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Irish Independence

Background
1800 the Irish Parliament was abolished

1858 IRB was founded

1914 Ireland was supposed to get the
Home Rule

Ireland should be completely independent
The Easter Rising
24.4.1916.
organised by IRB and Irish
Volunteers
occupied key locations in Dublin
Patrick Pearse proclaimed the
Irish Republic
the British army suppressed the
Rising and executed the
organisers
318 civilians, 60 rebels and 130
English died
Sinn Fin

political party founded in 1905
the British blamed it for the Rising
became even more popular after the
Rising
amon de Valera become became head

The British attitudes
PM David Lloyd George
Carrot and stick approach
Opened discussions for Irish independence
Banned republican literature and arrested Griffith and
de Valera
Irishmen were pressured into fighting for the
British army in WW1
Many violent protests
The Irish War of Independence
(1919 1921)

the 1918 General Election
amon De Valera and Michael Collins
The First Dil the parliament of the Irish
Republic
the British said the Dil was illegal as well
as Sinn Fin and IRA

http://www.irishfreedom.net/Historic%20documents/Historic%20Documents%20an
d%20Speeches/Irish%20Declaration%20of%20Independence%201919.htm
Bloody Sunday
21.11.1920.
the day before 12 British spies were
murdered
Croke Park
the British forces entered the stadium and
started shooting
14 civilians died
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOiQRkK1tyg

Truce

11.6.1921.

the IRA knew that they couldnt fight
against the English

war was too expensive for the English

Anglo-Irish Treaty
October 1921
Michael Collins, Robert Barton and Arthur
Griffith
Winston Churchill, David Lloyd George
and Austin Chamberlain
Irish demands:
A totally independent Irish Republic
An end to the partition of Ireland


Partial independence
for the 26 counties
Signing of the Treaty
(6 December 1921)
The Dil had to vote
on the Treaty
I tell you, I have
signed my death
warrant
It was ratified with a
small majority in Dil

http://go.hrw.com/hrw.nd/gohrw_rls1/pKeywordResults?keyword=st9%20irish%20
nationalism
The Irish Civil War
pro-Treaty forces (Collins)
anti-Treaty forces (De Valera)
guerilla war
22.8.1922. the death of Michael Collins
the elections in August 1923 pro-Treaty
party won

Independence

Fianna Fil vs. Cosgraves party
IRAs intimidation techniques
1937 constitution of ire
the problem of the Northern Ireland
1948 left the Commonwealth
Ireland nowadays
problems with the Ulster loyalists

RIRA

generally positive outlooks about the
British

looking towards the future
Links:
http://www.irishhistorylinks.net/History_Links/War_Of_In
dependence.html
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/michael_collins.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/collins_mich
ael.shtml
http://www.generalmichaelcollins.com/life-times/1921-
truce-and-treaty-negotiations/irish-civil-war/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/aftermat
h/af04.shtml
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/irish-free-state-
declared
http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/dec/20/republic-
fight-irish-independence-townshend-review