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HTML

What is HTML?
HTML is a language for describing web pages.
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup
Language
HTML is not a programming language, it is a
markup language
A markup language is a set of markup tags
HTML uses markup tags to describe web
pages
HTML Tags
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags
HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle
brackets like <html>
HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and
</b>
The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag
is the end tag
Start and end tags are also called opening tags and
closing tags.
HTML Documents = Web Pages
HTML documents describe web pages
HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text
HTML documents are also called web pages

The purpose of a web browser (like I nternet Explorer or
Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as
web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but
uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:

DOCUMENT STRUCTURE
<html>
<head>
<title>Document Title Goes Here</title>
...Head information describing the document and
providing
supplementary information goes here....
</head>
<body>
...Document content and markup go here....
</body>
</html>
The first line of the template is the <!DOCTYPE> indicator,
which shows the particular version of HTML being used; in
this case, 4.01 transitional. Within the <html> tag, the basic
structure of a document reveals two primary sections: the
"head" and the "body." The head of the document, as indicated
by the head element, contains information and tags describing
the document such as its title. The body of the document, as
indicated by the body element, contains the document itself
with associated markup required for structure or presentation.
The <html>Tag

The <html> tag delimits the beginning and the end of an
HTML document. The <html> tag, however, directly contains
only the <head> tag, the <body> tag, and potentially the
<frameset> tag instead of the <body> tag.

The <head>Tag

The head tag used to describe or augment the content of the
document. The information contained within the <head>tag is
information about the information of the page, which generally
is referred to as meta-information.
The <body>Tag
The body of a document is delimited by <body> and </body>. The body
element is optional. Only one body element can appear per document.
Because the body element delimits the document itself, its attributes are
primarily used to effect change across the entire document, such as setting
background images, background colors, and link and text color.
Rules of HTML
HTML Is Not Case Sensitive
HTML Attribute Values May Be Case Sensitive
HTML Is Sensitive to a Single White Space Character
Elements Should Have Close Tags Unless Empty
Unused Elements May Minimize
Elements Should Nest
Attributes Should Be Quoted Browsers Ignore Unknown Attributes and
Elements
COMMON HTML TAGS
Headings...
Headings are some of the most important tags within the
BODY of HTML document. A heading tell what the
following section of page is about. The opening tag for a
heading is <hy> and the closing tag is </hy> with y being the
size of the heading... from 1 to 6. (1 being largest, and 6 being
smallest)

Example of heading tags...
H1: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h1>H1: Bob fell over the chicken.</h1>
H2: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h2>H2: Bob fell over the chicken.</h2>
H3: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h3>H3: Bob fell over the chicken.</h3>
H4: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h4>H4: Bob fell over the chicken.</h4>
H5: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h5>H5: Bob fell over the chicken.</h5>
H6: Bob fell over the chicken.
<h6>H6: Bob fell over the chicken.</h6>
Horizontal Ruled Lines...
Horizontal Ruled Lines are used to separate different areas of a
web page. The tag for a horizontal ruled line is <hr>. The
horizontal ruled line DOES NOT have a closing tag. You may
also add certain attributes to the <hr> tag, such as WIDTH=n
(for fixed pixel width) or WIDTH=n% for a certain percentage
of the screen wide, SIZE=n to make the line a certain pixel
amount thick, and NOSHADE to turn the line's shading off. A
plain <hr> with no attributes will make the line the full width
of the screen.


Example of horizontal ruled lines...
<hr width=50>

<hr width=50%>

<hr size=7>

<hr noshade>

You may also use several attributes within one tag...
<hr width=50% size=10 noshade>
Paragraphs...

Use <p> tag , to write paragraph . The opening tag for a
paragraph is <p>, and the closing tag is </p>. The closing tag
for a paragraph is not always needed.

Example of a paragraph...

Bob starts to chase the chicken around. Bob trips over a string
and goes flying into the pig's mud pit! eww! What a pity!

<p>Bob starts to chase the chicken around. Bob trips over a
string and goes flying into the pig's mud pit! eww! What a
pity!</p>
Text Formatting Properties...
Some common text formatting tags are:

<b> and </b> for bold,

<i> and </i> for italics,

<u> and </u> for underlined

<tt> and </tt> for typewriter.


Text Formatting Properties...Font Tags
The <font size=n> and </font> tags come in handy.

n is the number of font points by which to change the
size of the current font.

n can be positive or negative: a positive number will
increase the font size, and a negative number will
decrease it.

n can also be an absolute number, indicating an
absolute size for the font (not a relative size).


Example of font tags...

Bob is a Cool Guy isn't he?

<font size=+1>Bob</font>
<font size=+2>is</font>
<font size=+3>a</font>
<font size+2>Cool</font>
<font size=+1>Guy</font>
isn't
<font size=-1>he?</font>
ALIGN attributes...
Many tags support ALIGN attributes... if you want
something to be aligned from the left margin, from
the center, or from the right margin. The ALIGN
attribute is placed in the opening tag before the >.
Left Align
<h1 align=left>Left Align</h1>
Center Align
<h1 align=center>Center Align</h1>
Right Align
<h1 align=right>Right Align</h1>
The Line Break...
When your HTML document is viewed, normally the text will
do a word-wrap at the end of a line. If you want to have the
text BREAK (go to another line) you will use the <br> tag.
This tag has no closing tag.

Example WITHOUT line Break...

Sentence One. Sentence Two. Sentence Three.

Sentence One.
Sentence Two.
Sentence Three.


Example WITH line Break...

Sentence One.
Sentence Two.
Sentence Three.

Sentence One.<br>
Sentence Two.<br>
Sentence Three.<br>
Preformatted Text...
If you wish to have text line up properly (a.k.a. fixed width
text) that will include line breaks without the use of the <br>
you may find the <pre> and </pre> tags helpful.

Example of text WITHOUT preformatting...

The cat ran after the dog. ^ ^-verb ^noun ^-noun
The cat ran after the dog.
^ ^-verb ^noun
^-noun
HTML ignores the extra line breaks, so the text does not line
up properly.
Example of text WITH preformatting...
The cat ran after the dog.
^ ^-verb ^noun
^-noun
<pre>
The cat ran after the dog.
^ ^-verb ^noun
^-noun
</pre>
The CENTER tag...
The center tag pretty much explains itself. The opening center
tag is <center> and the closing center tag is </center>.

Whatever you put between will be centered on the current line!

Example of CENTER tag..
Center Works
<center><h1>Center Works</h1></center>
The BODY attributes...
The BODY tag has many attributes... here are a the
most useful ones...
BACKGROUND="location_of_image" - Background
Image
BGCOLOR="#hexadecimal_here" - Background
Colour
LINK="#hexadecimal_here" - Colour of Links
VLINK="#hexadecimal_here" - Colour of Links the
User has Already Visited
TEXT="#hexadecimal_here" - Text Colour
Anchored Links...
Without Links, the World Wide Web wouldn't be a web at all!
To add a link... you will use the <a href="location"> opening
tag and </a> closing tag. Whatever appears between these two
tags will become underlined and colored, and if you click on
the underlined text it will send the browser to the location
within the quotes.

Example of a link...

Visit Sybase South Africa!

Visit <a href="http://www.sybase.co.za/">Sybase South
Africa</a>!


Note: Although Links are usually used to
send people to other web pages, you may
also use it to send email to a specific
address by using a location of
mailto:user@host.

Example of a Mailto: Link...

Send email to the Webmaster!

Send email to <a href="mailto:info@RemoteControlProfits.com">the
Webmaster</a>!
In-line Images...
You may also add images (pictures) to your web page, as long
as the image is in the .gif or .jpg (or .jpeg) file formats. You
will not be able to use .bmp format files! The basic tag for in-
line images in <img src="location">. It is also recommended
to add HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes to the IMG tag, which
will allow the image to take proper proportions on a browser
that is not currently viewing images. It is also recommended to
use the ALT="what picture is" to tell a person what a picture is
in case it is still loading or they are not viewing images. (The
IMG tag has no closing tag!)

Example of a basic in-line image...

<img src="ie.gif"ALT="Get Internet Explorer Now">
Combining Links and Images...
Many times you may want to have an image that is linked, so
that if someone clicks the image, they will be taken to another
page. This is rather simple- you just need to place the IMG tag
within the A HREF tags.
(<a href="location_of_link"><img
src="location_of_image"></a>)
You may also use the ALIGN tags with images!
When an image is also a link, it has a border around it by
default. You can control the width of the border - or turn it off
completely - by using border=n within the img tag. n is the
width of the border (n = 0 for no border).

<a href="http://www.microsoft.com/"><img src="ie.gif"
align=right border=0></a>
Anchored Links...
Without Links, the World Wide Web wouldn't be a web at all! To add a
link... you will use the <a href="location"> opening tag and </a> closing
tag. Whatever appears between these two tags will become underlined and
colored, and if you click on the underlined text it will send the browser to
the location within the quotes.

Example of a link...

Visit Sybase South Africa!

Visit <a href="http://www.sybase.co.za/">Sybase South Africa</a>!

Note: Although Links are usually used to send people to other web
pages, you may also use it to send email to a specific address by using a
location of mailto:user@host.

Example of a Mailto: Link...

Send email to the Webmaster!

Send email to <a href="mailto:info@RemoteControlProfits.com">the
Webmaster</a>!
The Comment Tag...
If you are writing an HTML document, sometimes you may
want to put little reminders to yourself with your code so that
you will be able to interpret your coding better. A comment
will not appear in a web browser when the page is displayed...
it is only visible when the source code is viewed. You start
commented text with <!-- and end it with -->.