAN USE ANY YARN
YARNS MUST BE UNIFORM SO THAT
THIN SPOTS DON’T FORM ON THE
FABRIC
CAN NOT FORM THIN MARKS
KNIT FABRIC IS LESS OPAQUE HIGH OPAQUE
ALLOWS FOR STRETCH + RECOVERY AS
BODY MOVES
LESS STRETCH
REQUIRES THICKER AND/OR HEAVIER
YARN TO PROVIDE EQUAL COVER TO
THAT OF A WOVEN
EVEN NORMAL THICKNESS YARN CAN
GIVE HIGHER FABRIC COVER
WRINKLE RECOVERY SUPERIOR NEED TO TREAT FOR WRINKLE FREE
QUALITY
SHRINK MORE THAN WOVENS LESS SHRINKAGE
KNIT VS WOVEN
FABRIC WOVEN FABRIC
LENGTHWISE STITCHES ARE CALLED
“RIBS” AND THE CROSSWISE STITCHES
ARE CALLED “COURSE” OR “CROSSGRAIN”
LENGTHWISE STITCHES ARE CALLED
“GRAIN” AND THE CROSSWISE
STITCHES ARE CALLED
“CROSSGRAIN”
THE MOST STRETCH IS EITHER IN THE
CROSSGRAIN OR THE BIAS
THE MOST STRETCH IS ALWAYS ON
THE BIAS ( DIAGONAL STRETCH)
GENERALLY HAVE MORE STRETCH AND
NATURAL GIVE
REQUIRE EASE WHEN SEWING
MOLD AND FIT THE CONTOURS OF THE
BODY BETTER
LOOK GOOD WITH PLEATS AND
SHARP CORNERS
COOL AND BREATHABLE THICK AND WIND RESISTANT
WRINKLE RESISTANT HOLDS A CREASE WELL
KNIT VS WOVEN
FABRIC WOVEN FABRIC
EDGES CURL AND SOME KNITS RUN
(THINK NYLON PANTY HOSE)
EDGES ARE PRONE TO RAVEL
NO SEAM FINISH IS REQUIRED, ALTHOUGH
OPTIONAL
REQUIRES SEAM FINISHING, LIKE
SERGING, TO PREVENT RAVEL
REQUIRES STRETCH STICHES, LIKE ZIG
ZAGS
EASIEST TO SEW ON AND FEED
THROUGH A SEWING MACHINE
STITCH

The loop of yarn formed by the knitting process
Knit

GAGE OR GAUGE
the density of knitting machine needles, and the number of knitting
needles per inch (approx. 2.54cm).
The smaller the figure, the coarser the stitch, and vice versa
KNITTING TERMINOLOGY
COURSES
A series of successive loops laying crosswise in the
Fabric

FACE/BACK
Just like a woven fabric, there is a face and a back to
the knitted fabric

CUT
The fineness of weft knits made on a circular knitting
Machine.The higher the gauge or cut number, the
finer the fabric
KNITTING TERMINOLOGY
The knitted loop structure
These are termed ‘courses’ and ‘wales’ respectively.
A COURSE
A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle
loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by
adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle
KNITTED LOOP STRUCTURE
The knitted loop structure
A WALE
A wale is a predominantly vertical column of
intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the
same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily
all) knitting cycles.
KNITTED LOOP STRUCTURE
CLASSIFICATION OF KNITS
CLASSIFICATION OF KNITS
CLASSIFICATION OF KNITS
KNITTIN
G
PURL
SINGLE
NEEDLE
BED
COTTON
PATENT
WARP
TRICO
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CIRCULA
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WEFT
SEAMLE
SS
FLAT
V BED
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In weft knitting;
• yarn is fed to knitting needles.
WEFT KNITTING
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• Needle with the help of cams, sinker make a new
loop and
• passed it into previously held loops.
• Weft knitting is made using a single yarn.
• It can be made by hand knitting or by machines.
WEFT KNITTING

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Characteristics of weft knits:
• The fabric has high elasticity and stretch.
• The loops of yarn trap air which retains body heat to keep us
warm.
• The right and wrong sides of the fabric look different.
• the fabrics can lose shape easily.
• Creases fall out easily.
• The fabric can unravel and ladder easily.
• Weft knitted fabrics curl up at the edges when they are cut.
TYPES OF WEFT KNITTING
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CIRCULAR KNITTING
FLAT KNITTING
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Circular Knitting Machine
Flat Knitting Machines
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WEFT KNITTED FABRIC
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Circular Knitting Machines
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In circular knitting machines needles are fixed on a cylinder
or dial in a circular shape.
There are more than one feeders to feed yarn to needles at
different places.
In most of the cases needle bed (cylinder or dial) moves while
feeders remain stationary.
Diameter of cylinder and dial is fixed but in case of sock
knitting machines it is changeable due to structure of socks
FLAT KNITTING MACHINES
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• In flat knitting machines needles are fixed
on a straight plate.
• On this machine needle bed remains
stationary while yarn feeding system called
carriage moves from one end to other end
• This machine is used to knit collars, arm
bands and sweaters
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SINGLE KNITTING
DOUBLE KNITTING
TYPES OF CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES
SINGLE KNIT MACHINE
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• In these machines needles are fixed on
cylinder
• sinker are fixed on sinker ring
• Needles knit with the help of sinkers
SINGLE KNIT MACHINE
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DOUBLE KNIT MACHINE
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DOUBLE KNIT MACHINE
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• In double knit machine needles are
fixed on dial as well as on cylinders
• There is no sinkers on this machine
• This machine is used to knit
interlock, rib and double jerseys
SINKER
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1=Butt,
2=Butt breadth,
3=Height of shank,
4=Buldge,
5=Neb,
6=Length of neb,
7=Throat angle,
8=Sinker platform
height,
9=Breadth of lower
shank,
10=Clearance,
11=Throat
2. The sinker remains at its forward position when the
needle attains its clearing position.
1. The held loop is positioned in the throat of the sinker
when the sinker moves forward and the needle moves
upward for clearing. The held loop is held by the throat
and hence its movement along the needle is restricted.
SINKER
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4. Sinker remains in backward position and the needle descends to its lowest position
drawing the new loop through the old one.
SINKER
5. Before the needle ascends, the sinker moves forward to push the knitted fabric a
little and to hold the old loop away from the head of the needle and to be in a position
to control the fabric.
3. The sinker retracts (pull back) when the needle comes down after feeding. At this
stage, due to sinkers retraction, fabric or held loop is eased out. Also the sinker belly
supported the fabric or held loop and hence its movements along the needle is
prevented.
DOUBLE KNIT MACHINE
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Interlock--- Two sides are fully knitted, highly
flexible used for under garments. Front and back
wales are exactly at same point
Rib--- two sides are fully knitted. Less flexible but
have strong grip, used for neck, cuff opening and
waist band. Front and back wales are not at same
point
Double Jersey
Double side knitted, can have different designs
on both sides
INTERLOCK MACHINE
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DOUBLE KNIT JACQUARD KNITTING
MACHINE
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Double Knit Jacquard Knitting Machine
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Plain knitting
Loop knitting
TYPES OF SINGLE KNITTING MACHINES
SINGLE KNIT PLAIN KNITTING MACHINES
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Mostly called jersey machines. On this
machines, there is a set of needles and
sinkers.
These machines may be single track of
multi track.
From one track to six track machines are
available.
These machine can knit jersey, pique,
honey comb, mini jacquard
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Single Track
Multi Track
SINGLE PLAIN KNITTING MACHINES
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Track means number of cams vertically
fitted
In single track machine there is only one
track
This machine can knit only full knit fabric
(single jersey)
SINGLE TRACK SINGLE KNIT
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In this machine there are 2-6 tracks
More number of tracks means that variety of
designs can be produced
On these machine many types of fabric can be
produced, like, pique, pique fleece, two thread
fleece and mini jacquard
Multi Track Knitting Machine
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Multi Track Knitting Machine
LOOP KNITTING MACHINES
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In these machines we can make loop
on one or on both sides of fabric.
By introducing loops we can increase
the weight and bulkiness of fabric
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Terry
Fleece
Types of Loop Knitting Machines
TERRY FABRIC
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This fabric has loops on the surface, like
towel but the length of loops is smaller than
towels.
Normally used to make shirts of kids or for
people working under high temperature to
absorb the moisture
TERRY KNITTING MACHINE
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TERRY KNITTING MACHINE
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TYPES OF SINGLE KNITTING MACHINES
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SINGLE JERSEY DOUBLE FACE FABRIC
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THREE THREAD KNITTING MACHINE
This machine is used to produce fleece fabric.
This fabric is plain from one side. Mostly front
side is of single jersey and on back loop is
inserted across various number of wales
(normally two to three wales are covered).
Back side is brushed with the help of raising
machine to make it more comfortable and bulky
as well as warm
Two types of threads are used; fine for the top
and course for back ( 30/16, 28/12 etc)
THREE THREAD FLEECE MACHINE
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FLEECE FABRIC
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STRIPER
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In stripe knitting machines we can produce horizontal
stripes with the help of scissors which cuts the yarn and
a new yarn is fed
There are two types of:
• Mechanical
• Electronic

Note: in current era there is no fresh production of
mechanical strip machines
STRIPE KNITTING MACHINE
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JACQUARD KNITTING MACHINES
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These machine are available in,
• Single bed

• Double knit technology

• Normally more than one colored yarns are
used.

• Different patterns are made

• Normally 4-6 color machines are available
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JACQUARD MACHINES
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Mechanical Jacquard
Electronic Jacquard
JACQUARD FABRIC
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FLAT KNITTING
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Single bed
Double bed
• These are latest machines and
• are used to make full length of garment
• Quite expensive
FULL GARMENT FLAT KNITTING
MACHINES
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GLOVES KNITTING MACHINE
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In this machine bed
rotates and carriage
moves from one
side to other
WARP KNITTING
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Raschel, made with latch needles,
Tricot, using bearded needles.
WARP KNITTING MACHINE
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WARP KNITTED FABRIC
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THE PROPERTIES OF WARP KNITTED STRUCTURES
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Warp knitting offers:

• Higher production rates than for weaving.
• A wide variety of fabric constructions.
• Large working widths.
• A low stress rate on the yarn that facilitates careful
handling of fibres such as glass, aramide and carbon
(particularly when using weft-insertion techniques).
• Conventional warp knitted structures that can be
directionally structured.
• Three-dimensional structures that can be knitted on
double needle bar raschels.
Main products
• Nets
• Curtains
• Technical fabrics
• Covers
• Covering sheets
WARP KNITTING
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• Warp sheet
• Loops development with the help of
needles
• Loops insertion with the help of needles
• Needle movement controls mechanically
and electronically
WORKING PRINCIPLE
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• More stable than knitted
• Big and small holes are possible
• Many designs are possible
• Highly course yarn can be used
• Technical fabric can be produced
PROPERTIES OF WARP KNITTED
FABRIC
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• use to fulfill technical demands, like, filters,
seat covers etc
• used as curtains, table covers
• used as chadar in some countries
• not used for clothing
USE OF WARP KNITTED FABRIC
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WARP KNITTING
In this process;
• yarn sheet is developed (warp sheet)
• and then with the help of needles stitches
are formed by,
• insertion new loop into old loop
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WARP KNITTING TECHNOLOGY
• Warp knitting machines--needles are
mounted collectively and rigidly in a
horizontal metal bar (the needle bar that
runs the full knitting width of the machine).
• Equally the yarn guides are also set rigidly
into a horizontal metal bar (the guide bar
that runs the full width of the machine).