CITATION

RPW 305
Academic English
Survival Skills II
Unit I (pp. 54-59)
What is citation?
• Citation (n.) 1. A quotation from or reference
to a book, paper, or author, esp. in a scholarly
work
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• Broadly, a citation is a reference to a
published or unpublished source (not always
the original source).
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A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain
material in your work came from another source. It also
gives your readers the information necessary to find that
source again, including:

• information about the author
• the title of the work
• the name and location of the company that
published your copy of the source
• the date your copy was published
• the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
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Why should I cite sources?

• Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the
only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing.
However, there are a number of other reasons to cite
sources:

• Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find
out more about your ideas and where they came from.

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Why should I cite sources?
• Citing sources shows the amount of research
you've done.

• Citing sources strengthens your work by
lending outside support to your ideas.

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CITATION
Borrowing others’
ideas by indicating
the source
Direct Quotation
Summary
Paraphrasing
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Shortly;
Why do we cite?
To show different
points of view
To support
our ideas
To be more
credible in giving
information
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What do we
cite?
Processes
Quotes
Research
Results
Statistical
Information
Data
Descriptions
Definitions
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From
where
do we
cite?
Books
Journals
Dictionaries
Online
Sources
Encyclopedias
Theses /
Dissertations
Online
journals
e-books
e-references
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How do we cite references?
• In-text reference or In-text citation
• End-text reference or End-text citation

(These subjects will be focused on in detail.)
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What are the most common styles of
citation?
• APA (American Psychological Association)


• MLA (Modern Language Association)


• CMS (Chicago Manual of style)
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REMEMBER:
• While you integrate sources into your
essay, it should be kept in mind to give
both in-text and end-text references
whenever you use others’ ideas and/or
research.
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• Not citing the borrowed ideas is academic
dishonesty, which is called PLAGIARISM.
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What information should be cited?
• All direct quotations
• All paraphrases
• All summaries
• All facts and statistics that are not common
knowledge
• All translations
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TASK 1 (p. 55)
Examine the following sentences and discuss which one is
common knowledge and why.

1. Diana died after a car crash in a road tunnel in Paris along
with Dodi Al-Fayed.
- Common knowledge
2. After Lady Diana’s death, on July 6, 2004 Queen Elizabeth II
officially opened the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial
Fountain designed by the architect Kathryn Gustafson. The
fountain is located in Hyde Park in London.
- Not common knowledge; it includes specific information
that one may not be familiar with.

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COMMON KNOWLEDGE
What is common knowledge?

Common knowledge is knowledge that is
known by everyone or nearly everyone,
usually with reference to the community in
which the term is used.


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• It can sometimes be difficult to decide what is
to be cited and what is common knowledge.
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For example;
• “China is the most crowded country in
the world.”
- The above statement is common knowledge
for (almost) everyone in the world.
• “Süleymaniye Mosque was designed by
Mimar Sinan.”
- The second statement is common knowledge
for (almost) everyone in Turkey.

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• Therefore, what may be common knowledge
in one culture – or in one specific group of
people – may not be common in another.
• If a paper is addressed to a certain group of
people, the writer may not need to cite some
pieces of information that are common
knowledge for them.

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• However; if the same paper is intended for
the non-members of the same group, the
writer may need to cite the information.
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The best advice is...

When in doubt, cite
your source!
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REMEMBER!
• Even if a piece of information is common
knowledge, you need to cite source if you use
the exact sentence or a paraphrase of it!
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What is NOT common knowledge?
• All statistics, data, figures
• References to studies done by others
• References to specific facts the average
reader would not know about unless s/he has
done research
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TASK 2
Identify common knowledge
1. ___ 76% of the American men sent to Vietnam were from
lower-middle, working class backgrounds.

2. ___ World War II took place between the years 1939 and
1945.

3. ___ Barrack Obama is the first elected African-American
president of the USA.

4. ___ Hitler was born in 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum
Pommer.

5. ___ The 1789 French Revolution was a period of political
and social upheavel in the history of France during which the
French government underwent radical changes.
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How to cite references
• In this lesson, you will study the
conventions of APA style, by means of
which you need to document your sources
both as in-text and end-text references.
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APA in-text style uses the author-year
method of citation.

• The first citation of any work must include the author, year and, if a
specific page needs to be identified, the page number of the work unless
it is mentioned in the text containing the citation.

• Subsequent citations to the same work need NOT include the year as long
as the work can easily be distinguished from other works cited in the
paper.
EXAMPLE:
The first time a source appears in the text:
"Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was
their first time" (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

The second or other times it appears in the text:
“Students started to find APA style citation relatively easy as they get
used to using it” (Jones, p. 201).
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING
IN-TEXT REFERENCE
Depending on your choice, you can place the
writer’s surname, the publication year and the
page in different places in your sentence.
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Analyze different ways of giving in-text
reference in the sentences below.
• Several rivers aside from the Thames once intersected
London, although those rivers have since been covered over
by development (Clayton, 2000, p. 28).

• Anthony Clayton points out that several rivers aside from the
Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have
since been covered over by development (2000, p. 28).

Also;
• Clayton (2000) points out that several rivers aside from the
Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have
since been covered over by development (p. 28).

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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
When you refer to a text with two writers, if
the writers’ names are in parantheses, put an
ampersand (&) between the two.
However, if the writers’ names are outside the
parantheses, use “and” in between.
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Work by two authors named in the
text
• Rosdahl and Weise point out that the unemployed of
Denmark have had the right to request job related activities
such as training or publicly supported work, but that right has
recently become an obligation (2001, p. 160).
Also;
• Rosdahl and Weise (2001) point out that the unemployed of
Denmark have had the right to request job related activities
such as training or publicly supported work, but that right has
recently become an obligation (p. 160).


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Work by two authors

• The unemployed of Denmark have had the right to
request job related activities such as training or
publicly supported work, but that right has recently
become an obligation (Rosdahl & Weise, 2001, p.
160).
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Work by three or more authors
• Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs;
 in subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author
followed by 'et al.'
EXAMPLE:
The first time
Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found that...
The second time (or other times)
Kahneman et al. (1991) found that...

*et al. = Latin; “and others”
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
When you refer to source with three or more
writers, you do not need to list all the surnames each
time you cite the source.
The first time you cite the source, list all the
surnames putting an ampersand (&) before the last
one.
From then onwards, write only the surname of the
first writer and “et al.” which means “the others” in
Latin.


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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
• If the source you use has no author but is the
work of an organization, you can give the
name of the organization instead of the
writer’s surname.
(UNESCO, 1999, para.4)
• If the source you use has no author, give the
title in quotation marks.
(“An effective Leader,” 2000, para.7)
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
• If the information you want to borrow appears as a
borrowed source in the source you have at hand,
you should refer to both writers using “as cited in”.

EXAMPLE:
According to Viscount Slim, willpower and firmness, which are
elements of determination, are the most critical
characteristics for a leader (as cited in Hughes et al., 2006,
p.15).
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
• If there is no date of publication, put “n.d.” in the
place of year of publication.
( Jackson, n.d., para.5).
• If the information is on a single page, put “p.” before
the page number.
EXAMPLE:
Lewis (1967) points out that following his victory in the Turkish
War of Independence, there were many distractions, which at
that time might have dissuaded Mustafa Kemal, a war-hero
(p. 254).
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
• If the information is on more than a single
page, put “pp.” and “-” between the page
numbers.

EXAMPLE:
Kinross (1965, pp. 94-95) points out that knowing the patriotic
fighting spirit of the Turks, Mustafa Kemal knew how to
arouse...
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BRIEF GUIDELINES for GIVING IN-TEXT
REFERENCE
• If there is no page number, indicate the
paragraph number with either “para.” or the
symbol “ ”

EXAMPLE:
In his article “Atatürk in His Lifetime and Today”, Mango (2000)
explains, as one of the Turkish biographers put it, the basic ideas,
the new ideas came from Atatürk, their implementation he left to
others (para. 3).
OR
In his article “Atatürk in His Lifetime and Today”, Mango (2000)
explains, as one of the Turkish biographers put it, the basic ideas,
the new ideas came from Atatürk, their implementation he left to
others ( 3)
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Indirect quotations

Use this form to cite a quotation that was found in
another (not the original) source.
For example;
• John Evelyn described London's churchyards as being filled
with bodies "one above the other, to the very top of the
walls, and some above the walls" (qtd. in Clayton, p. 14).
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Electronic and Multimedia Sources
Electronic sources are cited in the typical author-page
number style with one difference: when an Internet site
does not have page numbers, offer other location
information such as screen, section (sec.), paragraph
(para.), track, or time frame (minute).
For example:
• Because of Greece's physical characteristics-its jagged coast
made almost all settlements within 40 miles of the sea-the
ancient Greeks relied on the sea for most long-distance
traveling (Martin, 2002, sec. 2.4).
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Although it is beneficial to know the
basics of referencing...
You do not need to remember all these.
Always check by writing APA referencing guide
on www.google.com
&
Check your book Appendix B-5
on page 281.
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ACTIVITY
• Read the text “Mustafa Kemal Atatürk – A
Commander and an Effective Leader” on
pages 37-40 and find examples of in-text
citation.
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