DAY8

BUCKLING OF AIRCRAFT
STRUCTURES

BUCKLING
Buckling is a failure mode characterized by a
sudden failure of a structural member subjected to
high compressive stresses, where the actual
compressive stresses at failure are smaller than
the ultimate compressive stresses that the material
is capable of withstanding
Buckling is also described as failure due to
elastic instability

BUCKLING TYPES
Stable or Gentle Buckling is a buckling in
which the displacements increase in a
controlled fashion as loads are increased, ie.
the structure's ability to sustain loads is
maintained
Unstable or violent Buckling is a buckling in
which the displacements increase
instantaneously, the load carrying capacity
nose- dives and the structure collapses
catastrophically

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
• Column
– A structural member which transmits the load of the
structure above it through compression to other
members
• Strut
– A structural member designed to resist longitudinal
compression
• Plate / Panel

A structural member whose third dimension is small
compared to the other two dimensions

Shell

A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is
relatively small compared to its other dimensions and in
which deformations are not large compared to thickness.
A primary difference between a shell structure and a
plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell
structure has curvature as opposed to plates structures
which are flat

COLUMN BUCKLING

Column buckling

Buckling is defined as an instance of lateral bending or
bowing of the column shape due to a compressive load
on a column.
2
2
L
k
cr

EI
P
π
·
S.No Type k
1 Pinned 1
2 Fixed-fixed 4
3 cantilever 1/4

COLUMN BUCKLING (Contd..)

Column buckling can be classified as

Primary instability
• Cross sections are translated or rotated but not distorted

Secondary instability
• Cross sections are distorted but not translated or rotated

LOAD VS DEFLECTION
i
m
p
e
r
f
e
c
t

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
Perfect structures
Lateral Deflection
L
o
a
d

P
P
cr

COLUMN CLASSIFICATION
Slenderness Ratio (SR) =L
eff

Type Material Column
Theory
Structural
Steel
Aluminium
alloy (6000)
Aluminium
alloy (2000)
Wood
Short SR<40 SR<9.5 SR<12 SR<11 Johnson
Intermediate 40<SR<150 9.5<SR<66 12<SR<55 11<SR<30 Inelastic
Long SR>150 SR>66 SR>55 SR>30 Euler
Long
Short
Intermediate

BUCKLING SHAPES

BEAM BENDING EQUATION
(1) ...
R EI
M 1
·
(2) ...
1
d

2
2 / 3
2
2
1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
·
dx
dy
dx
y
R
From Flexure formula
Radius of curvature
(3) ...
d

2
2
1
dx
y
R
·
Ignoring higher order terms
From (1) & (3)
(4) M...
d
EI
2
·
2
dx
y

EULER BUCKLING FORMULA

Spring
A
B
P
Fully Aligned
A
B
P
L

A
B
P
P
P
v
x
P
M= -Pv
EI
M
dx
v d
·
2
2
0
2
2
· + v
EI
P
dx
v d
Beam deflection equation
) cos( ) sin(
2 1
x C x C v λ λ + ·
Applying the column load
Boundary conditions
) sin( 0 0
0 0 0
1
2
L C L x at v
C x at v
λ · ⇒ · ·
· ⇒ · ·
L

λ ·
Solution to the above equation
Actual solution
) sin(
1
L
x
n C v π ·

A
B
n=1
n=2
0 ) sin( ) sin(
1 1
2
· + − x C
EI
P
x C λ λ λ
Substituting in equation
0 ) sin( ) (
1
2
· − x C
EI
P
λ λ
2
λ EI P ·
2
2 2
L
EI n
P
cr
π
·

PLASTICITY REDUCTION FACTOR

If the elastic buckling stress is more than the
yield stress, plasticity reduction factor has to
be applied. For columns, plasticity reduction
factor is applied through tangent modulus

INELASTIC BUCKLING

For a column with intermediate length, buckling occurs after the
stress in the column exceeds the proportional limit of the column
material and before the stress reaches the ultimate strength. This
kind of situation is called inelastic buckling
2
2

,
`

.
|
ρ
π
·
eff
t
cr
L
A E
P
Euler Engesser
Reduced modulus theory
( )
2
2
eff
r
cr
L
I E
P
π
·
( )
2
4
t
t
r
E E
EE
E
+
·

REDUCED MODULUS FORMULA
dA dA
d
v
d
x
∫ ∫
σ · σ
2 1
0 0
As load remains constant
………… (1)
Moment equilibrium
1
1
1
y
d
x
σ
· σ
2
2
2
y
d
v
σ
· σ
………… (2)
( ) ( ) Pv dA e y dA e y
d
v
d
x
− · − σ + + σ
∫ ∫
2
0 0
1
2 1
Change in slope
2
2
1
1
2
2
d E Ed dz
v d
t
σ
·
σ
·
………… (3)
………… (4)

REDUCED MODULUS FORMULA
0
2 1
0
2
2
2
0
1
2
2
· −
∫ ∫
dA y
dz
v d
E dA y
dz
v d
E
d
t
d
………… (5)
Equation (1) becomes
Equation (2) becomes
Pv dA y E dA y E
dz
v d
e dA y E dA y E
dz
v d
d
t
d d
t
d
− ·

,
`

.
|
+ +

,
`

.
|
+
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
2 1 2 1
0
2
0
1
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
1
2
2
( ) Pv I E EI
dz
v d
t
− · +
2 1
2
2
………… (6)
Equation (5) in (6) gives
Equation (7) can be rewritten as
………… (7)
………… (8)
Solving (8) we get
………… (9)
0
2
2
· + Pv
dz
v d
I E
r
2
2
e
r
cr
l
I E
P
π
·

EULER ENGESSER FORMULA
………… (10)
Equation (9) gives
But
………… (11)
If there is no strain reversal, then entire region gets compressive stress
Now Equation (10) becomes
………… (12)
………… (13)
2
2
e
r
cr
l
I E
P
π
·
2 1
I E EI I E
t r
+ ·
I E I E I E I E
t t t r
· + ·
2 1
2
2
e
t
cr
l
I E
P
π
·

EULER ENGESSER CURVE
Euler Engesser curve is divided in to three regions
1) Block compression
2) Short column range ( Plasticity effects)
3) Long column range (Euler buckling)

TANGENT & SECANT MODULUS
Tangent modulus
Secant modulus

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
·
−1
7 0
7
3
1
n
.
t
F
F
n
E
E

,
`

.
|
+ ·
85 0
7 0
7 17
1
.
.
e
F
F
) / ( log
n

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
σ
σ

,
`

.
|
σ
+
·
n
cy
s
E .
E
E
002 0
1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
σ
σ

,
`

.
|
σ
+
·
−1
002 0
1
n
cy cy
t
En .
E
E

COLUMNS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION
The stiffness of elastic foundation increases the buckling load and
reduces the buckling length

EI
L
) m ( m
4
4
2 2
1
π
β
· +
Critical column load
P
cr

,
`

.
|
π
β π
·
EI m
L
L
EI
4 2
4
2
2

a
µ
· β

CRIPPLING

Crippling is defined as the post-buckling failure of a
axial section that is comprised of plate elements joined
together at their boundaries

All the members subjected to axial load are to be
checked for crippling
•When local buckling takes around 0.7 - 0.8 F
cy
, The
crippling stress will be same as buckling stress
Web and Flange elements

CRIPPLING -ASSUMPTIONS

Material is isotropic

Material is ductile

b/t ratio is less than 3.0

Transverse shear is ignored

Webs are assumed to have constant thickness
Crippling stress

STRESS DISTRIBUTION

As the buckling takes place, the increasing load is
transferred to the corners.

Stress build up at the corner after the buckling is not
well understood

Boundary restraint between flange and plate element is
unknown

FLANGE CRIPPLING
The crippling stress is defined by dividing the failure load
at which the flange collapses by the area of the flange.
Pre-Buckled Post-Buckled
Stress distribution in a flange

WEB CRIPPLING
The crippling of a web is similar to flange. The stress is
uniform before buckling and increases near the edge
after buckling
Stress distribution in a Post-Buckled web

INPLANE WARPING
Unrestrained
Restrained
The post-buckled stress distribution
in a flange or web is affected by the
presence of restraints for in-plane
lateral deflections at the un-loaded
edges

WEB CRIPPLING STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
Straight unloaded edges
Unloaded edges free to warp
in the plane of plate

POST BUCKLING OF PLATES
Thick plates crippling will take place in plastic range and
for thin plates in elastic range
Stress distribution

PREDICTION OF CRIPPLING
STRESS
1 Angle method (Needham method)

Member is divided into number of angles

Crippling strength is obtained by summation of
individual crippling strength
( )
( )
75 0 1 .
e
n
cs
t
b
c
E
F

·
cy
F
free) edge no (for 0.366
free) edge one (for 0.342
free) edges two (for 0.316
·
·
·
e
e
e
c
c
c
section angle an for
2
b a
b
+
·

A F P
cs cs
·
Crippling load
For other sections


·
angles of Area
angles of loads crippling
F
cs



PREDICTION OF CRIPPLING
STRESS (Contd…)
40 0
2
1
2
67 0
.
cy
cs
F
E
A
gt
.
F
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
cy
F
85 0
2
1
2
56 0
.
cy
cs
F
E
A
gt
.
F
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
cy
F
For angles, V-groove plates, stiffened panels
with distorted unloaded edges
For T, H, cruciform, plates
with undistorted edges
For Z,J and channel
75 0
3
1
2
2 3
.
cy
cs
F
E
A
t
.
F
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
cy
F
2 Gerard method

CORRECTION FOR CLADDING
f=Cladding thickness / Total thickness
=0.1 for 2024-T3
= 0.08 for 7075-T3
( ) f
f
cr
cl
3 1
3 1
+
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
σ
σ
+
· η
S.No Section Value
1 Angles 0.7F
cy
2 V-groove plates F
cy
3 Multi-corner
sections
0.8F
cy
4 Stiffened panels F
cy
5 H, T, Cruciform 0.8F
cy
6 Z,J, Channel 0.9F
cy
Maximum crippling stress

RESTRAINT BY LIPS & BULB
• Compressive buckling coefficient of a
element can be increased the presence of
lip or bulb
• Compressive buckling coefficient for a
– Plate element is 4
– Flange is 0.43
• To provide a simple support the lip and
bulb dimensions should satisfy
5
3
≥ −
t t
f
L
f
L
b
A
b
I
2.73
f
f
L
L
t
b
t
b
328 0. ≤
i.e
For lip
For Bulb

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
f
f
f
min
f
min
f
min
t
b
.
t
D
.
t
D
.
t
D
44 7 374 0 6 1
2 3 4

PREDICTION OF CRIPPLING
STRESS (BOEING)
• Divide the section into segments.
• For each segment, determine the ratio of the width to
the thickness (b/t)
• For each segment, determine the boundary
conditions (1EF or NEF)
• For each segment, determine the crippling stress and
crippling load based on the method of analysis
appropriate for the b/t region
• Add the contribution of the crippling load from each
segment to obtain the total crippling load
• The crippling stress is obtained by dividing the
crippling load by the calculated area

SECTION DETAILS
Formed section
Extruded / Machined
2
2
t
b b
If
t
b b
If
other
+ ·
>
+ ·
>


t t

t t
other
other
R . b b 57 0 + ·

SECTION DETAILS
Stepped section
Tapered section
2
1 0
t t
t
+
·

SECTION DETAILS
Thin / thick section
Adjoining flange

,
`

.
|
·
thin
thick
thin cor , thick
b
b
t t 3
α θ

,
`

.
|
· R
t b
b t
R
w w
f f
3
3
20
1
α

,
`

.
|
+ α ·
α
2
2
2
sin
b
t
cos R
f
f

SECTION DETAILS
Bulb section

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
f
f
f
min
f
min
f
min
t
b
.
t
D
.
t
D
.
t
D
44 7 374 0 6 1
2 3 4
The bulb will fall into one of the following three
categories:
1) Case 1: Diameter large enough (D > D
min
)
The flange may be considered a web (NEF) for
the purposes of the crippling analysis
2) Case 2: Intermediate diameter (2 t
f
< D < D
min
)
The flange may be considered as a web (NEF), but
the crippling stress for this segment (including the
bulb) will be adjusted to 70% of the stress
calculated assuming the no-edge-free condition
3) Case 3: Diameter too small (D < 2 t
f
)
Consider the flange as one edge-free. The area of the
bulb should be added to the flange area, and b
f
should be measured to the tip of the bulb

SHEET EFFECTIVE WIDTH

Aircraft structures consists of
sheet and stringers together
• Sheet and stringer deform
together. Hence, the effective
sheet width has to be taken
into account in calculating the
crippling stress

Ignoring the sheet will be over
conservative design
( )
2
2
2
2
1 12

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
ν −
π
·
b
t
b
t E k
c
3.6E
F
cr

SHEET EFFECTIVE WIDTH (Contd..)
Von-Karman Sechler method

,
`

.
|
·
cy
F
E
t .9 1 w
NASA Structures manual
For skin & stiffener different material
For skin & stiffener same material
stiff
stiff
A
P
f ·
free edge no for
free edge one for
7 1
3 1
.
. K ·
( )
( )

,
`

.
|
·
stiff
stiff s
skin s
f
E
E
Kt
1
e
2w

,
`

.
|
·
stiff
s
f
E
Kt
e
2w

CURVED PANEL
curved flat cr
P P P + ·
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s e
curved
c e s st
stiff
c cr
t w b F w t A F P 2 4 − + + ·

REGIONS OF CRIPPLING CURVE
For calculating the crippling stress, the
crippling curve is divided into three
regions based on the value of b/t:
1) Stress cutoff
2) Plastic plate buckling
3) Empirical crippling curve

JOHNSON-EULER FORMULA

COLUMN BUCKLING CURVE


Select a material with higher E and
yield stress

Reduce b/t ratio

Add appropriate lip or bulb to change
the edge conditions
INCREASING CRIPPLING
STRESS

PLATE STRUCTURES
5 5 . 0 < <
t
δ
5 >
t
δ

,
`

.
|
< 5 . 0
t
δ
DEFINITION : PLATE IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER WHOSE THIRD
DIMENSION IS COMPARATIVELY SMALLER TO THE OTHER TWO
DIMENSIONS AND SUBJECTED TO NORMAL LOAD / INPLANE
LOAD
CLASSIFICATION OF PLATES:
a) Thick plate : Load resisted by bending
b) Thin plate : Load is resisted by bending
and inplane action
c) Membrane : Load is resisted by tension

PLATE THEORIES

KIRCHHOFF PLATE THEORY

Shear deformation is ignored

MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

Shear deformation is considered
y
w
z v
x
w
z u
y x w w


− ·


·
· ) , (

,
`

.
|





·


− ·


·
x y
z
y
z
x
z
x
y
xy
x
y
y
x
θ
θ
γ
θ
ε
θ
ε

,
`

.
|





·


− ·


− ·
x y
z
y
z
x
z
x
y
xy
x
y
y
x
θ
θ
γ
θ
ε
θ
ε
y
w
z v
x
w
z u
y x w w


− ·


− ·
· ) , (
y xz
x yz
x
w
y
w
θ γ
θ γ



·



·
0 · ·
xz yz
γ γ

PLATE BENDING
y
x
z
dz
dy
dx
M
xy
M
x
M
x
Q
xz
Q
xz
M
xy
Q
yz
Q
yz
M
yx
M
yx
M
y
M
y

PLATE BENDING (Contd….)

Plate bending equation is derived based
on the following
a) Strain-displacement relation
b) Stress-strain relation
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]

+


·
]
]
]
]

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
E
τ
σ
σ
ν
ν
ν
γ
ε
ε
) 1 ( 2 0 0
0 1
0 1
1
………….. (1)
………….. (2)
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

∂ ∂





− ·
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]

y x
w
y
w
x
w
z z
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2

θ
θ
γ
ε
ε

PLATE BENDING (Contd….)
c) Moment & Force resultants
d) Equilibrium equations
dz z
M
M
M
xy
y
x
t
t
xy
y
x
]
]
]
]


·
]
]
]
]


τ
σ
σ
2 /
2 /
dz
Q
Q
t
t yz
xz
yz
xz

]
]
]

·
]
]
]


2 /
2 /
τ
τ
y
M
x
M
Q
yx
x
xz


+


·
y
M
x
M
Q
y xy
yz


+


·
………….. (5)
………….. (4)
………….. (3)
………….. (6)
………….. (7)
p
y
Q
x
Q
yz
xz
− ·


+



PLATE BENDING (Contd….)
( ) ]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]
]



·
]
]
]
]

xy
y
x
xy
y
x
E
γ
ε
ε
ν
ν
ν
ν
τ
σ
σ
2
) 1 (
0 0
0 1
0 1
1
2
………….. (10)
………….. (9)
………….. (8)
………….. (11)
(5) & (6) in (7) gives
(3) in (8) gives
Rearranging (2), we get
(1) in (10) gives
( )
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

∂ ∂





]
]
]
]



− ·
]
]
]
]

y x
w
y
w
x
w
Ez
xy
y
x
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
) 1 ( 0 0
0 1
0 1
1
ν
ν
ν
ν
τ
σ
σ
p
y
M
y x
M
x
M
y xy
x
− ·


+
∂ ∂

+


2
2 2
2
2
2
p dz
y y x x
z
t
t
y xy
x
− ·

,
`

.
|


+
∂ ∂

+



2 /
2 /
2
2 2
2
2
2
σ σ
σ

PLATE BENDING (Contd….)
………….. (13)
………….. (12)
(11) in (9) gives
But
( )
2
3
2 /
2 /
2
2
1 12 1 ν ν −
·


·

Et
dz z
E
D
t
t
p w
y y x x
D ·

,
`

.
|


+
∂ ∂

+


0
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
2
( ) p dz
y x
w
y
w
y x
w
y x
w
x
w Ez
t
t
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
∂ ∂

+


+
∂ ∂

− +

,
`

.
|
∂ ∂

+


− −
2 /
2 /
2 2
0
4
4
0
4
2 2
0
4
2 2
0
4
4
0
4
2
2
1 2
1
ν ν ν
ν
p
y
w
y x
w
x
w
dz
Ez
t
t
·

,
`

.
|


+
∂ ∂

+


− −
2 /
2 /
4
0
4
2 2
0
4
4
0
4
2
2
2
1 ν
………….. (14)
(13) in (12) gives
D
p
w · ∇
4

PLATE SOLUTION
Plate equation is given as
Assume
D
y x p
y
w
y x
w
x
w ) , (
2
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
·

,
`

.
|


+
∂ ∂

+


………….. (14)
………….. (15)

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·

·

· 1 1
sin sin ) , (
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
a y x q
π π

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·



·

· 1
4
1
4
4
sin sin
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
a
m
A
x
w π π π

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·



·

· 1
4
1
4
4
sin sin
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
b
n
A
y
w π π π
………….. (16)
………….. (17)

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
∂ ∂


·

· 1
2 2
1
2 2
4
sin sin
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
b
n
a
m
A
y x
w π π π π
………….. (18)
………….. (19)

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·

·

· 1 1
sin sin ) , (
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
A y x w
π π

PLATE SOLUTION
………….. (20)
………….. (21)
………….. (22)
………….. (23)
………….. (24)
0 sin sin 2
1
4 2 2 4
1
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|


·

· n
mn
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
D
a
b
n
b
n
a
m
a
m
A
π π π π π π
0 2
4 2 2 4
· −

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
D
a
b
n
b
n
a
m
a
m
A
mn
mn
π π π π
(17), (18) & (19) in (14) gives
( )
2
2
2
2
2
4
b
n
a
m
D
a
A
mn
mn
+
·
π
( )

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

·

·

· 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
4
sin sin
1
) , (
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
b
n
a
m
a
D
y x w
π π
π
From (20), we get
) ) , ( (
0
q y x q · For uniformly distributed load
For concentrated load

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·

·

· ,... 5 , 3 , 1
2
2 2
,... 5 , 3 , 1
6
0
2
sin
2
sin
16
) , (
n m
b
n
a
m
mn
n m
D
q
y x w
π π
π
………….. (25)

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
∑ ·

·

· 1
2
2
2 1
4
sin sin sin sin
4
) , (
n
y x
y x y x
m
y x
L
n
L
m
L
y n
L
x m
L
b n
L
a m
L DL
P
y x w
π π π π
π

PLATE SOLUTION

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

·

·

·
b
y n
a
x m
b
n
a
m
mn
b
n
a
m
q
M
n m
x
π π
ν
π
sin sin
16
,... 5 , 3 , 1
2
2 2
2 2
,... 5 , 3 , 1
4
0

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

·

·

·
b
y n
a
x m
b
n
a
m
mn
b
n
a
m
q
M
n m
y
π π
ν
π
sin sin
16
,... 5 , 3 , 1
2
2 2
2 2
,... 5 , 3 , 1
4
0
Moment
Stress
3
12
t
z M
x
x
· σ
3
12
t
z M
y
y
· σ
………….. (26)
………….. (27)
………….. (28)
………….. (29)

BUCKLING OF PLATES

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·

·

· 1 1
sin sin ) , (
n
mn
m
b
y n
a
x m
A y x w
π π
Displacement
Potential energy
N
x
N
x
a
b
( )

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|



¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
∂ ∂






− −

,
`

.
|


+



· +
b
x
a
dxdy
x
w
N
y x
w
y
w
x
w
y
w
x
w
D V U
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
1 2
2
1
ν
∑ ∑ ∑

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

· +

·

·

·

· 1
2 2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
1
4
8 8
n
mn
m
x
n
mn
m
A m N
b
b
n
a
m
A
abD
V U
π π
………….. (1)
………….. (2)
………….. (3)

BUCKLING OF PLATES (Contd..)
mn x mn
mn
A m N
a
b
b
n
a
m
A
abD
A
V U
2
2
2
2 2
4
4 4
) ( π π

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·

+ ∂
Differentiating
2
2 2
2
2 2
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·
b
n
a
m
m
D a
N
Cr
π
2
2
b
D k
N
Cr
π
·
where
2
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·
mb
a
a
mb
k
2
2

,
`

.
|
·
b
t
E k
Cr
π σ
Critical buckling load
Critical buckling stress
………….. (4)
………….. (5)
………….. (6)
………….. (7)

END FIXITY COEFFICIENT

BUCKLING OF PLATES
(from column formula)

Euler column formula

Stress-strain relation

Assuming that the plate has no curvature in y direction
gives

Flat plate has a smaller elongation compared to a column

For a rectangular plate

(5) in (4) gives
2
2
L
k
cr

EI
P
π
·
E E
E E
x
y
y
y
x
x
σ
ν −
σ
· ε
σ
ν −
σ
· ε
0 · ε
y
………….. (1)
………….. (2)
( )
2
1 ν −
σ
· ε
ν σ · σ
E
x
x
x y
( )( )
2
2
2
1
eff
cr
L
EI
P
ν −
π
·
………….. (3)
tb P
bt
I , a L
cr
· σ · ·
cr
and
12
3
………….. (4)
( )
2
2
2
1 12

,
`

.
|
ν −
π
· σ
a
t E
cr
………….. (5)
………….. (6)

SHEAR BUCKLING OF PLATES

SHEAR BUCKLING OF PLATES

Shear buckling formula
( )
2
2
2
1 12

,
`

.
|
ν −
π
·
η b
t
E k
F
cs

METHODOLOGY
• Calculate a/b from plate dimensions measured between panel
supports
• Determine edge restraint fixity
3) Select the buckling coefficient curve for the edge condition most nearly
representing the support conditions existing, enter curve with a/b from
(1) and obtain "K" (or "k"). If the support condition is believed to be
between two conditions represented by curves, obtain "K" for both,
calculate average value or interpolate as desired.
4) Determine buckling stress from equation 12. If this stress is in the elastic
range, η = 1.0 (skip to step (5))
5) If the stress is in the plastic range, obtain the proper plasticity reduction
factor η
6) If the material is Alclad material, calculate the cladding reduction factor

INCREASING THE BUCKLING
LOAD OF PANELS
There are three primary effective ways to increase the
buckling load of a panel:
1) Decrease the "b" dimension of the panel
2) Increase the thickness of the panel
3) Increase the fixity of the panel supports
( )
2
2
2
1 12

,
`

.
|
ν −
π
·
η b
t
E k
F
cs


LINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS
[ ]{ ¦ [ ]{ ¦ X K X K
G
λ ·
Solution method

Lanczos method

Subspace iteration

Backward iteration
[K] – Stiffness matrix
[K
G
] – Geometric Stiffness matrix
{X} – Buckling shape
λ - Buckling load factor


NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS
Solution method

Newton-Raphson Method
[K
L
] – Linear Stiffness matrix
[K
NL
] – Nonlinear Stiffness matrix
{X} – Deflection vector
[P} - Load vector

[ ]{ ¦ [ ] P · + X K K
NL L

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