# electrical

Topic : basic control system
ENROLLMENT NO. NAME
130230109004 SAGAR BARVALIYA
130230109013 MARVIN GAJERA
130230109024 PAVAN LETHWALA
130230109028 MITESH GANDHI
130230109033 PARESH PARMAR
130230109047 PARESH RANA
130230109052 HARDIK SAPRA
130230109059 URVIK VASAVA
Guided by:

“ It is an arrangement of different physical elements
connected in such a manner so as to regulate, direct or
command itself to achieve a certain objective.”

 Accuracy
 Sensitivity
 Noise
 Stability
 Bandwidth
 Speed
 Oscillation
a) Open loop system

b) Closed loop system
“A system in which the control action is totally
independent of the output of the system is called as
open loop system.”
No feedback
No error detector
It is inaccurate
Small bandwidth
Stable
Economical
e.g. coffee maker
“A system in which the control action is somehow
dependent on the output is called as closed loop
system.”
Feedback exists
Error detector is present
Accurate
Large bandwidth
May become unstable
Costly
E.g. guided missile.
System
g(t)
c(t)
r(t)
“The transfer function of a linear time invariant system
is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse
response,with all initial condition set to zero.”
“block diagram is pictorial representation of the
cause and effect relationship between input and
output of the system.”
Block diagram of physical
system
input
output
“The response of a system to an applied excitation is
called time response and it is a function of time. It is
denoted by c(t).”
Transient response: “That part of the time response
which goes to zero as time becomes very large is called as
transient response.”

Steady state response: “The part of response that remains
after the transients have died out is called as steady state
response.”
1.Damping ratio:
the damping is measured by a factor called as damping ratio.It
is denoted by ‘ξ’ .

2. Natural frequency of oscillation:
when ‘ξ’ is zero; that means there is no opposition to the
oscillatory behavior
of a system will oscillate naturally.
Stable system : if a bounded input is given to the system ,the
response of the system is bounded and controllable ,then the
system is called stable

 unstable system : a linear time invariant system is unstable
if the system is excited by a bounded input and output
response is unbounded.

Absolutely stable system : if a system response is stable for
all variations, it is called absolutely stable system .

Critically stable system : the output does not go on
increasing infinitely nor does it go to zero as time increases
that’s called critically stable system.
I. Two Position Or ON- OFF Controllers

II. Proportional Controllers…..[P]

III.Integral Controllers….[I]

IV.Proportional+integral Controllers [Pi]

V. Proportional+integral + Derivative Controllers [Pid]

VI.Proportional + Derivative Controllers [Pd]

Simple , economical controllers

Not suitable for complex system
Requirement :
less settling time
Less overshoot
Less rise time

 Most digital control apps employ computer for
effective control action.
 There are two approaches to using computer for
control:
1. Supervisory Control
2. Direct Digital Control(DDC)

 Supervisory control
emerged as an
intermediate step where
in the computer was use
to monitor the operation
of analog control loop
and to detemine
appropriate set points.
 Due to evolution in
computer system and
their reliability the
analog loop of
processing were removed
and computer used as
controller to system. The
error detection and
control action is
performed by software.
•Electrical power grids
•Traffic signals
•Oil refining plants
•Chemical plants
•Sensor network
•Water management systems

 Automotive control focuses on the following issues : modeling ,
supervisison,control and diagnosis of automotive system, automotive
power trains, propulsion, vehicle dynamic systems, intelligent driver
aids, electric, fuel cell , hybrid and alternative drive vehicle.

 Automotive control has gone to work off road through expertise and
extensive product portfolio. With various propel system solution,
machines can now offer advanced automatic transmission functionally.
When the operator depresses the accelerator , both the engine rpm and
hydrostatic pump and motor displacement are controlled
automatically.

 Telescopic Handler
 Rotary Telehandler
 Tool Carrier
 Rough Terrain Forklift
 Truck Mounted Forklift
 Site Dumper
 Compactor
 Specialty Transporter

•A convincible fixed wing air craft flight control system consist of control
system surface, connecting linkage, cockpit controls and necessary
operating mechanism to control air crafts direction in flight.

•The fundamental of air craft control are explained in flight dynamics. This
article centers on the operating mechanism of flight control.

1. Primary control
2. Secondary control
3. Air craft control and movement

The primary cockpit controls are arrangement as follows:

1. Controls column or control yoke attached to control column for roll and
pitch
2. Rubber paddles to control yaw which move rubber, left foot forward will
move the rubber left for instance.
3. Throttle control to control engine speed or thrust for powered air craft.
•The secondary controls available to give the pilot finer control over flight

•The most commonly available control is a wheel or other device to control
elevator tree so that pilot doesn’t have to maintain constant backward or
forward pressure to hold a specific speech attribute.

•Aircraft have wing flaps control by switch which improve control at the
slower speed use for takeoff and landing.

•Other secondary flight control system may be including slats spoilers, air
brakes, variable sweep wings.
There are three primary way for aircraft to change its orientation relative to
passing air.
1. Pitch
2. Roll
3. Yaw

PITCH : is control by the real part of tail planes, horizontals stabilizer being
hinged to create an elevator. By elevator the pilot moves elevator up and
downward force on the horizontal tail is increase. The pitch control much simple
so when the pilot moves the elevator control backward, it produce nose down
pitch and the angle of attack is reduced.

ROLL : to achieve angle of bank when desired change of handling.

YAW : is induced by a movable rubber attached to vertical field usually at the
rear of air craft. On a large air craft they may be several independent rubber on
single fin for safety and control the inter-linked yaw and roll action.
 Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of
guiding a missile or a bomb to its intended target .
guidance system improves missile accuracy by
improving “single shot kill probability”(sskp).
 Missiles and guided bombs generally use similar
types of guidance system, the difference between
onboard engine , whereas guided bombs rely on
the speed and height of the launch aircraft for
propulsion.
 Guidance systems divided into two categories:

 1.Go-Onto-Target(GOT)guidance system: it
can target either a moving or fixed target.
 2.Go-Onto-Target-Location-in-
Space(GOLIS) guidance system: it needs to
be eliminated in a timely fashion in order to
preserve the integrity of the sender

•Collection of hardware and instrumentation necessary for implementing
control systems

•Provide the infrastructure (platform) for implementing advanced control
algorithms

FUNCTION REQUIRED

1. System availability requirements
3. System response
4. Environmental requirements