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COMMUNICATION

LEADERSHIP
SUPERVISION
COMMUNICATION


Communication Fundamentals
Communication is the transfer of information and understanding
from one person to another.
It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts,
thoughts, feelings, and values.

The importance of Communication

The Two-Way Communication Process
Develop
idea
Encode Transmit
S
E
N
D
E
R
Receive Decode Accept Use
R
E
C
E
I
V
E
R
Bridge of
Meaning
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Feedback for two-way communication
8
Message
Barriers
Communication Barriers
Personal
are communication interferences that arise from human emotions,
values, and poor listening habits

Physical
are communication interferences that occur in the environment in
which communication takes place

Semantic
arise from limitations in the symbols with which we communicate. Symbols
usually have variety of meanings, and we have to choose one meaning from
many.
The Impact of Barriers on the
Communication Process
Communication
Steps
Personal Barriers Physical Barriers Semantic Barriers
Emotions Listening
Psychological
Distance
Noise
Geographical
Distance
Semantic Symbols
1. Develop
X
2. Encode
X X
3. Transmit
X X X
4. Receive X X X X
5. Decode
X X X X
6. Accept
X X X
7. Use
X
8. Feedback
X
DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
Downward communication in an organization is the flow of
information from a higher to lower levels of authority.
Prerequisites

Develop a positive communication attitude
Get informed
Plan for communication
Develop trust
UPWARD COMMUNICATION
The flow of communication from lower level to the higher
level of authority

Difficulties
Delay
Filtering
Distortion

OTHER FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
Lateral Communication
Lateral communication or cross-communication, which is
communication across chains of command

Networks
Is a group of people who develop and maintain contact to
exchange information informally, usually about a shared
interest
Social Networking and Electronic
Communication
Social Networking
Social networking technologies are Internet sites and software
programs that allow people to link together into some form of a
virtual social community
Electronic Mail
Is a computer based communication system that allows you to
send a message to someone-or to a hundred people- almost
instantaneously
Blogs
These are online diaries or journals created and updated
frequently by individuals


INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
GRAPEVINE
Is an informal communication system
It coexists with managements formal communication
system

RUMOR
Is a grapevine information that is communicated without
secure standards of evidence being present.
Rumor is primarily a result of both interest and ambiguity in
a situation.