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B.SAIPRAKASH
MBA[IM]
Pondicherry University
Collective bargaining is a process of
negotiations between employers and a
group of employees aimed at reaching
agreements that regulate working
conditions.
The interests of the employees are
commonly presented by representatives
of a trade union to which the employees
belong.

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One company dealing
with a single union
Several companies
dealing with single
union
Several unions dealing
with a single company
Several companies
dealing with several
unions
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Distributive Bargaining: In this One partys
gain another partys loss.
Cooperative Bargaining : In this both parties
gain or atleast neither party loses.
Productivity bargaining : In this method
worker wages are linked with productivity.
Workers do not have to perform well to high
levels to beat index.If they they are able to
exeed substancial norms they will get the
substanctial norms. 5
composite bargaining : Labour bargains
for wages as usual. But goes a step
further demandinding equality in matters
relating to work norms, employment
levels etc.
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Collective
Strength
Voluntary
Continuous
Dynamic
representation
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Collective: It Is collective in two ways.

One is that all the workers collectively
bargain for their common interest and
benefits.
Two is that both workers and
management jointly arrive at an solution
through negotiations.
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Strength : Both parties bargain through
equal strength.
In collective bargainning the bargaining
strength of both parties are equal.
Voluntary : Both workers and
management come to negotiating table
voluntarily in order to have a meaningful
dialogue on various troubling issue.
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Continuous : Collective bargaining is a
continuous process.
It is a continous process which includes
implementation of the agreement and
also futher negotiations.
Dynamic : Collective bargaining is a
dynamic process because the way in
which the agreement are arrived and
the way they are implemented,the
mental make-up of parties involved
keeps changing.
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Representation : In collective bargaining
the chief participants do not act
themself.
They represent labour and management
while trtying to reach an agreement.

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Preparing for negotiation
Bargaining issues
Negotiation
Negotiation breakdown
Reaching the agreement
Ratifying the agreement
Administration of the
agreement
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Document that results from collective
bargaining process is labor agreement or
contract
Recognition
Management Rights
Compensation and Benefits
Grievance Procedure
Employee Security
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Appears at the beginning of
the labor agreement
Identifies the union that is
recognized as the bargaining
representative
Describes the bargaining unit
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Section that is
often (but not
always) written
into labor
agreement which
spells out rights of
management
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Wage rate schedule
Overtime and premium
pay
Holidays
Vacation
Family care
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Means by which employees can voice
dissatisfaction with specific
management actions
Procedures for disciplinary action by
management
Termination procedure that must be
followed
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Begins with each side
presenting initial demands.
Suggests a certain amount of
give and take.
Each side does not expect to
obtain all demands
presented.
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Third party intervention
Union strategies for
overcoming
breakdowns
Management
strategies for
overcoming
breakdowns
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Mediation : neutral
party comes in
when impasse has
occurred
Arbitration :
Impartial third
party makes
binding decision to
settle dispute

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Strikes : union members refuse
to work to pressure
management in negotiations
Boycotts : union members
agree to refuse to use or buy
firms products
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Lockout : keep employees out;
operate firm by placing
management and nonunion
workers in striking workers jobs
Hire replacement for strikers
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May be more difficult for
union
Until approved by
majority of members,
proposed agreement is
not final
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Larger and perhaps more
important part of collective
bargaining
Seldom viewed by public
Agreement establishes the union-
management relationship for
duration of the contract
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