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Course Content

1 Classification of Materials 6
2 Interatomic Bonding 19
3 Crystal Structure 36
4 Phase Diagram (Binary) or Equilibrium Diagram 57
5 Microstructure: Property Relationship 69
6 Mechanical Properties and Their Evaluation (Tensile Test) 79
7 Mechanical Properties and Their Evaluation (Hardness Test) 103
8 Mechanical Properties and Their Evaluation (Creep Test) 121
Course Content
9 Mechanical Properties and Their Evaluation (Fatigue Test) 134
10 Mechanical Properties and Their Evaluation (Impact Test) 144
11 Magnetic Materials 169
12 Nanotechnology 182
13 Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 198
14 Sensor Technology and Applications 203
Metallurgy of Steels and Other Structural Materials:
(Plain Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels)
Course Content
16 Stainless Steels 240
17 Polymeric Materials 267
18 Fibre-Reinforced Composites 300
19 Nuclear Materials: Production of U, Pu, and Th Metal 308
20 Nuclear Fuels: Metallic Fuels 329
21 Nuclear Fuels: Ceramic Fuels (Oxides, Mox and MC) 348
22 Zirconium Alloys (Zircaloys and ZrNb Alloys) 362
Lecture 1
Classification of Materials
Classification of Materials
The complete range of materials can be classified into the following categories:
Metals and alloys
Polymers (plastics)
Classification of Materials
Metals and alloys
In chemistry, a metal is defined as an element with a valence of 1, 2 or 3
All metals possess metallic properties such as luster, opacity, malleability, ductility
and electrical conductivity. Alloys are practically useful for structural or load-
bearing applications such as automotives, buildings, bridges, aerospace, etc.
Although pure metals are occasionally used, combinations of metals called alloys
provide improvement in desirable property
Typical examples of metallic materials are as follows:
Iron, copper, aluminum, zinc, gold, silver, etc., and their alloys. Steels are made
from iron and carbon, stainless steel is an alloy of iron and chromium (11%
minimum), brasses and bronzes.
Classification of Materials
A ceramic can be defined as a combination of one or more metals with a non-
metallic element. Hence, metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides and silicates are
considered as ceramics. Ceramics are probably the most natural materials. Beach
sand and rocks are examples of naturally occurring ceramics.
They are characterized by high hardness, abrasion resistance, brittleness and
chemical inertness and are poor conductors of electricity and heat
Though they are strong in compression, they are generally weak in tension
Classification of Materials
Typical examples of ceramics
Refractories, abrasives, clays, cermets, Al
, MgO, SiC, BaTiO
, UO
, PuO
, ThO

and (U, Pu)O
Traditional ceramics are used to make bricks, tableware, sanitaryware, tiles,
refractories (heat-resistant materials) and abrasives. Ceramics are produced in fine
powders and converted into different shapes. Ceramics are also used in consumer
products such as paints, plastics and tyres.

Classification of Materials
A composite is a combination of two or more materials that has properties
different from its constituents. Composites, as a class of engineering material,
provide an almost unlimited potential for higher strength, stiffness and corrosion
resistance over the pure material. Typical examples of composites are as follows:
Steel-reinforced concrete, clad metals (titanium-clad steel), fibre glass,
reinforced plastics, cemented carbide tools, ceramic-metal, oxide dispersion-
strengthened steels
Classification of Materials
With composites, we can produce light-weight, strong, ductile, high temperature
resistant materials or we can produce hard, yet shock resistant, cutting tools that
would otherwise shatter. Advanced aircraft and aerospace vehicles, rely heavily on
composites such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers. Sports items such as
bicycles, golf clubs and tennis rackets which are light and stiff are composed of
different kinds of composite materials.
Classification of Materials
Polymers are organic substances and derivatives of carbon and hydrogen. They are
also known as plastics. Most plastics are light in weight and soft as compared to
metals. They possess high corrosion resistance and can be moulded into various
shapes by the application of heat and pressure. Just as ceramics provide good
electrical and thermal insulation, polymers may be either ductile or brittle
depending on their structure, temperature and strain rate. Although they have
lower strength, polymers have a very good strength-to-weight ratio. They are
typically not suitable for use at high temperatures.
Applications ranging from bullet-proof vests, compact disks (CDs), ropes, liquid
crystals displays (LCDs), coffee cups, etc.
Classification of Materials
An amorphous material produced from the molten state, typically, but not always
based on silica
The term amorphous refers to materials that do not have a periodic arrangement
of atoms. Therefore, glass is defined as a super-cooled liquid, for example, optical
fibres based on high-purity silica glass. The fibre optics industry is based on the
optical fibres
Glasses are also used in houses, cars, computers, television screens and hundreds
of other applications
They are characterized by brittleness, hardness, transparency and chemical
Classification of Materials
Glass ceramics
Glasses are thermally treated (tempered) to make them stronger
Forming a glass and then heat treating it to form small crystals is done by a special
thermal process known as glass ceramics. Examples are mirror substrates for large
Glass and glass ceramics are usually processed by melting and casting
Classification of Materials
Comparison of properties of metals, ceramics and polymers
Classification of Materials
Selection of materials
Selection is based on the properties of materials. The designer must decide the
properties required for a part under design and then weigh the properties of the
candidate materials. There are literally hundreds of properties that are measured
in laboratories for the purpose of comparing the materials, however, we shall
concentrate on the more important ones
Major categories of properties to be considered in material selection are as
Classification of Materials
Material Properties
Chemical Physical Mechanical Performance

Oxidation resistance

Corrosion resistance





Electrical conductivity

Thermal conductivity

Specific heat

Coefficient of thermal





Rigidity (modulus
of elasticity)

Wear resistance

Fatigue resistance

Creep rate

Damping capacity

Work hardening
Service Life




Absence of toxicity

Capacity for recycling



Lecture 2
Interatomic Bonding
Interatomic Bonding
Interatomic bonding
Solid substances are composed of very large aggregates of atoms and the
properties of these materials derive in part from the manner in which the
individual atoms are bonded together and the strength of these bonds.
The bonding which exists between atoms is not the same for all materials as there
are several types of possible interatomic bond.
Generally, the bonding involves some degree of interaction between the outer
shell, or valence electrons and is, therefore, dependent on the number and
distribution of electrons within the atom.

Interatomic Bonding
A completely filled outer electron shell confers a very high degree of stability to an
atomthis being the electronic structure of inert or noble gases.
In the formation of interatomic bonds, atoms of element with incomplete outer
electron shells attempt, in combination with other atoms to achieve filled outer
electron shells, thus satisfying the condition of stability.
Interatomic Bonding
Types of bonds
1. Primary bonds
The main types of bonds are:
a) The ionic bond
b) The covalent bond
c) The metallic bond
These bonds are relatively strong
2. Secondary bonds
The main types of bonds are:
a) The hydrogen bond
b) Van der Waals bond
Generally, these bonds are weaker and exist between molecules
Interatomic Bonding
The ionic bond
The bond exists between two unlike atoms. If an electron is transferred from a
metallic atom to a non-metallic atom, the two resulting ions are held together by
electrostatic attraction.
1. Sodium and chlorine atoms. Sodium atom gives away its valence electron and
becomes a positive ion, while chlorine atom takes the electron to fill its last orbit
and becomes a negative ion, as shown in the following figure.
Interatomic Bonding

Example 1
Electron transfer from sodium to chlorine
By losing an electron, the sodium atom has become out of balance electrically, and
said to be in an ionized state
Na Na
+ e
Similarly, by gaining an additional electron, the chlorine atom has become ionized
Cl + e
The sodium and chlorine ions, being of opposite charge, will be strongly attracted
to one another to form one molecule of NaCl
Interatomic Bonding
Example 2
Calcium and chlorine atoms

Ca Ca
+ 2e
2Cl + 2e- 2Cl
giving one molecule of CaCl
Electron transfer from calcium to two chlorine atoms
Interatomic Bonding
Ionic crystals are characterized by having:
Poor electrical conductivity
High hardness
High melting point
Soluble in water.

In the solution where the ions have mobility, are termed as electrolytes. They will
move more preferentially constituting an electrical current in an electrical field.
Similarly, when an ionic crystalline substance melts the ions have mobility and the
molten salts are electrolytically conductive.
Interatomic Bonding
The covalent bond
The bonding is formed by sharing of electrons between adjacent atoms, rather
than electron transfer, and the stable arrangement of eight electrons in an outer
shell is achieved. Covalent bond is the form of bonding in organic molecules which
are composed principally of carbon and hydrogen.
Interatomic Bonding
1. Formation of Cl
molecules individual chlorine atoms combine to form diatomic
molecules such as
2Cl Cl
The bond is achieved by the sharing of a pair of electrons. One electron from
each atom enters into joint orbit around both nuclei, so giving both nuclei an
effective complement of eight outer shell electrons. This is symbolically
represented as Cl: Cl or Cl Cl
Chlorine molecule Cl
-one pair of electrons shared
Interatomic Bonding
2. Formation of O
Two pairs of electrons are shared between two adjacent atoms to give each
atom a complement of eight outer shell electrons
O = O

3. Diamond
Where four valence electrons are shared between four neighbouring atoms.
Symbolic representation of covalent bond shown below
Oxygen molecule O
- two pairs of electron shared
Structure of diamond
Interatomic Bonding
The metallic bond
This type of bond results when each atom of the metal contributes its valence
electrons to the formation of an electron cloud, that spreads throughout the solid
metal. A characteristic of metallic bond is that the conduction of electricity and
heat are produced by the free movement of valence electrons, through the metals.
All metal conductors show this type of bond. The resistance to the free movement
of electron occurs if it collides with other electrons. This collision of electrons
interferes with the flow of electrons and accounts for the resistivity in metals.
Metallic crystals are malleable and have variable hardness and melting point.
Interatomic Bonding
The metallic bond

The metallic state positive ions in an electron cloud
Interatomic Bonding
Secondary bonds
In additions to the types of primary bond discussed in the preceding sections,
there also exist weaker secondary bonds. These bonds are:
1. Hydrogen bond
2. Van der Waals bond
The typical bond energies are of the order 0.2 eV for a hydrogen bond and
between 0.002 and 0.1 eV for van der Waals bonds, as compared with 6.5 eV for
the ionic bond in sodium chloride
Interatomic Bonding
Hydrogen bond
Water molecule is a polar with the two hydrogen atoms being positive relative to
the two non-bonding orbital of the oxygen atom. There is a quite a strong force of
attractions between the hydrogen atoms and the negative ends of the adjacent
molecules. As shown in the following figure, hydrogen bond can be written as:

H O H..O
Interatomic Bonding

The hydrogen bond does not occur only in water and ice, but in a number of
polymer materials. Examples of hydrogen bonding in polymers are N H.O
bonds between polyamide (nylon) molecules and O HO bonds in cellulose and
polyvinyl alcohols.
(a) Representation of a polar
O molecule
(b) Attraction between neighbouring
O molecules-the hydrogen bond
Interatomic Bonding
Van der Waals bonds
Many molecular compounds like methane are polarized to some extent and
electrostatic attractive forces exist between the molecular dipoles. These weak
electrostatic attractive forces are termed Van der Waals bonds. This type of bonds
can occur also between atoms. The monatomic inert gases, with full outer electron
shells will condense into liquids and solids at extremely low temperatures. This
indicates the existence of weak bonding forces. The atom becomes slightly
polarized and may be weakly attracted to a similar polarized atom. The momentary
uneven electron distribution in atoms giving weak dipoles and weak interatomic
attraction is shown in figure:
Lecture 3
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Space lattice
In a crystal, the atoms are arranged in a periodic and regular geometric pattern in
space. The arrangement of an atom in a crystal can be described with respect to a
three-dimensional set of straight lines, as shown below

Space lattice with a unit cell
Crystal Structure
Unit cell and lattice parameter
The unit cell can be regarded as the smallest grouping of atoms still showing the
symmetry of the type.
Shape and size of the unit cell is given by 6 lattice parameters a, b, c, , , and as
shown in the figure. Consider three axes OX, OY, OZ of lengths a, b, c respectively,
inclines to one another at angles , and .
Lattice parameters of a unit cell
Crystal Structure
Crystal system
Depending upon the relation between the lattice parameters, the unit cell can be
divided in seven groups as shown in the table given below
Crystal Structure
Bravais lattice
The seven different types of crystal systems can be further subdivided into 14
types, depending upon the basic arrangement of the atoms within a unit cell
Crystal Structure
These 14 space lattices are known as Bravais lattices as
shown in the following table


Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Crystal Structure
Location of atom positions and identification of directions and planes in the unit cell
Location of points: Such as atom positions are located by constructing the
right-hand coordinates systems. Distance is measured in terms of the number of
lattice parameters in the direction of X, Y, Z coordinates to get from the origins to
the point of interest as shown in the figure given below.
Coordinates of selected points in the unit cell
Crystal Structure
Identification of direction
Certain directions in the unit cell are of particular importance. Metals deform
more easily, for an example, in directions along which atoms are in closest packed.
Miller indices are use to identify any directions as shown in the figure given below.
47 Crystallographic directions and coordinates
Crystal Structure
Identification of planes in the unit cell
Certain planes of atoms in crystal are of particular significancemetals deform
along the planes of atoms that are most tightly packed together. The surface
energy of different faces of an crystal depends upon the particular crystallographic
planes. Therefore, their properties vary according to the planes or directions along
which they are measured.
Crystal Structure
Identification of planes and directions in the unit cell
It is a desirable to have system of notations to designate different planes and
directions though the crystals. Such a system which designates a set of planes
through the crystal is called Miller Indices. These indices are based on the
intercepts of a plane with the three crystal axes, i.e., the three edges of the unit
cell. The intercepts are measured in terms of the edge lengths or dimensions of
the unit cells which are the unit distances from the origin along the three axes. If
the plane is parallel to an axis, it intercepts the axis at infinity.
Crystal Structure
Designation of crystal
planes using Miller Indices
Crystal Structure
To determine the Miller indices of a plane, the following steps are taken:
1. Find the intercepts of the plane on the three axes in multiples or fractions of the
axial lengths along each axis
2. Take the reciprocals of these numbers
3. Reduce the reciprocals to the three smallest integers in the same ratio as the
4. Enclose in the parentheses, e.g., (hkl)
If a plane cuts any axis, e.g., the Y-axis, on the negative side on the origin, the
corresponding index will be negative and is indicated by placing a minus (-) sign in
above the index

l) k (h
Crystal Structure
Miller indices of directions
A direction within the space lattice is represented by line passing though the origin
and any other point P in the space. Then this line may be identified simply by
stating the co-ordinates of the point P. The co-ordinates of the point P expressed in
terms of the lattice parameters a, b, and c, and reduced to smallest integers, are
the Miller indices of directions in question.
Directions indices though the crystal
Crystal Structure
The distance between the two (hkl) planes
The distance is measured at right angle to them is known as interplaner spacing. It
is a function of plane indices, and crystal system involved, i.e., the lattice
parameters, a, b, c, , , and . It is denoted by d

In a cubic crystal:

The relationship gives the inter planner spacing as a function of the Miller indices
and lattice parameters
2 2 2
) (
l k h