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Introduction to Information and

Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
This material (Comp4_Unit5c), was developed by Oregon Health and Science University, funded by the Department of Health
and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number
IU24OC000015.
Computer Programming
Learning Objectives
Define the purpose of programming languages. (Lecture
a)
Differentiate between the different types of programming
languages and list commonly used ones. (Lecture a)
Explain the compiling and interpreting process for
computer programs. (Lecture b)
Learn basic programming concepts including variable
declarations, assignment statements, expressions,
conditional statements and loops. (Lectures c, d)
Describe advanced programming concepts including
objects and modularity. (Lecture e)

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Programming Constructs
Declarations (variable/constant)
Assignment Statements
Expressions
Input and Output (I/O) Statements
Control Structures
Data Structures
Modules
Procedures
Methods
Objects
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Variables
Variables store data
Implemented as memory locations
Referred to by a name
Data stored by a variable is its value
Value is stored in the memory location
Its value can be changed (i.e., variable)
Similar construct for constants (value cannot
change)

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Data Type
Every variable and constant has a data type
Knows how much memory to use
Knows how to handle data
Common data types
Integer
Floating point
Character
Boolean
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Java Data Types
Java is strongly typed
All variables must be declared with a type
Java data types
Primitive
int, double, float, char, boolean
Class
String
Other user/library defined types
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Declaration Statements
Variable declarations give the name and type
int age;
A variables type determines what kinds of values it
can hold
A variable must be declared before it is used in Java
Java examples
double bmi;
char gender;
boolean completed;
Note: Most Java statements end with a semicolon
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Assignment Statements
An assignment statement is used to assign a
value to a variable
age = 42;
The equal sign is the assignment operator
Options include:
The variable age is assigned the value of 42
age is assigned 42
"age gets 42"

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Values and Expressions
Values can be literals such as
18
2.5
'f'
Values can be expressions such as
weight/2
5 + age
3 + 2/5 * 15
n*m

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Arithmetic Expressions
Arithmetic expressions contain operators and
evaluate to a value
+, -, *, /
Order of evaluation is determined by
precedence
1. Expressions in parentheses evaluated first
2. Then *,/
3. Then +, -
4. Same order of precedence evaluated left to
right
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Expression Examples
bmi = weight / (height * height);
age = age + 1;
tricky = 3 + 5 * 2;
What is the value of tricky after the assignment?
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Input and Output
All programming languages support data input
Keyboard
Files
All programming languages support data output
Screen
Files
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Screen Output in Java
Output is done using
System.out.print() Does not include line
return
System.out.println() Includes line return
Code examples
System.out.println("Hello World!");
System.out.print("My name is ");
System.out.println(name);
System.out.println(gender);
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Keyboard Input in Java
Keyboard input is more complicated
Must include package java.util
Must create object of Scanner class
Scanner keyboard = new
Scanner(System.in);
Use methods in Scanner class
next(); nextLine(); nextDouble();
next Int();
Example
age = keyboard.nextInt();
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Exercise
Write a Java program that calculates BMI (body
mass index)
Read in weight (kg)
Read in height (m)
Calculate BMI
Output BMI
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Program Design
Prompt user for weight in kg
Read in weight
Prompt user for height in m
Read in height
Calculate BMI
BMI = weight/(height * height)
Output BMI

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
1.import java.util.*; //import package for keyboard input
2. public class CalcBMI //Start of class and program
3. {
4. public static void main(String[] args) //main
5. {
6. double bmi, weight, height; //variables
7. Scanner keyboard = new Scanner(System.in); //input
8.
9. System.out.println("Welcome to the BMI calculator");
10. System.out.println("Enter weight in kg");
11. weight = keyboard.nextDouble();
12. System.out.println("Enter height in m");
13. height = keyboard.nextDouble();
14. bmi = weight/(height*height);
15. System.out.print("BMI is ");
16. System.out.println(bmi);
17. }
18. }
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Sample Output
Welcome to the BMI calculator
Enter weight in kg
68 (green)
Enter height in m
1.72 (green)
BMI is 22.985397512168742

Note: Values in green are entered by the user
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Computer Programming
Summary Lecture c
Programming languages consist of common
constructs
Variables store data and have a data type
Variables can be assigned values or expressions
Java provides statements for variable
declarations, assignments and expressions
Java provides statements and classes for input
and output

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c
Computer Programming
References Lecture c
References
Eck, David. (2011) Introduction to Programming Using Java, Sixth Edition. [updated 2011 Jul 18; cited 2011 Nov
13]: Available from: http://math.hws.edu/javanotes/
Morley Deborah, Parker Charles S. (2010). Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages. In:
Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow.12
th
ed. Boston: Course Technology.
Parsons JJ, Oja D. (2010). Chapter 12: Computer Programming. In: New Perspectives on Computer Concepts
2011: Comprehensive. 13th ed. Boston: Course Technology.
The Java Language: An Overview. [Webpage]. c 2007. [updated 2007 Dec 17; cited 21 March 2011]. Available
from: http://java.sun.com/docs/overviews/java/java-overview-1.html
Sierra Kathy, Bates Bert. (2009). Head First Java, Second Edition. OReilly Media.

Images
Slide 16: Scale Image [image on the Internet]. c 2009 [Updated 4/2/2009; cited 11/12/2011]. Available from:
http://www.clker.com/clipart-26448.html.


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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Computer Programming
Lecture c