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The complete aero-engine and the airframe consists of many parts

which, unless bonded one of the metal joining processes or
held solely by their fit, are held together by various types of fastening
devices. Bolts, nuts, studs, rivets, taper pins, cowling fasteners, ball and
fork end joints, etc., are typical examples of such fasteners. Many
variations of these devices are used in general engineering, but for use
on aircraft they are made to rigid specification and their sizes and
design have been standardized as far as possible. Screw thread is
described here separately as it forms the basis of number of securing

Screw Threads
A screw thread is a groove of uniform cross section, which follows
The path of a helix on the surface of a cylinder or cone.

Male (external) screw thread is formed by cutting a helical groove
into the surface of a round bar; a Female (Internal) thread is formed
by cutting a helical groove in a cylindrical hole.

When the external thread is cut into the normal diameter or the rod,
it is termed a 'minus' thread. Where it is important to avoid reducing
the strength of the round bar, the end to be screwed is formed to a
larger diameter and the thread stands above a surface and is
termed a 'plus' thread

Screw Nomenclature
The four common types of thread form are the Vee, Square, Acme, and the

1. The Vee Thread gives the greatest strength for common usage, such as
bolts, and is easily produced by taps and dies
2. The square thread stands up well to constant wear and heavy loads ,such
as met with screw jacks. This type of thread is readily cut on a lathe.
3. The Acme Thread is for use on the lead screws of lathes to facilitate the opening and
closing of a split nut
4. The Buttress Thread is used where the thrust is required in one direction only, as with
the bench vice screw.

The Vee Thread
The square thread
The Acme Thread
The Buttress Thread

Types of threads

1. British Standard Whitworth
It is a symmetrical V' thread of 55
included angle ie. thread angle 055
). With an
equal radius at the root and crest of 0.1373 x pitch.
2. British Standard Fine(B.S.F.)
The thread form is identical to BSW but differs in the TPI
BSW has 24 TPI whereas BSF has 32 TPI
3 British Association (B.A.)
Similar form to BSW and BSF but has thread angle of 47 1/2
4. American National Threads (ANC , ANF)
The American Thread is another 60
angle thread which is truncated. There
are 2 standard series; the course (A.N.C.) and Fine (.A.N.F.).
5. Unified Thread ( UNC & UNF)
The unified system or screw threads, introduced by Canada, USA and UK was
provided to give a common standard between the three countries.
As per the American thread with a thread angle of 60
6. Metric Thread
In MM . The thread angle is 60

is truncated
Screw threads are identified by their profile. Some example are: -
3. Whitworth Thread
2. Metric Fine Thread
1. Metric Thread
4. Trapezoidal Thread
Screw Nomenclature
6. Round Thread
5. Buttress Thread
Effective Diameter Tolerance
This is derived from a three-part formula, which takes account of
diameter, pitch and length of engagement

Major Diameter Tolerance
With external threads the tolerance on major diameter is derived
solely from a formula based on pitch.

Minor Diameter Tolerance
The minor diameter tolerance on external threads is related
directly to the effective diameter tolerance.

Animation Presentation
Thread Forms, Dimensions and Tolerances for Standard Threads Used in Aircraft
Measuring Screw Threads
E .g BSW


H = 0.9601 X P
h = 0.6403 X P
R = 0.1373 X P
H/6 = 0.1601 X P

Screw Pitch Gauge

This type of gauge is used to check the profile or to determine the number
of threads per inch of a given thread. The gauge consists of a number of
blades,each of of which is cut with a given number of teeth per inch, the
teeth being accurately shaped to the profile a standard screw thread. Screw
thread gauges are available for testing B.A. , Whitworth, B.S.F. , Unified
threads, etc., and each is etched with the type of thread and the number of
threads per inch.

Before gauging, the threads of the component to be checked must first be
cleaned. The component is then held up to the light and the gauge placed in
position. If the thread is accurately cut, no light should be visible between
the gauge and the component threads. If the thread of the component
'out-of-pitch', the gauge will not fit properly on the threads

Screw Pitch Gauge

Objective: -

At the end of this lesson the student will be able to define self-
tapping screws and dowels.

Self Tapping Screws, Dowels
Self Tapping Screws, Dowels

Self-tapping screws are used to secure thin gauge sheet metal
where nuts and bolts are impracticable.
They are screwed into a hole of the correct diameter and form their
own thread.
The screw head may be slotted or cruciform;
four types are in common used.

Examples of self-tapping screws are Parker Kalon (P-K),
Barber and Calon (B-K).