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Molar Enthalpy

Recall that when we write a thermochemical


equation the coefficients represent moles of
particles
Therefore,
1 H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
1 H
2
O
(g)
+ 241.8 KJ
Indicates that 1 mol of hydrogen and mol of
oxygen produce 1 mol of water
The 241.8 KJ represents the enthalpy change per
mole of reactant = molar enthalpy
Representing Molar Enthalpies
We use the following symbol to show molar
enthalpy:
H
x

X
is a letter or series of letters that indicate the
type of change that is occurring
For the reaction on the previous slide we use,
H
comb
= - 241.8 KJ/mol to indicate that this is
a combustion rxn.
See Table 1 on Pg. 306 for a list of molar
enthalpies
Why use Molar Enthalpy?
Allows us to describe the energy change in a
given chemical reaction/mol of substance.
Also used for physical changes such as
changes of state.
H
2
0
(l)
+ 40.8 KJ H
2
O
(g)
H
vap
= 40.8 KJ/mol this represents the
change in potential energy in the system
See Table 2 Pg. 307
Calculations Involving Molar
Enthalpies
To calculate the amount of energy involved in
a particular change (H) we need to multiply
the molar enthalpy by the number of moles

H = nH
x
Where, n = number of moles
Look at the sample problem on Pg. 307
Complete Pg. 308 # 1-3.
Calorimetry
Based on the Law of Conservation of Energy
H
system
= +/- |q
surroundings
|

Therefore, we can measure the total energy change
of a system by measuring the total energy change
of the surroundings

Calorimetry involves measuring energy changes in a
closed container called a calorimeter
Assumptions of Calorimetry
No heat is transferred b/n the calorimeter and
the environment
Any heat absorbed or released by the
calorimeter itself is negligible (does not affect
the result)
A dilute aqueous solution is assumed to have
a density and specific heat capacity of water
See diagram on Pg. 309.
Calculations with Calorimetry Finding Molar
Enthalpies
Recall:
H = nH
x
and q = mcT
Because of Conservation of Mass,
(system) H = q (surroundings = H
2
O of calorimeter)

Therefore,
nH
x
= mcT

Note: n and H
x
refer to the solute
m, c and T refer to the solvent and are assumed to
have the same density and specific heat capacity as
water.

Practicing Calorimetry Calculations


Note: The temperature terms are reversed here (T
f

and T
i
) because q has the opposite sign from H