# DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

(ECE-305)
TECHNICAL PAPER-PPT
Submitted by,
PONGANESH.C(9911005114)
PANDIMUNEESWARAN.M(9911005110)
ECE-B

TITLE:
A CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE FOR
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
CHANNEL EQUALIZATION USING
NETWORKS

CHANNEL EQUALIZER
 Equalization is the process of adjusting the balance
between frequency components within an
electronic signal.
 The circuit or equipment used to achieve equalization is
called an equalizer.
 These devices strengthen (boost) or weaken (cut) the
energy of specific frequency bands.
 An adaptive equalizer is an equalizer that automatically
adapts to time-varying properties of the communication
channel
oIt is an Artificial Neural Network
oThey are having two layer
oThe hidden nodes implement a set of radial
basis function (E.g:Gaussian Function)
oThe output nodes implement liner
summation function as in MLP
oThe training/learning is Very Fast
oThe network are network very good at
Interpolation
SOFTWARE TOOL:
Here, we use the MATLAB
program
TECHNIQUES
 clustering algorithm
 Gaussian algorithm
 least mean square (LMS) algorithm

Equalizer:
 Bayesian equalizer

 It has been demonstrated that the training of the
RBF network to realize the optimal equalizer
solution can be achieved efficiently using the
supervised clustering algorithm.
 For no stationary channels, a decision-directed
version of the clustering algorithm can be
employed to provide tracking ability for the RBF
network during data transmission.
 A useful technique to improve equalization
performance is to use the decision feedback.

[ 11 G. D. Forney, “Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of
digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference,”
IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-18, pp. 363-378, 1972.
[2] F. R. Magee and J. G. Proakis, “Adaptive maximum-likelihood
sequence estimation for digital signaling in the presence of
intersymbol interference,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-
19, pp. 120-124, 1973.
[3] B. Mulgrew and C.F.N. Cowan, Adaptive Filter and
Equalisers.