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STRESS

• Stress is a measure of force per unit area

within a body.

• It is a body's internal distribution of force per

area that reacts to external applied loads.

P

STRESSσ =

A

ONE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

• Engineering stress / Nominal stress

– The simplest definition of stress, σ = F/A,

where A is the initial cross-sectional area prior

to the application of the load

• True stress

– True stress is an alternative definition in which

the initial area is replaced by the current area

σ true = (1 + ε e )σ e

TYPES OF STRESSES

TENSILE COMPRESSIVE

BENDING SHEAR

TORSION

SHEAR STRESS

dx

2 1 τ xdxdy

Bτ τ A

τ zdzdy

z z

τ zdzdy

2 1

dz D

TORSION τ xdxdy

τ z dzdy( dx ) = τ x dxdy( dz )

τz = τx

This implies that if there is a shear in one plane then there will be a shear in

the plane perpendicular to that

TWO DIMENSIONAL STRESS

• Plane stress σy

τ yx

τ xy

σx σx

τ xy

τ yx

σy

• Principal stress

σx +σ y σ x −σ y

σ 1, 2 ± + τ xy 2

=

2 2

THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS

• Cauchy stress

– Force per unit area in the deformed geometry

σ xx τ xy τ xz

σ ij = τ yx σ yy τ yz

τ τ σ

zx zy zz

– Relates forces in the reference configuration to

area in the reference configuration

S = JX τ X X – Deformation gradient

IJ I, j ij J, i

3D PRINCIPAL STRESS

• Stress invariants of the Cauchy stress

I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z

I 2 = σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x − τ xy − τ yz − τ zx

2 2 2

I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ τ − σ τ − σ τ

2

x yz

2

y zx

2

z xy

σ − I1σ + I 2σ − I 3 = 0

3 2

I1 = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3

I 2 = σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1

I 3 = σ 1σ 2σ 3

VON-MISES STRESS

• Based on distortional energy

σv =

(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2

+ (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 3 − σ 1 )

2 2

σv =

1

(σ x − σ y ) + (σ y − σ z ) + ( σ z − σ x ) + 6(τ xy2 + τ yz2 + τ zx2 )

2 2 2

2

STRAIN

• Strain is the geometrical expression of deformation

caused by the action of stress on a physical body.

δL

Strain ε=

L

• Strain – displacement relations

Normal Strain

∂u ∂v ∂w

ε x= ε y= ε z=

∂x ∂y ∂z

between two lines crossing this point in a body can

be measured as a shear (or shape) strain)

∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w ∂u

γ xy= + γ yz= + γ zx= +

∂y ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂z

VOLUMETRIC STRAIN

• Volumetric strain

V − V0

υ=

V0

υ =ε x+ ε y+ ε z

TWO DIMENSIONAL STRAIN

• Plane strain εy

γ yx γ xy

γ xy

εx εx

γ yx

εy

• Principal strain

ε x+ε y ε x−ε y γ xy

ε 1, 2= ± +

2 2 2

3D STRAIN

Strain tensor γ xy γ xz

ε xx 2 2

γ yx γ yz

ε ij= ε yy

2 2

γ zx γ zy

2

ε zz

2

Green Lagrangian Strain tensor E = 1 ( F F − δ )

ij 2 ki kj ij

= + +

2 ∂x j ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j

1

(

E = δ ij − Fki Fkj

ij 2

-1 −1

)

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

Thermoplastic

BEAM

• A STRUCTURAL MEMBER WHOSE THIRD DIMENSION IS

LARGE COMPARED TO THE OTHER TWO DIMENSIONS

AND SUBJECTED TO TRANSVERSE LOAD

LOAD PRIMARILY IN BENDING

BENDING. THE LOADS ARE APPLIED IN THE

TRANSVERSE DIRECTION TO ITS LONGEST

DIMENSION

TERMINOLOGY

• SHEAR FORCE

– A shear force in structural mechanics is an example

of an internal force that is induced in a restrained

structural element when external forces are applied

• BENDING MOMENT

– A bending moment in structural mechanics is an

example of an internal moment that is induced in a

restrained structural element when external forces

are applied

• CONTRAFLEXURE

– Location, where no bending takes place in a beam

TYPES OF BEAMS

• CANTILEVER BEAM

• SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

• FIXED-FIXED BEAM

• OVER HANGING BEAM

• CONTINUOUS BEAM

BEAMS (Contd…)

• STATICALLY DETERMINATE

• STATICALLY INDETERMINATE

B

A

C D

BEAM

•TYPES OF BENDING

Hogging

Sagging

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

A loaded beam deflects by an amount that depends on several

factors including:

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

Deflections of beam can be calculated using

Double integration method

Moment area method

Castiglianos theorem

Stiffness method

Three moment theorem (Continuous beam)

DOUBLE INTEGRATION

METHOD

From Flexure formula

M 1

= ... (1)

EI R

Radius of curvature d2 y

1 dx 2

= 2 3/ 2

... (2)

R dy

1 + dx

1 d2 y

= 2 ... (3)

R dx

From (1) & (3) d2 y

EI 2 = M... (4)

dx

DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD

P

2

d y Px d2 y L

EI = − EI 2 = P − x

dx 2 2 dx 2

dy Lx x

2

dy Px 2 EI = P − + C3

EI =− + C1 dx 2 2

dx 4

2

PL PL2

At x=L/2, dy/dx=0 C2 = C3 = -

16 8

dy L2 x 2 dy L2 Lx x 2

EI = P − EI = P − + −

dx 16 4 dx 8 2 2

L2 x x 3

EIy = P − + C2 L2 x Lx 2 x 3

16 12 EIy = P − + − + C4

8 4 6

At x=0, y=0 C2 = 0 PL3

At x=L, y=0 C4 = - 24

PL3 PL3

y=− y=−

48EI 48EI

MOMENT AREA METHOD

• First method

M * dx

dθ =

EI

• Second method

M * dx

xdθ = x.

EI

MOMENT AREA METHOD

P Area of the moment diagram (1/2 L)

L 1 L PL PL2

=

2 2 4 16

P/2

P/2

Taking moments about the end

δ= * * =

3 2 16 EI 48EI

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

• Energy method derived by Italian engineer

Alberto Castigliano in 1879.

• Allows the computation of a deflection at any

point in a structure based on strain energy

F1

Fn

F3 F2

U =½F1∆ 1+ ½F2∆ 2 ½F3∆ 3+…. ½Fn∆ n

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

(Contd …)

Increase force Fn by an amount dF

• This changes the state of deformation and

increases the total strain energy slightly:

∂U

dU = dFn

∂Fn

• Hence, the total strain energy after the increase

in the nth force is:

∂U

U+ dFn

∂Fn

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

(Contd …)

Now suppose, the order of this process is reversed;

• i.e., Apply a small force dFn to this same body

and observe a deformation d∆ n; then apply the

forces, Fi=1ton.

• As these forces are being applied, dFn goes

through displacement ∆ n.(Note dFnis constant)

and does work:

dU = dFn∆ n

• Hence the total work done is:

U+ dFn∆ n

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

(Contd …)

The end results are equal

• Since the body is linear elastic, all work is

recoverable, and the two systems are

identical and contain the same stored

energy:

∂U

U+ dFn = U + dFn Δn

∂Fn

∂U

∴ Δn =

∂Fn

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

(Contd …)

fundamental sense and can refer for

example to a Moment, M, producing a

rotation, θ , in the body.

M

∂U

θn =

∂M n θ

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

(Contd …)

• If the strain energy of an elastic structure can

be expressed as a function of generalised

displacement qi; then the partial derivative of

the strain energy with respect to generalised

displacement gives the generalised force Qi.

can be expressed as a function of generalised

force Qi; then the partial derivative of the strain

energy with respect to generalised force gives the

generalised displacement qi in the direction of Qi.

CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM

P Strain energy

L U=2∫

L/2

M2 ( )

Px

L/2

dx = 2 ∫

2

2 dx

0 2 EI 0 2 EI

P/2

L/2

= ∫

( Px )

2

dx

0 4 EI

P/2

According to Castigliano’s theorem

∂U P L/2 2

δ = = ∫ x dx

PL/4 ∂P 2EI 0

x ]0

P 3 L/2

=

6EI3

PL

=

48EI

UNIT LOAD METHOD

(VIRTUAL WORK METHOD)

Deflection (Translation) at a point:

mM

x

Ai hi

Q•∆ = ∫ dx = ∑

0 EI i Ei I i

Rotation at a point:

mθ M

x

Q •θ = ∫ dx

0 EI

UNIT LOAD METHOD

Ai hi

Unit load method Q•∆ = ∑

Q=1 i Ei I i

L 1 L QL QL2

Ai = =

2 2 4 16

Q/2

Q

hi = d i

Q/2 2

Q 2 L QL2 Q 2 L QL2

QL/4 Q • ∆ = ∗ * * + ∗ * *

2 3 2 16 2 3 2 16

A1 A2

* *

2 3

QL

=

48

d1 d2

QL3

∆=

48EI

DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS

DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS

THREE MOMENT EQUATION

THREE MOMENT EQUATION

(Developed by clapeyron)

Continuity condition ∆ L tan C ∆ R tan C

=

LL LR

1 2 1 1 1

∆ L tan C = L L

x A + LL M L

C L + LL M L L

L

ELL 3 2 3 2

1 2 1 1 1

∆ R tan C = xR AR + LR M C LR + LR M R LR

ELR 3 2 3 2

LL LL LR LR 6 xL AL 6 xR AR

M L + 2 +

MC + MR = − −

EI L EI L EI R EI R LL EI L LR EI R

THREE MOMENT THEOREM

A1 x1 A2 x2

M A L1 + 2 M B ( L1 + L2 ) + M C L2 = 6 +

L1 L2

L1 L1 L2 L2 A1 x1 A2 x2

M A + 2 M B + + M C = 6 +

I1 I1 I 2 I 2 L1 I1 L2 I 2

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