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DAY 6

STRESS
• Stress is a measure of force per unit area
within a body.
• It is a body's internal distribution of force per
area that reacts to external applied loads.

P
STRESSσ =
A
ONE DIMENSIONAL STRESS
• Engineering stress / Nominal stress
– The simplest definition of stress, σ = F/A,
where A is the initial cross-sectional area prior
to the application of the load
• True stress
– True stress is an alternative definition in which
the initial area is replaced by the current area

• Relation between Engineering & true stress

σ true = (1 + ε e )σ e
TYPES OF STRESSES

TENSILE COMPRESSIVE

BENDING SHEAR

TORSION
SHEAR STRESS
dx

2 1 τ xdxdy
Bτ τ A

τ zdzdy
z z

τ zdzdy
2 1
dz D
TORSION τ xdxdy

Taking moment about CD, We get

τ z dzdy( dx ) = τ x dxdy( dz )
τz = τx
This implies that if there is a shear in one plane then there will be a shear in
the plane perpendicular to that
TWO DIMENSIONAL STRESS
• Plane stress σy
τ yx
τ xy
σx σx
τ xy
τ yx
σy
• Principal stress

σx +σ y σ x −σ y 
σ 1, 2 ±   + τ xy 2
=
2  2 
THREE DIMENSIONAL STRESS
• Cauchy stress
– Force per unit area in the deformed geometry
σ xx τ xy τ xz 
 
σ ij = τ yx σ yy τ yz 
τ τ σ 
 zx zy zz 

• Second Piola Kirchoff stress


– Relates forces in the reference configuration to
area in the reference configuration

S = JX τ X X – Deformation gradient
IJ I, j ij J, i
3D PRINCIPAL STRESS
• Stress invariants of the Cauchy stress
I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z
I 2 = σ xσ y + σ yσ z + σ zσ x − τ xy − τ yz − τ zx
2 2 2

I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ yzτ zx − σ τ − σ τ − σ τ
2
x yz
2
y zx
2
z xy

• Characteristic equation of 3D principal stress is


σ − I1σ + I 2σ − I 3 = 0
3 2

• Invariants in terms of principal stress


I1 = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3
I 2 = σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1
I 3 = σ 1σ 2σ 3
VON-MISES STRESS
• Based on distortional energy

σv =
(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2
+ (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 3 − σ 1 )
2 2

σv =
1
(σ x − σ y ) + (σ y − σ z ) + ( σ z − σ x ) + 6(τ xy2 + τ yz2 + τ zx2 )
2 2 2

2
STRAIN
• Strain is the geometrical expression of deformation
caused by the action of stress on a physical body.
δL
Strain ε=
L
• Strain – displacement relations
Normal Strain
∂u ∂v ∂w
ε x= ε y= ε z=
∂x ∂y ∂z

Shear strain (The angular change at any point


between two lines crossing this point in a body can
be measured as a shear (or shape) strain)
∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w ∂u
γ xy= + γ yz= + γ zx= +
∂y ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂z
VOLUMETRIC STRAIN
• Volumetric strain
V − V0
υ=
V0

υ =ε x+ ε y+ ε z
TWO DIMENSIONAL STRAIN
• Plane strain εy
γ yx γ xy
γ xy
εx εx
γ yx
εy
• Principal strain

ε x+ε y  ε x−ε y   γ xy 
ε 1, 2= ±   +  
2  2   2 
3D STRAIN
Strain tensor  γ xy γ xz 
ε xx 2 2 

γ yx γ yz 
ε ij=  ε yy
2 2 
 
γ zx γ zy
 2
ε zz 
2 
Green Lagrangian Strain tensor E = 1 ( F F − δ )
ij 2 ki kj ij

1  ∂ui ∂u j ∂uk ∂uk 


=  + +
2  ∂x j ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j 

Almansi Strain tensor


1
(
E = δ ij − Fki Fkj
ij 2
-1 −1
)
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

Mild steel Copper

Thermoplastic
BEAM
• A STRUCTURAL MEMBER WHOSE THIRD DIMENSION IS
LARGE COMPARED TO THE OTHER TWO DIMENSIONS
AND SUBJECTED TO TRANSVERSE LOAD

• A BEAM IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT CARRIES


LOAD PRIMARILY IN BENDING

• A BEAM IS A BAR CAPABLE OF CARRYING LOADS IN


BENDING. THE LOADS ARE APPLIED IN THE
TRANSVERSE DIRECTION TO ITS LONGEST
DIMENSION
TERMINOLOGY
• SHEAR FORCE
– A shear force in structural mechanics is an example
of an internal force that is induced in a restrained
structural element when external forces are applied

• BENDING MOMENT
– A bending moment in structural mechanics is an
example of an internal moment that is induced in a
restrained structural element when external forces
are applied

• CONTRAFLEXURE
– Location, where no bending takes place in a beam
TYPES OF BEAMS

• CANTILEVER BEAM
• SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM
• FIXED-FIXED BEAM
• OVER HANGING BEAM
• CONTINUOUS BEAM
BEAMS (Contd…)
• STATICALLY DETERMINATE
• STATICALLY INDETERMINATE

B
A

C D
BEAM

•TYPES OF BENDING
Hogging
Sagging
DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
A loaded beam deflects by an amount that depends on several
factors including:

the magnitude and type of loading

the span of the beam

the material properties of the beam (Modulus of Elasticity)

the properties of the shape of the beam (Moment of Inertia)

the beam type (simple, cantilever, overhanging, continuous)


DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
Deflections of beam can be calculated using
Double integration method
Moment area method
Castiglianos theorem
Stiffness method
Three moment theorem (Continuous beam)
DOUBLE INTEGRATION
METHOD
From Flexure formula
M 1
= ... (1)
EI R
Radius of curvature d2 y
1 dx 2
= 2 3/ 2
... (2)
R   dy  
 1 +  dx  
   

Ignoring higher order terms


1 d2 y
= 2 ... (3)
R dx
From (1) & (3) d2 y
EI 2 = M... (4)
dx
DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD
P

Left of load L Right of load


2
d y Px d2 y L 
EI = − EI 2 = P − x 
dx 2 2 dx 2 
dy  Lx x 
2

dy Px 2 EI = P −  + C3
EI =− + C1 dx  2 2
dx 4
2
PL PL2
At x=L/2, dy/dx=0 C2 = C3 = -
16 8
dy  L2 x 2  dy  L2 Lx x 2 
EI = P −  EI = P − + − 
dx  16 4  dx  8 2 2
 L2 x x 3 
EIy = P −  + C2  L2 x Lx 2 x 3 
 16 12  EIy = P − + −  + C4
 8 4 6
At x=0, y=0 C2 = 0 PL3
At x=L, y=0 C4 = - 24
PL3 PL3
y=− y=−
48EI 48EI
MOMENT AREA METHOD
• First method

M * dx
dθ =
EI

• Second method
M * dx
xdθ = x.
EI
MOMENT AREA METHOD
P Area of the moment diagram (1/2 L)
L 1 L PL PL2
=
2 2 4 16
P/2

P/2
Taking moments about the end

PL/4 2 L PL2 1 PL3


δ= * * =
3 2 16 EI 48EI
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
• Energy method derived by Italian engineer
Alberto Castigliano in 1879.
• Allows the computation of a deflection at any
point in a structure based on strain energy
F1
Fn

F3 F2

• The total work done is then:


U =½F1∆ 1+ ½F2∆ 2 ½F3∆ 3+…. ½Fn∆ n
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
(Contd …)
Increase force Fn by an amount dF
• This changes the state of deformation and
increases the total strain energy slightly:
∂U
dU = dFn
∂Fn
• Hence, the total strain energy after the increase
in the nth force is:
∂U
U+ dFn
∂Fn
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
(Contd …)
Now suppose, the order of this process is reversed;
• i.e., Apply a small force dFn to this same body
and observe a deformation d∆ n; then apply the
forces, Fi=1ton.
• As these forces are being applied, dFn goes
through displacement ∆ n.(Note dFnis constant)
and does work:
dU = dFn∆ n
• Hence the total work done is:
U+ dFn∆ n
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
(Contd …)
The end results are equal
• Since the body is linear elastic, all work is
recoverable, and the two systems are
identical and contain the same stored
energy:
∂U
U+ dFn = U + dFn Δn
∂Fn
∂U
∴ Δn =
∂Fn
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
(Contd …)

• The term “force” may be used in its most


fundamental sense and can refer for
example to a Moment, M, producing a
rotation, θ , in the body.
M
∂U
θn =
∂M n θ
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
(Contd …)
• If the strain energy of an elastic structure can
be expressed as a function of generalised
displacement qi; then the partial derivative of
the strain energy with respect to generalised
displacement gives the generalised force Qi.

• If the strain energy of a linearly elastic structure


can be expressed as a function of generalised
force Qi; then the partial derivative of the strain
energy with respect to generalised force gives the
generalised displacement qi in the direction of Qi.
CASTIGLIANO’s THEOREM
P Strain energy

L U=2∫
L/2
M2 ( )
Px
L/2

dx = 2 ∫
2

2 dx
0 2 EI 0 2 EI
P/2
L/2

= ∫
( Px )
2

dx
0 4 EI
P/2
According to Castigliano’s theorem
∂U P L/2 2
δ = = ∫ x dx
PL/4 ∂P 2EI 0
x ]0
P 3 L/2
=
6EI3
PL
=
48EI
UNIT LOAD METHOD
(VIRTUAL WORK METHOD)
Deflection (Translation) at a point:

mM
x
Ai hi
Q•∆ = ∫ dx = ∑
0 EI i Ei I i

Rotation at a point:

mθ M
x

Q •θ = ∫ dx
0 EI
UNIT LOAD METHOD
Ai hi
Unit load method Q•∆ = ∑
Q=1 i Ei I i

Area of the moment diagram (1/2 L)


L 1 L QL QL2
Ai = =
2 2 4 16
Q/2
Q
hi = d i
Q/2 2
Q  2 L  QL2 Q  2 L  QL2
QL/4 Q • ∆ = ∗ * * + ∗ * *
2  3 2  16 2  3 2  16
A1 A2
* *
2 3
QL
=
48
d1 d2
QL3
∆=
48EI
DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS
DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS
THREE MOMENT EQUATION
THREE MOMENT EQUATION
(Developed by clapeyron)
Continuity condition ∆ L tan C ∆ R tan C
=
LL LR

Using second moment-area theorem


1  2 1 1 1 
∆ L tan C =  L L
x A + LL M L
C L + LL M L L
L
ELL  3 2 3 2 

1  2 1 1 1 
∆ R tan C =  xR AR + LR M C LR + LR M R LR 
ELR  3 2 3 2 

Equating the above equations


LL  LL LR  LR 6 xL AL 6 xR AR

M L + 2 + 
 MC + MR = − −
EI L  EI L EI R  EI R LL EI L LR EI R
THREE MOMENT THEOREM

 A1 x1 A2 x2 
M A L1 + 2 M B ( L1 + L2 ) + M C L2 = 6 + 
 L1 L2 

 L1   L1 L2   L2   A1 x1 A2 x2 
M A   + 2 M B  +  + M C   = 6 + 
 I1   I1 I 2   I 2   L1 I1 L2 I 2 