-Key Concepts

-
 Greatest Emperor:
Justinian (527-565 AD)
 Handed classical
learning and science
back to the west
--Justinian’s Code of
Laws (533)
 Rebuilding program in
Constantinople
 The Hagia Sophia (537)
 The Hippodrome
 Justinian’s wife
Theodora—life and
influence
 Autocratic nature of
the Eastern
Emperors
 Selection of the
Emperor and his
administration
 Warfare and the
enemies of the Empire
-- “Greek fire”
--Ottoman Turks capture
Constantinople (1453)
 Tension between the
eastern and western
churches over icons
 Solemn, otherworldly
preoccupation
 The life of Muhammad
(570-632 AD)
 The Koran: “recitings”
 “Islam”: submission to
Allah
 The “Hegira” or flight to
Medina (622)
 The notion of “jihad”
 The Ka’ba and the Black
Stone
 The relationship of
men to women
 No distinction
between clergy and
laity
 The five pillars of
Islam
 Differences from
Christianity
 Successors to
Muhammad
--Shi’ites vs. Sunnies
 The Muslim Empire
(632-732 AD)
 Muslim intellectual and
scientific achievements
--studied the Greco-
Roman classics
--the number “0”
 Centrality of the tribal
unit or family
 The leadership of the
war chieftain
 Characteristics of
Germanic law
-- “wergeld”
--trial by ordeal
 Germanic treatment of
women
 Blending of
Germanic and
Roman culture
 The decline of town
life and trade
 The role of forests in
Germanic thinking
 Settlement patterns
 Views of Disease
 Treatment of Disease
--Eye Disease
--Frequent Stomach
Disorders
-- “Leech”
--Broken bones, wounds
and burns
 Cavities below the gum
line were prevalent
 The role of monasteries
in providing medical care
 The Franks: least
romanized and most
orthodox of the
Germanic tribes
--Clovis: 1
st
Frankish
King
 The struggles and
ineffectiveness of the
Merovingian kings
 The “Mayor of the
Palace”
 Charles Martel’s defeat
of the Muslims at Tours
 Pepin the Short, the first
Carolingian king (751)
--The “Donation of
Pepin”
 Pepin’s son, Charles the
Great, or Charlemagne
(768-814)
 Charlemagne’s military
exploits
 Continued reciprocal
relationship with the
Pope
 Crowned Holy
Roman Emperor
(Christmas Day, 800)
 Charlemagne’s
palace city of Aachen
 Charlemagne’s
challenges in
administering such a
vast empire
--missi dominici

 The Carolingian
Renaissance
--Alcuin of York
 The Disintegration of the
Carolingian Empire
 The Treaty of Verdun
(843)
--Louis the German
--Charles the Bald
--Lothair
th
th
 Agricultural Difficulties
and Violence
 Population Decline
 Muslim and Magyar
invaders
 Chief Threat = Vikings
 Viking strategy of terror
 Effectiveness of Viking
boats
 The extent of Viking
raids
 Offered safe haven to
neighbors
 Some churchmen were
renowned fighters
 Monasteries preserved
important arts of
manufacturing
 Popes fill political
vacuum in the west
--Leo I and Attila the Hun
--Gregory I and the
Lombards
 Significance of copying
manuscripts
 The role of Pope
Gregory I
--had been secular
Roman administrator
 Realized early on that no
help would be
forthcoming from the
Byzantine Empire
 Church split in 1054
 Superstitious, illiterate
age
 The Church was the
door to salvation
 Seven Deadly sins:
pride, envy, anger,
greed, lust, gluttony, and
sloth
 Seven sacraments
 Sacraments of ordination
and extreme unction
 Sacrament of Matrimony
 Sacrament of the
Eucharist
-- “transubstantiation”
 Duties and categories of
the clergy
-- “regular” vs. “secular”
clergy
 The Sacrament of
Penance
-- “Purgatory”

 The Power of “Holy”
Intercessors
 Veneration of the Saints
 Shift in the pattern of
sainthood into the Middle
Ages
 The growing importance
of female saints
--In 1100, only 10% of
saints were female; by
15
th
Century, 29% were
female
 The cultural power of
calling on saints for
help
 The Supernatural
power of Relics
 Christian burial near
the Church altar
 The origins of feudalism
 The lord as the central
figure of the feudal
system
 The expense of
medieval warfare
 Contractual nature of
feudalism
 The local and emotional
nature of feudalism
 The lord’s obligations to
his vassal
--fief
 The vassal’s obligations
to his lord
--scutage
 The complexity of feudal
relationships
-- “subinfeudation”
--liege lord
 William Manchester’s
A World Lit by Fire
and Joseph and
Frances Gies’ Life in
a Medieval Castle
 Interior and
furnishings of the
castle
 Servants in the
castle
 Daily routine and dining
 The marriage of
aristocratic women
 The life of aristocratic
women
 The church’s view of
women
 Women and sex
 The early life of young
noblemen
 The ceremony of
knighthood
 The travels of the
young knight
 Tournaments and
Jousts
 Tension surrounding
the life of a young
knight
 The ideal of chivalry
-- “troubadours”
 Western Europe was
much more rural than
Eastern Europe
 Manorialism was the
economic foundation of
feudal society
 The “open field” system
of medieval farming
 Origin and status of
serfdom
 By 800 AD, nearly 60%
of western Europe was
enserfed
 Composition and
administration of the
manor
 “Custom of the Manor”
 Tax obligations of the
serfs
-- “banalities”
 Other limitations on the
activities of the serfs
 Living conditions of the
serfs
 Striking lack of privacy
for family members
 Variety of dietary options
for peasants
 The central role of bread
in the peasant diet—
80% of caloric content
 Types of meals eaten by
villagers
 Beer: the universal drink
of northern Europe
 Accidents as a way of
life in manorial villages
 The role of women and
village clothing
 Medieval view of
children
 Center of manorial life
was the village church
 Village church services
 Life was short and
frightening for village
peasants
 Village life was strictly
hierarchical
 Village life was also very
communal
 Village life was always
very local