Selecting the Proper

Coating/Lining System

Kevin Morris
Market Director Water & Wastewater
Sherwin-Williams
Learning Objectives
• Primary substrates for application
• Protection mechanisms
• Selecting the proper surface preparation
based on the selected system and substrate
• Proper selection of the system.
Primary Substrates
• Steel
– Carbon Steel – Easily attacked by the environment in
which it is placed and will begin to revert back to iron
ore.
– Stainless Steel - Stainless steel does not stain, corrode,
or rust as easily as ordinary steel.
• Concrete
– Concrete - used more than any other man-made
material in the world and is easily attacked when placed
in chemical environments.
Protection Mechanisms
• Barrier Protection
– The coating/lining isolates the electrolyte from the
anode, cathode, and metallic pathway.
• Rust Inhibitive
– The slightly water-soluble pigments permeate to
steel/coating interface and passivate the substrate.
• Sacrificial
– The coating/lining contains pigments that are more
active than the metal and sacrifice themselves to protect
the substrate.
System Selection
• System selection for coatings/linings is not
as simple as providing a coating that will
resist a given commodity and
• System selection must consider a multitude
of factors for a successful application.
System Selection
(Factors to Consider)
Steel
• Commodity (Name, CAS
#, Percentage)
• Storage Temperature
• Movement / Flexibility
• Type of Structure
• Location and Use of
Structure
• Agitation (% of Suspended
Solids)
• Design (Welded, Bolted or
Riveted)
• Inaccessible Areas
• New Construction, Repaint
or Structural Repairs

Concrete
• Commodity (Name, CAS #,
Percentage)
• Storage Temperature
• Location and Use of Structure
• Type of Traffic (Foot, Cart or
Vehicular)
• Agitation (% of Suspended
Solids)
• Mix Design, Placement and
Finishing
• Joints, Cracks,Vapor Barriers,
etc.
• New Construction or
Rehabilitation

System Selection
(Factors to Consider)
Do any of these place restrictions on system
selection for Steel and Concrete?
– The reason for coating?
– Allowable methods of Surface Preparation
– Regulations
– What else?

Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
• SSPC-SP 1 “Solvent Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 2 “Hand Tool Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 3 “Power Tool Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 11 “ Power Tool Cleaning to Bare
Metal”
• SSPC-SP 7/NACE No. 4 “Brush-Off Blast
Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3 “Commercial Blast
Cleaning”
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
• SSPC-SP 10/NACE No. 2 “Near White Metal
Blast Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 5/NACE No. 1 “White Metal Blast
Cleaning”
• SSPC-SP 12/NACE No. 5 “Surface Preparation
and Cleaning of Metals by Waterjetting Prior to
Coating”
• SSPC-SP 13/NACE No. 6 “Surface Preparation of
Concrete”
Surface Preparation
Affects in System Selection
• ICRI Guideline No. 310.2, “Selecting and
Specifying Concrete Surface Preparation for
Sealers, Coatings and Polymer Overlays”
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
• When specifying surface cleanliness it should be
noted that surface profile is as important.
• Surface profile promotes mechanical bond of the
coating/lining system to the substrate.
– Steel (This is commonly specified in mils)
– Concrete (This is commonly specified as a CSP (1-9)
“Concrete Surface Profile”)
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
The greater the
DFT the
greater the
Surface Profile
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
The greater the DFT the
greater the Surface Profile
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
The greater the
DFT the greater
the Surface
Profile
Surface Preparation
Affects on System Selection
• Minimum DFT’s to fill surface profiles:
– CSP 1 = 13.5 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 2 = 16 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 3 = 19 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 4 = 25 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 5 = 33 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 6 = 63 mils +/- 2.5 mils
– CSP 7 = 87.5 mils +/- 5 mils
– CSP 8 = 105 mils +/- 5 mils
– CSP 9 = 107 mils +/- 5 mils
Epoxies
• Epoxies are two component products consisting of
an epoxy resin which is cross-linked with a co-
reactant or hardener. Epoxy coatings are
formulated based upon the performance
requirements of the end product. When properly
catalyzed and applied, epoxies produce a hard,
chemical and solvent resistant finish. They are
typically used on concrete and steel to give
resistance to water, alkali and acids.
Aliphatic Polyurethanes
• Atmospheric Service
• Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Excellent Color and Gloss Retention
• Excellent Abrasion Resistant
• Low Temperature Application

Aromatic Polyurethanes
• Atmospheric and Immersion Service
• Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Good Abrasion Resistant
• Good Film Build
• Low Temperature Applications
Fluoropolymers
• Atmospheric Service
• Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Ultimate Color and Gloss Retention
• Excellent Abrasion Resistance

Polysiloxanes
• Atmospheric Service
• Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Excellent Color and Gloss Retention
• Good Abrasion Resistant

Acrylics
• Atmospheric Service
• Fair Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Good Color and Gloss Retention
• Good Abrasion Resistance

Alkyds
• Atmospheric Service
• Fair/Poor Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Good Flexibility
• Fair/Poor Color and Gloss Retention
• Good Abrasion Resistant

Zincs
• Atmospheric and Immersion Service
• Poor Resistance to Alkali and Acidic
Environments
• Excellent Corrosion Protection
• Some Formulations – Shop Applications
Only
Polyureas
• Atmospheric and Immersion Service
• Fair Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Ultimate Flexibility
• Ultimate Abrasion Resistance
• Excellent Film Build
• Low Temperature Applications

Novolac/Phenolic Epoxies
• Atmospheric and Immersion Service
• Excellent Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Fair/Poor Flexibility
• Good Abrasion Resistant
• Good Film Build
• May require heat curing

Vinyl Esters / Polyesters
• Atmospheric and Immersion Service
• Excellent Chemical & Solvent Resistance
• Fair Flexibility
• Good Abrasion Resistance
• Fast Cure
• Min Cure Temps Required


Thin Film Coatings/Linings
• Generally systems up to 20 mils DFT designed for
corrosion protection of concrete and steel from
immersion and atmospheric exposure.
• Do not tolerate abrasive conditions (high solids,
agitation, turbulent flow)
• Least expensive alternative (price sensitivity)
• Usually spray applied, simple equipment
• Difficult to cover rough concrete
Thin Film Systems
Medium Film Coatings/Linings
• Generally are systems from 20 to 40 mils DFT
designed for the protection of concrete and steel
from more harsh environments in immersion and
secondary containment
• Will tolerate moderate abrasion from turbulent
flow and low solids cargo
• Used for containment areas with pedestrian and
light vehicular traffic, trenches and sumps
• Highest permeation resistance per mil
Medium Film Coatings/Linings
Laminate Linings
• Generally are 55 to 120 mil dft systems designed
for the corrosion protection of concrete and steel
in immersion conditions, secondary containment,
and steel tank bottom renewal.
• Single or double Laminate
• Will tolerate moderate solids, agitation and
turbulent flow
• Limited crack bridging capability
Laminate Lining Systems
Mortar Systems

• Generally are 125 to 250 mil dft systems
designed for the protection of concrete in more
harsh environments and tolerate moderate to
heavy industrial traffic
• Good thermal shock resistance
• Improved wear resistance
• Skilled mechanics required for installation
Mortar Systems
Self-Leveling Mortar Systems

• Generally are 70 to 125 mils dft designed for the
corrosion protection of concrete in more harsh
environments and can include a broadcast
aggregate for a textured finish.
• Easiest mortar system to install
• Vertical applications will require modifications to
eliminate the self-leveling properties
• Good wear resistance
• Limited thermal shock resistance

Self-Leveling Mortar System
Mortar Laminate Systems

• Generally are 90 to 125 mil dft systems designed
for the corrosion protection of concrete and steel
in immersion and secondary containment
• Will tolerate turbulent flow and agitation
• Good permeation resistance
• Good thermal shock resistance
• Requires skill and experience
Mortar Laminate Systems
Heavy Duty Mortar Laminate
Lining Systems
• Generally are 125 to 190 mil dft systems designed
for the protection of concrete and steel in
immersion and secondary containment.
• Best for high solids, agitation, and turbulent flow
• Good permeation resistance
• Good thermal shock resistance
• Highest cost, most skill required
Heavy Duty Mortar Laminate
Lining Systems
Flexible Coating/Lining Systems

• Generally 25 to 125 mil dft systems designed for
the corrosion protection of steel, concrete, and
masonry in atmospheric or immersion conditions.
• High thermal shock resistance
• High crack bridging capability
• Relatively easy to install at a moderate price range

Flexible Coating
and Lining Systems
Flexible Basecoat
Laminate Systems
• Generally are 45-65 mil dft systems designed to be
installed prior to the application of a topping
system for crack bridging capability in
atmospheric exposure on concrete.
• Highest thermal shock resistance
• Highest crack bridging capability
• Most versatile

Flexible Basecoat
Laminate System
Technologies That Improve
Performance


Crystals of
MIO are
fractured
into thin
flakes.
Flakes
then
align in
parallel
fashion.
Technologies That Improve
Performance
White Light
Inspection
Fluorescent
Inspection
Topcoat Holiday:
Blue crescent is
prime coat
fluorescence.
Thank You!
Any Questions